S: The Study of Rhetoric
BC: Works Cited Rhetoricae, Silva. The Forest Rhetoric. Creative Commons and Brigham Young University, 26 Feb. 2007. Web. 6 Apr. 2011.
FC: The Study of Rhetoric | Giulia G. | Ms. Gomes: Class, can anyone tell me what rhetoric is? | Flavio: I have no idea. | Ms. Gomes: Well, I'll tell you everything there is to know about rhetoric with this textbook. and you can all ask questions later.
1: Table of Contents | What is Rhetoric?......................... 2 | Branches of Oratory...................... 3 | 5 Canons of Rhetoric..................... 4 | Rhetorical Pedagogy..................... 5 | Encompassing Terms.................... 7 | 4 Categories of Change................. 6 | How Rhetoric Works..................... 8 | Common Rhetorical Mistakes............ 9 | Bibliography............................ 10 | Ms. Gomes: These are all the things we will be learning. Now, let's begin.
2: What is Rhetoric? | The study of effective speaking and writing, the art of persuasion, etc. Rhetoric had many definitions, but it maintained its fundamental characteristic: | 1) to perceive how language is at work, written and spoken 2) to become proficient in applying the resources of language in their own speaking and writing It studies effectiveness of language, including emotional impact as much as its propositional content. | Ms. Gomes: Since no one knows what rhetoric is, does anyone give a wild guess? Ana: Does it have something to do with writing? Ms. Gomes: Why I believe it does, Ana. Let's see what it is, and we can also look at the Branches of Oratory, something very important to rhetoric.
3: Branches of Oratory | In classical rhetoric, oratory was divided into 3 branches: 1) Judical (or forensic)takes place in the past, purpose to accuse or defend 2) Deliberative ( or legislative)takes place in the future, purpose to exhort or dissuade 3) Epideictic ("ceremonial" or " demonstrative")takes place in the present, purpose to praise or blame | Ms. Gomes: Any questions so far? Ana: Does rhetoric have any categories? Ms. Gomes: I believe it does. Let's see...
4: The Five Cannons of Rhetoric | Rhetoric was divided into five main categories, or cannons: 1) Invention 2) Arrangement 3) Style 4) Memory 5) Delivery These categories served both analytical and generative purposes. | Ms. Gomes: There is one very important thing you must know about rhetoric.
5: A primary assumption of the pedagogy has been the idea that speaking and writing isn't merely product of inborn talent, but that instruction in theory, coupled with practice, can complete native ability and lead someone to excellence in speaking and writing. Rhetoric pedagogy was built upon assumption that careful observation and analysis of successful communication is required. As a habit of successful speakers and writers have been observed over time, strategies have been named and placed within theoretical system and have become the "art" of rhetoric. The Pedagogy maintained an emphasis upon observing and analyzing the best practices by remaining profoundly literary in its endeavor. Literature was read for content, the exemplary form, and rhetorical techniques. Pedagogy relied on very close relationships between reading and writing, observing and composing. | Rhetorical Pedagogy
6: Encompassing Terms | Among the terms in rhetoric, 3 serve as the compass, even among the larger terms: 1) Kairos (the opportune moment) 2) Audience 3) Decorum (fitting one's speech to context and audience) Together, these terms invoke a rhetorical world view in which a speaker or writer tailors words to contexts and audiences towards some discernible result or effect. | Ms. Gomes: Here are some small things in rhetoric that give a huge amount of support to the bigger topics.
7: The Four Categories of Change | Addition, subtraction, transposition and substitution comprise the four categories of change. Fundamental rhetorical strategies for manipulation and variation of discourse are across vast array of linguistic levels: word forms, sentences, paragraphs, entire texts or speeches, etc. They have been used as categories to identify changes in word forms considered to be vices; as generative strategies for invention; as stylistic possibilities for both tropes and schemes; as pedagogical methods for developing rhetorical flexibility and as methods of imitation by which one could transform a model into something different and original. It was a way of finding motifs, habits of mind, or simple similar approaches operating on multiple levels across the breadth of rhetoric.
9: Ms. Gomes: Does Everyone understand what we have learned so far? Class: Yes, Ms. Gomes. Ms. Gomes: Good, now before we move on, Does anyone want to take a wild guess on how it works? Ana: I have no idea. Max: Me neither. Julie: Tell us, Ms. Gomes! Flavio: Please! Ms. Gomes: Alright, and I'll also tell you common mistakes people make so you won't do them yourself!
10: How does Rhetoric Work? | There are three basic Rhetorical approaches one can use to make a convincing argument: 1) Logos (using logical arguments) 2) Pathos (creating emotional reaction in audience) 3) Ethos (projecting trustworthy, authoritative, or charismatic image) In addition to balance logic, emotion and charisma, rhetoric also has to adapt argument, tone, and approach for specific audiences. Rhetoric also involves what is often called the "Flowers of Rhetoric": 1) Invention(techniques for thinking up points to discuss) 2) Schemes (rhetorical devices that involve artful patterns in sentence structure) 3) Tropes (rhetorical devices involving shifts in the meaning or use of words)
11: What are some Common Rhetorical Mistakes | People mistakenly believe that ridiculing and attacking mistaken beliefs is the most effective way of 'winning' an argument. These approaches are not the best means of persuasion, and a pinch of politeness will work better than a pound of verbal abuse. Certain techniques that might help someone win an argument might just be self-destructive: 1) Falsifying information 2) Misrepresenting data 3) Bolstering one's case through deception, lies, logical fallacies, or exaggeration These don't lead to possible answers, but make weak answers appear better than they really are.