BC: Works Cited | Appleby Ph.D., Joyce. Brinkley Ph.D., Alan. Broussard Ph.D., Albert S. McPherson Ph.D., James M. Ritchie Ph.D., Donald A. The National Geograpic Society. The American Republic to 1877. Columbus, Ohio: The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005.
FC: The INSPECTion of the Westward Expansion
1: I- Ideas N- Natural/Geographic S- Social P- Political E- Economic C- Cultural T- Technological/Scientific
2: Ideas | The first census was taken in 1790. It revealed that the population of the United States at this time was nearly four million. Most Americans that had been counted lived east of the Appalachian Mountains and within a couple hundred miles of the Atlantic coast.
3: The settlers moving west in the U.S. wanted the land the American Indians were on. In 1830 Congress passed the Indian Removal Act that was proposed by President Andrew Jackson. It allowed the government to pay the American Indians for their land. Most tribes felt compelled to accept payment for their lands, the Cherokee nation, however, did not. In 1838 7,000 troops removed the great tribe from their homes. They were forced to move west onto the Indian Territory, created in 1834, in present-day Oklahoma. The route they took is known to the Cherokee as the Trail Where They Cried. To historians it is the Trail of Tears. Thousands of Cherokee people lost their lives on the cruel journey they took. | Ideas
4: River travel had very good advantages over horse and wagon travel. It was much more comfortable than travel over the bumpy roads. Pioneers could also load all their goods on river barges. But, only if they were traveling in the direction of the current. Traveling on rivers had two problems, though. The first was that most major rivers in the United States flowed in a north-south direction. Not the direction where most people and goods were headed, east to west. Also, traveling upstream by barge was slow and extremely difficult.However, in 1802 Robert Fulton made the Clermont. The Clermont was a steamboat with a powerful engine. It made a trip in 32 hours that would have taken four days if only sails were used. | Natural/Geographic
5: In the late 1700s and early 1800s America needed good inland roads for travel and for the shipment of goods. Many turnpikes, or toll roads, were built by private companies. When travelers used those roads, they paid fees to help pay for construction. Most roads had a base of crushed stone. Where the land was often muddy companies built "corduroy roads". They consisted of logs laid side by side, like the ridges of corduroy cloth. | Natural/Geographic
6: Sectionalism, or loyalty to your region, became more intense as differences arose over national policies. Most Americans felt a strong allegiance to the region where they lived. | The conflict of slavery was a conflict that was argued over. Most white southerners thought it a necessity. Northerners, however, had a rising opposition to it. The three different regions also disagreed on the need | for a national bank, internal improvements, and tariffs. Internal improvements were state, federal, and privately funded projects to develop the nation's transportation system. | Social
7: Many Americans had believed their nation had a special role to fill since colonial times. Until the 1800s people thought the nation's mission should be to serve as a model of freedom and democracy. After that, many believed that the United States' mission was to spread freedom by occupying the entire continent. John Quincy Adams expressed what many Americans were thinking by saying expansion to the Pacific was inevitable. In the 1840s, a New York newspaper editor named John O'Sullivan made a statement. He declared that it was America's "Manifest Destiny to overspread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us." He meant that the U.S. was clearly destined to extend it's boundaries to the Pacific. | Social
8: Andrew Jackson was the presidential election in 1828 by a landslide, he had 56 percent of the popular vote and 178 electoral votes. Jackson was a patriot, a self-made man, and a war hero- everything Americans admired. President Jackson promised "equal protection and equal benefits" for all white American men. | A spirit of equality spread through American politics during his first term. He helped increase the expansion of suffrage. In 1824-1828 the number of white males voting in presidential elections went from 26.9 to 57.6 percent. In 1840 more than 80 percent of white males voted in the presidential election due to the continuation of suffrage. | Political
9: The Whigs nominated William Henry Harrison and John Tyler as his running mate. The Whigs adopted a log cabin as their symbol, because Harrison needed to gain the support of laborers and farmers. They wanted to show that Harrison, their candidate, was a "man of the people". William Harrison was the first Whig president. However, John Tyler had to take his place when Harrison died only a few months after his inauguration in 1841. He was the first vice president to gain presidency because the elected president died in office. As president, he vetoed several bills sponsored by Whigs in Congress. | Political
10: The California Gold Rush started in early 1848. People from all over the world went to California to search for gold. The over 80,000 people who arrived in just 1849 were called forty-niners. Over $6 million in gold was taken from the American River by the end of 1848. | The California Gold Rush more than doubled the world's supply of gold. However, most miners found little or no gold. Many who did find gold lost their money through gambling or wild spending. Merchants on the other hand, made huge profits. They could charge whatever they wanted, because miners had no where else to go to buy products. Because of the Gold Rush, California's population increased from about 20,000 in 1848 to more than 220,000 in 1852. The economy in California would still be affected by the Gold Rush years later. | Economic
