FC: Animal Cell Tour | Tori, Alex,and Jacob
1: Animal Cell
2: We started our journey in the Nucleolus which is where ribosomes are produced. Then as we traveled through we saw some chromatin. Chromatin is material consisting of proteins and DNA (Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid). Afterwards, we encountered the end of the nucleus, the nuclear envelope. From there we entered a nuclear pore and continued are journey to the endoplasmic reticulum. | Day 1 Nucleus
4: After exiting the nucleus we entered the rough ER. The rough ER is continuation of the nuclear envelope. It is covered with ribosomes, which is where the synthesis of many proteins take place. | Day 2 Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) | Next we moved into the smooth ER. As we moved through the smooth ER, we witnessed steroids, lipids, and phospholipids being synthesized.
6: As we left the smooth ER, we entered the Golgi Apparatus. Here, we witnessed the amazing sorting, processing, and distributing of the end products of the Endoplasmic Reticulum. | Day 3 Golgi Apparatus
7: Leaving the Golgi Apparatus, we noticed that we were drained of energy. Luckily we had just entered the powerhouse of the cell. | The mitochonidrian is the site of cellular respiration (catabolic process that generates ATP by extracting energy from sugars, fats, and other fuels with the help of oxygen). The outer membrane of the mitochondrian is smooth while the inner membrane consists of infoldings called cristae. The inner membrane is divided into two compartments. The first compartment is the narrow region between the inner and outer membrane and the second compartment, the mitochondrial matrix, is enclosed by the inner membrane. After we refueled in the mitochondrian, we were ready to head off to the centrosome. | Day 4 Mitochondria
8: During our travel through the peroxisome, we witnessed the production of hydrogen peroxide. The peroxisome makes hydrogen peroxide by transferring hydrogen from various substances to the oxygen. Peroxisomes do not bud from the endomembrane system. They grow by incorporating proteins and lipids made in the cytosol, and they increase in number by splitting in totwo when they reach a certain size. | Day 5 Peroxisome
9: Next we entered the Lysosome. A lysosome is a membrane-bounded sac of hydrolytic enzymes that digest macromolecules. The environment of lysosomes are moderately acidic, usually around the pH of 5. The enzymes found in the lysosome are made by the rough ER. | Day 6 Lysosome
10: the cell shape and provides anchorage for the nucleus and other organelles. The microfilaments are two intertwined strands of actin (a globular protein). All of the microtubules grow from a centrosome. A centrosome is an area in the cell where many centrioles (9 sets of microtubules in bundles of 3 in a ring) are grouped together. Since the cytoskeleton is basically an highway through the cell, we went directly to the plasma membrane. | Day 7 Cytoskeleton | Leaving the lysosome, we hopped on to the cytoskeleton. This is a long network of fibers which includes microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules. The microtubules are hollow tubes that maintain the cell shape, aid in cell motility, and in the movement of organelles. The intermediate filaments are fiberous proteins coiled into thicker cables which supports
12: Ahh, the plasma membrane, all that separates us from the dangerous, non-living environment now, is a phospholipid bilayer. Before we pass through one of its proteins into the unknown, we would first like to check out how this fine cell has so much surface area, and how it moves. The plasma membrane is made up of many different kinds of proteins that are important for cell signaling. On of these proteins is the G-protein. | The G-protein functions as an on and off switch, depending on whether GTP or GDP is attached. If a GTP is attached the G-protein it is active and if a GDP is attached it is inactive. Another type of membrane protein is tyrosine-kinase. This protein functions as an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups from ATP to the amino acid tyrosine on a substrate protein. Ligands are small molecules that bind to a larger one. Ligand binding generally causes a receptor protein to undergo a change in conformation. | Day 8 Plasma Membrane
13: Not all signal receptors are membrane proteins. Some are dissolved in the cytosol or nucleus or the target cells. These chemical messengers include the steroid hormones and thyroid hormones of animals.
15: As we entered the tiny projections branching off the cell, there we had an eerie feeling like the cell had a vast amount of surface area relative to its volume; and it does. The microvilli are little projections which vastly increase the cell's surface area, without affecting the volume much. | Day 9 Microvilli
16: The last stop before we return to the plasma membrane and leave this complex cellular life form. The flagellum is an organelle which serves as the drive shaft of the cell. It moves the cell in any direction which it wants. It is composed of microtubules and may not always be in this type of cell (sometimes replaced with cilia). | Day 10 Flagellum
17: Departure And thus we end this wondrous journey through an animal cell, and we go forth on a new journey; one which will withhold many new surprises and a vast amount of useful information.