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The Times of Shakespeare and the Renaissance

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S: Shakespeare and The Life in the Renaissance

FC: Shakespeare & The Life in the Renaissance | By Sydney Mueller

1: TABLE OF CONTENTS | How Does the Renaissance Influence 1 GRAPES of Renaissance 2-4 GRAPES of Elizabethan England 5-7 Shakespeares Life 8-9 Shakespeares Career 10-13 Language of the Time 14 Bibliography 15

2: How Does the Renaissance influence literature and History? | During the renaissance, humanism became very popular amongst the people. Humanism, which was the intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused more on human potential and achievements, allowed authors of future literature write about these achievements. In this time period, history was slowly changing because the people in Europe started to realize all of the achievements humans were capable of achieving. Since the people of the renaissances lives were focused on creating works of art and literature they used their inspirations around them, such as nature and current events, to create some of the most famous works in history. Without the renaissance, these great writers would not have had any inspiration for their writing and could have been left undiscovered to the world. The largest difference between the Renaissance and Elizabethan England is that the Renaissance focused on recreating beautiful arts and literature- while Elizabethan England focused on the theatre, and representing humans through plays. | 1

3: Geography: Italy was the birthplace of the Renaissance for multiple reasons. It had the perfect location between Western Europe and the Middle East- with opportunities for overseas trade. This meant that they were able to increase cultural diffusion between the two areas, which meant that the preserved Greek and Roman cultures would be passed on. One of the cities that became prosperous, because they were able to increase their wealth due to their position in Italy. | Religion: In Italy the Catholic Church was less focused on because of the increase in interest in the classical culture, mainly the Greece and Roman culture. These cultures increased humanism in Italy- leading in to a focus on human potential. | Renaissance Lifestyle... | 2

4: Achievements: In Italy, there was an emphasis on perspective, and realistic portraits to represent the human achievements anymore. Artists like Michelangelo, Donatello, Leonardo Da Vinci, Raphael, and Anguissola were able to create the Statue of David, The Mona Lisa, and the School of Athens. The writers of that time, Petrarch, Boccaccio, and Machiovelli are known for their realistic stories about Florence and human beings' potential. | Politics: Nation states began to form because the main government, the church, started to decline. The individual monarchs gained power, such as the Medici family, and spread their connections throughout Europe. In the Middle Ages the focus was the church and everyone revolved around it, the Renaissance individuality ruled. | 3

5: Economy- During the renaissance the Commercial Revolution became a main part of the prosperous economy Italy had. The Commercial Revolution was a time period in Italy that led to the rise of small towns, private banking established and many trading organizations developed. The Crusades led to an increase of contact between Italy and the Middle East, which led to the development of the trading organizations in the Commercial Revolution. The Renaissance became prosperous during the Commercial Revolution, leading to the uprise of family banks such as the Medici bank-which became one of the most prosperous banks in Europe as it branched out along its borders. | Society- The society in Italy depended more on humanism now than ever before. Since the classical texts of Christianity wee focused less on because Greek values became popular the renaissance men were all expected to be educated and create artwork, while the women just had to inspire the artwork for the men. The urban life's primary focus was on creating perfect artwork and lots of literature. | 4

6: Elizabethan England Lifestyle... | Geography- In Elizabethan England, most people centered their life in cities such as London, Dover, Charlecote, and Thane. These cities became popular because there were many employment opportunities. The English Channel was also a major waterway in England at the time that helped support their economy. England was not always the ideal place to live, because the weather affected the crops and it was rarely below freezing in the winter and very warm in the summer for people. Also, England had many islands that people could live on and grow crops, such as grain, and raise livestock. | Religion- There was not one set religion in England, but it was decided by the current ruler what the religion was to be. The most common religions chosen were Protestant and Christian because there were churches all across England at the time, so schools would teach the current language. | 5

7: Achievements- Elizabethan England had many achievements during their era, including the great works of literature that William Shakespeare was able to write. The people of England were able to make weapons, gold, silver and silk in their times.The Globe Theater was even built in this time to display the arts and literature written by great minds like Shakespeare. These writers would write in Early Modern English and they were also able to teach this language in public schools to the children who were able to afford it. | Politics- England had a very strict system of politics that they established, which was a monarchy. The people of England would either report to the King or Queen and obey their laws. Queen Mary took the crown from 1553-1558, but as soon as she left the throne Queen Elizabeth took over as one of the most famous rulers of England from 1558-1603. King James was also able to success Queen Elizabeth when she passed away, and he ruled from 1603-1625. | 6

8: Economy- The agricultural economy in England was very common because being a farmer was one of, if not the most, popular professions. A lot of trade occurred because not everyone had the money to buy products that they needed. Some other professions included bakers, blacksmiths, glovers, milkmaids, and millers. There was an increase in monopolies across England along with an increase in cloth, iron, and tin. Pounds, shillings, and pence were used in their currency. | Society- There was little distinction between wealth and poverty in Elizabethan England, which caused a distinct social hierarchy in rural areas . The lifestyle would change with the seasons, the most popular season would be harvest season because the farmers would become prosperous. The skilled workers included farmers, blacksmiths, carpenters, builders, roofers, and many more that made up the social hierarchy with the lord of the rural manors on top. The woman did not have many freedoms, but they were able to look after the small animals along with preparing the food and mending clothing. | 7