11: President Andrew Jackson had attacked the Bank of the United States for years. It was a powerful institution, because it held the government's money and controlled much of the country's money supply. When re-elected in 1832, Jackson decided to "kill" the Bank. He withdrew all federal deposits from the Bank and put them into smaller, state banks. In 1836 when the Bank's charter was up, Jackson refused to sign and the Bank closed. | Economic
12: President Martin Van Buren was elected in 1836. Shortly after, the country entered a severe economic depression. It began with the Panic of 1837. Land values dropped, investments declined, and banks failed. Hundreds of thousands of people lost their jobs from companies closing. Cotton prices fell to record lows in the South. President Van Buren believed in laissez-faire*, but, in 1840, he did persuade Congress to establish an independent federal treasury that the government would store it's money in. | "Bread, Meat, Rent, and Fuel! Their prices must come down! The Voice of the People shall be heard and will Prevail!" | Economic
13: The first Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was founded by Joseph Smith in 1830. He hoped to use the visions he had when launching the Christian church to build an ideal society. As a Mormon, he believed that property should be held in common, and he also supported polygamy*. Mormons eventually gave up that practice, for it angered many people. Smith originally formed a community in New York, but they were forced to move on by unsympathetic neighbors. After that, the Mormons were constantly rejected from wherever they moved to. From New York they went to Ohio, then Missouri, and then Illinois. Brigham Young took over as the head of the Mormons in 1844, because Joseph Smith was killed in a mob in Illinois. Young then moved the Mormons near the Great Salt Lake in present-day Utah. The migration began in 1846. It is the largest single migration in American history. About 12,000 Mormons made the trek. They set up communities in an area they called Deseret. They built irrigation canals and founded industries so they could be self-sufficient. | Cultural
14: The beginning of Americans moving west in waves was before the 1790s. A second wave began between 1816 and 1821. Most pioneer families settled on the great rivers, Ohio and Mississippi, so they could ship their crops need be. The expansion of canals, however, allowed pioneers to live farther away from rivers. | Cultural
15: Men and women took part in cornhuskings. Farm families shared the work of stripping the husks from ears of corn. Women gathered for quilting and sewing parties while men took part in sports, including wrestling. Pioneers did not have the conveniences of Eastern town life while living in the West. But, they had not moved to be pampered. They made new lives for themselves and their families. | Pioneers who traveled west tended to settle with others who were from the same community. Families in the west often gathered together for social events.
16: The canal in America was opened on October 26, 1825. It was the Erie Canal, and it took more than two years of digging to build. After that, the building of canals exploded. The United States had more than 3,600 miles of canals by 1850. They were very fast compared to traveling by wagon. Canals lowered the cost it took to ship goods, they brought prosperity to the towns that were along their routes, and they helped unite the country.
17: Steam engines were being used in the 1780s and 1790s to power boats. Two inventors built small boats that were equipped with steam engines, but neither boats had enough power to withstand the elements on large bodies of water. Robert Livingston hired Robert Fulton in 1802. Fulton was to develop a steamboat with a powerful engine that could carry cargo and passengers up the Hudson River. In 1807 the Clermont was ready for a trial run. The steamboat Fulton built made the 150 mile trip from New York to Albany in only 32 hours. If using only sails, it would have taken four days. The Clermont was about 140 feet long and 14 feet wide. Passengers could sit or walk on the deck and could relax in the sleeping compartments that were below deck.
18: Conclusion | The Indian Removal Act greatly affected people's lives in America, especially the American Indians'. They were forced to leave their homes and many died. It changed the tone for how the American Indians were treated. The Gold Rush also had a great effect, but in a positive way. People who were merchants and lived in California became very wealthy. Many communities were made were people were mining. The Gold Rush also more than doubled the world's supply of gold. Not very many things have remained the same since the early and mid-1800s. The treasury, however, has remained the same. President Martin Van Buren began to store the government's money in the federal treasury that he persuaded Congress to establish in 1840. The past in a very useful thing to look to when you're trying to make sense of the present, I think. There are some trends that tend to happen over again. For instance, economic depressions happen somewhat regularly. The past is also good to look to because we can watch for warning signs that something bad might happen again if we compare the present to the past every once in a while.
19: One big decision that significantly transformed people's lives was the Indian Removal Act, and the moving of American Indians west in America. The Cherokee especially were greatly impacted by it. Thousands of Indians died and many traditions and cultural heritage was lost. People's view of the world affected their decisions and actions a lot. The people in America thought that their duty was to spread freedom by obtaining the whole continent. Because of that, many Indians were moved and a war or two happened. | laissez-faire*- policy that the government should interfere as little as possible in the nation's economy polygamy*- a man having more than one wife