BC: Thanks for reading my Mixbook :)
FC: Claire Going | Life in the Thirteen Colonies
1: This book is dedicated to Claire Going.
2: The New England Colonies | The New England Colonies included Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Connecticut, and Rhode Island. Life in the New England Colonies had small family farms and towns. These grew to become large trading centers. Massachusetts was founded by the Puritans. Massachusetts was founded so that the Puritans could make their own rules and beliefs for the church. They left England because they wanted to reform the church, to make their own rules. Some people joined Massachusetts just for the economic reason, and not for the religion. People left Massachusetts because the Puritans who ran the colony did not like people to question their religious beliefs, so they forced those people to leave. Connecticut was founded by Thomas Hooker. He was a Puritan leader. He settled Hartford by the Connecticut River. There was very strict limits on government. Rhode Island was settled by Roger Williams. He was also a Puritan. He believed that the church in Massachusetts had too much power. He also believed in Religious tolerance, which meant that he wanted others to practice the religion that they truly
3: believed in. He built Rhode Island based on these beliefs. The Puritans were at war with the Native Americans because more and more colonists were settling on Native American land, and taking that land over. As a result of this, fighting broke out between them. This English expansion followed for many years after. | Town and villages were very important to New England lifestyle because they believed that community was important. These towns were very tightly knit, and everyone knew their neighbors. At the center was called the common, where there was an open field.
4: The Middle Colonies | The Middle colonies were established after the New England colonies were. They were located between the New England and Southern Colonies. These Colonies included New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware. The lifestyle was different from the New England colonies. They had large towns, like New York City, and Philadelphia. They also had lush farmlands. They based their life on craftsmen and hunting and gathering. The first founded colony was New York. New York was founded by the Duke of York, who named the colony after himself after it had been given to him by his brother, King Charles II. It was originally named New Netherland by the Dutch, but Peter Stuyvesant surrendered it to England. New Jersey was founded by Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret. They made New Jersey a proprietary colony. It then became a royal colony. New Jersey separated from New York because when the Duke of York first owned it, he thought that it was too big to govern easily, giving it to the founders. Pennsylvania was founded by William Penn in 1681. He was a Quaker. Many people came to Pennsylvania, including the Pennsylvania Dutch. Charles II issued a royal charter giving William Penn proprietor of a piece of land in North America. He formed this colony because he wanted it to be a model of religious freedom and peace. Delaware was founded after Pennsylvania. It was also founded by William Penn, but wasn't always it's own colony. It was first called the Lower Counties of Pennsylvania, and in 1704, became the colony of Delaware.
5: The Middle Colonies are in red. | Life in the Middle Colonies had a thriving economy. Farmers in the eastern counties raised wheat, barley, and rye. These became cash crops, or crops that are sold for money at a market. The Middle Colonies exported a lot of these cash crops. They were so successful in farming, that they were known as the Breadbasket Colony. Houses were far apart in the Middle Colonies, so towns were far less important than in New England. | The slopes of the Appalachian Mountains was known as the Backcountry. Farming wasn't easy there, so the Germans and Scotch-Irish moved onto the Indian's land. This caused fighting and violence between the two.
6: The Southern Colonies | The Southern Colonies were Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. These Colonies had rich farmland and mild climate which made very good conditions for farming and growing crops. They also had busy port cities like Charleston and Savannah. The great farmland made the farmers very rich and successful. The colonists in the Southern Colonies believed in slave labor. Maryland was founded by Sir George Calvert after persuading King Charles I to give him land in the Southern Colonies. He wanted to build the colony so that Catholics could have religious freedom. When he died, his son Lord Baltimore took control over the colony. He passed the Act of Toleration, which gave all Christians religious freedom, but did not apply to Jewish people. English settlers continued to come to Virginia because of the possibility of profits from tobacco. Nathaniel Bacon burned Jamestown in 1676. This was named Bacon's Rebellion. After his unexpected death, the revolt fell apart. The Carolinas were founded by eight English nobles who received a grant of land from King Charles II. They split the land into North and South Carolina. North Carolina was in 1712 while South Carolina was in 1719. Georgia was founded last out of the thirteen colonies. James Oglethorpe founded the colony in 1732. He wanted the colony to be a place where debtors could make a fresh start. There was strict rules to the colony. At first, Georgia grew very slowly but after James changed the rules, it grew more quickly.
7: There were two ways of life that developed in the Southern Colonies. One of these ways was Tidewater Plantations. This is a part of how the colonists in the southern colonies lived, while the other way is the Backcountry South. In Tidewater Plantations, enslaved Africans played a big role on many plantations.They grew crops and did craft work. In the Backcountry South, west of the Tidewater, life was different. It was located at the bast of the Appalachians. They had very rich soil which was great for farming. The Backcounty was more democratic than the Tidewater. People believed that everyone was equal. Men worked on farms while the women cooked meals and cleaned the house. Only few enslaved Africans worked on the smaller farms. | Slave trade growth in the 1700's. In the 1600s, servants and slaves had some rights, and could sometimes buy their freedom. But as time went on, and as slavery grew, this all went away. The Southern Colonies had come to rely on slave labor. Slaves made up the majority of South Carolina and Georgia. They offered guns and other goods in exchange for slaves. The Middle Passage was known for slave trading ships. Africans were crammed together in these ships and treated unfairly. The Slave Codes passed laws on how slaves behavior should be, and denied them human rights, and made them property. Racism took place eventually. Quakers wanted to end slavery.
8: Overview | Overall Economy- the mercantilism theory was occurring, which meant that there were more exports of goods sent out than there were imports of goods that were brought in. The Navigation Acts were laws that regulated trade between England and its colonies. This way, only England benefited from trade. Yankees were merchants from New England that took over colonial trade. They were very clever. These merchants made many trade routes, and one of these trade routes was known as triangular trade, because the route formed a triangle. In Colonial Government, most governors were appointed. Each colony had a legislature, which is a group of people who have the power to make laws. White Christian men over the age of 21 were the people who could make a vote in government in the colonies. The Glorious Revolution of 1688 was when Parliament removed King James II from power. William and Mary signed the English Bill of Rights in 1689. The English Bill of Rights protected the rights of individuals and gave anyone accused of a crime the right to a trail by jury. They also had limits on liberties. Women had fewer rights than men did. Women had to have their husband approve things before she did anything. Africans and Native Americans in the colonies had almost no basic rights. Most Africans were slaves.
9: Overall Culture- Education in the Colonies was starting to be required from the government. There was a law passed that all parents must teach their children religion. Public schools were set up which allowed children to get an education in the New England Colonies. In the Middle Colonies, tutors, or private teachers, were encouraged. Apprentices worked for a master to learn a trade or a craft. In New England, girls attended dame schools, or private schools run by women in their own homes. Or they would learn skills from their mothers. The spread of ideas occurred during the 1600s. European thinkers of the late 1600s believed that reason and scientific methods could be applied to the study of society. Benjamin Franklin was an enlightenment thinker in the 13 colonies. He wrote the Poor Richard's Almanack in Philadelphia. Colonial cities influenced colonial life. Culture flourished in these cities. Society was a community. The Weekly Journal in New York City was published by John Zenger. He was put on trial for a libel. Freedom of press became a basic human right. | Overall lifestyle- Colonial Society had a class system. Wealth usually determined social class placement. Gentry was the top of the society. Then came middle class. The lowest was servants and slaves. The Great Awakening was a religious movement. Preachers spoke of the greatness of God. Some people were with the movement, and some were against it. Some people broke away from their church to follow the movement. It was very emotional.