9: The Life Of William Shakespeare... | Background Information: William Shakespeare was born in Stratford-Upon-Avon, England on April 23rd, 1564 and was baptized on April 26, 1564. Ironically, he died on April 23, 1616 when he was exactly 52 years old from a tragic fever. | Childhood: William Shakespeare is the son of John and Mary Shakespeare, John was a farmer for part of his life and he created his own business as he got older. His mother stayed at home to take care of William and his seven siblings because she was left part of the land and money from her parents. | 8

10: Family Life: Even though Shakespeare was brought up with a lot of siblings in his family, he did not have many children with his wife, Anne Hathaway. Shakespeare had three children, Susanna, Hamnet and Judith with Anne but Hamnet, his 11 year old son fell ill and unfortunately died from the Bubonic Plague. Even though Shakespeare claimed that he was in love with his wife, Anne Hathaway, there was speculation around his marriage because there were two different names on the marriage documents. | Education: Shakespeare was from one of the few families in Elizabethan England that was wealthy enough to afford a basic education, especially since he went from ages 7-14. During these 7 years Shakespeare learned about subjects such as behavior, catechism, table manners, prayer, and respect. These classes emphasized the impact that morality had on Elizabethan England. | 9

11: William Shakespeares Career... | Professions: Throughout William Shakespeares career hes known for being a successful playwright, actor, and poet. He even moved to London in 1586 to pursue these careers and become more successful. In his career Shakespeare was able to complete 37 plays, including histories, comedies, an tragedies. | Acting Company: Shakespeare was an owner of one of the most famous acting companies in Elizabethan England, called "The Lord Chamberlains Men", later named to "The Kings Men" because the King at the time wanted it to be changed. Shakespeares plays could be acted out here, such as his famous plays, "Romeo and Juliet", "Alls Well That Ends Well", "Hamlet", "Richard II". | 10

12: Shakespeare's Plays... | "Romeo and Juliet": Shakespeare did not originally come up with the plotline for "Romeo and Juliet" himself, but took it from "The Tragical History of Romeus and Juliet". This is one of the most known plays in history about two star crossed lovers who fall madly in love with each other, but are doomed because they come from two families who hate each other. | "Hamlet": Another one of Shakespeares greatest tradgedies, "Hamlet", uses the themes of deception, ambition, loyalty, and fate all in one. Hamlets deceased father returns to him in a dream saying that Hamlets uncle, Claudius, killed him and took the thrown for power. When Hamlet takes revenge it ends in the death of himself, Claudius, Laertes, and Gertrude. | 11

13: Acting Takes Off... | The Globe Theatre: The Globe Theatre was a famous theater in London that Shakespeare co-owned along with Cuthbert Burbage, Thomas Pope, Richard Burbage, Ausgustine Phillips, and John Heminge. The theatre was built outside of Londons because that was where it was more accepted and out of the Kings reach. Unfortunately, after its opening in 1598, there was a devastating in 1613 that burnt the theater down to the ground. The Globe Theatre was built to hold many people,, as it was natural lighting, plaster and thatched roofs, and an open theatre. | 12

14: All Hail to the Queen! | Queen Elizabeths Influence: Queen Elizabeth had a huge impact on the theatre life during Elizabethan England because she was the head figure of England at the time, which encouraged people to visit the theatre to see her and be like royalty. Queen Elizabeth was also the person who wanted to give funds to the theatre life at the time. Even though women in general did not have power in society, such as they were not allowed to act in theatre, Queen Elizabeth might have been the most influential person of her time. | 13

15: 14 | Language of Willam Shakspeare's Time... | **Shakespeare would write in Early Modern English, but people did not speak that way in real life because he spoke for poetic purposes** | Art = Are Coz = Because Hark You = Listen Knave = Fellow Stay = Stop Thrice = 3 Times Oft = Often E'ev = Every | 'Tis= It Is Ope = Open O'er= Over Gi' = Give Ne'er =Never I' = In E'er = Ever

16: BIBLIOGRAPHY | 15 | "Famous Italian Art." Online Image. 2010 Italian Renaissance Art. 27 April. 2012 | Hylton, Jeremy. Online Image. 1993. The Complete Works of William Shakespeare 27 April. 2012 | Chaucer, Geoffrey. "Man of Laws Tale, and Squires Tale" Online Image. 2011 The Schoyen Collection 26 april. 2012 | Pioch, Nicholas. "La Jaconde" Online Image. 2006. Leonardo Da Vinci 24 April. 2012 | "The Renaissance- A Rebirth of Culture and Classical Ideas" Online Image. 2012. Insight into History- A Weekly Introspective Into the Past 27 April 2012.

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