S: Tour Of The Human Body Systems by Alanna Paretti
BC: DEPARTED | By Alanna Paretti | 2 March 2012 | Tour of the Human Body Systems
1: Digestive System | Transport | The Circulatory System | FASTEN YOUR SEATBELTS AS WE TRANSPORT YOU TO THE GRAND, WORLD HUMAN BODY SYSTEM TOUR! | Respiratory System | Nervous System | Excretory System
2: Respiration Station | Breathe...
3: Welcome to the Respiratory System Where You Can Relax And Breathe Freely! Each day you breathe about 20,000 times. All of this breathing couldn't happen without help from the respiratory system. The respiratory system is the takes air into the lungs. It puts oxygen into the blood and takes the carbon dioxide out of the blood and exhales it. The major organs in the respiratory system are the lungs, trachea, bronchioles, mouth, nose and epiglottis. You breathe with the help of your diaphragm and other muscles in your chest and abdomen. These muscles change the space and pressure inside your body to allow breathing. To breathe our body gets oxygen from the air. Rib muscles contract to pull ribs up and out. The DIiaphram contracts to pull down the lungs. Tissue expands to suck in air. When you breathe out, you get rid of other gases that your body does not need. Rib muscles relax and the Diaphragm relaxes. Tissue returns to resting position and forces air out. The air has a long journey to get to your lungs. It flows down through the windpipe, past the voice box ,to where the ribs meet the center of your chest. There, your windpipe divides into two tubes which lead to the two lungs which fill most of your chest. Inside each of your lungs, tubes, called bronchi, branch into even smaller tubes like branches. At the end of these tubes are millions of tiny bubbles or sacs called alveoli. These air sacs bring new oxygen from air you've breathed to your bloodstream. They exchange it for the waste products, like carbon dioxide, which the cells in your body have made and can't use. Carbon dioxide goes through the lungs, back up your windpipe and out when you exhale. Smoking effects Respiration and can be dangerous. When you smoke, you do not allow the natural flow of oxygen and every cigarette leaves toxic substances in the system, which can lead to many illnesses, such as lung cancer. THERE IS NO SMOKING ON THIS TOUR!
4: As we explore the Nervous System, it is important to know some of its background. | The basic function/structure of the Nervous System is is to send messages and signals throughout the body using neurons. A neuron is one of our finest of the system. The neuron conducts impulses throughout the system and consists of three regions that help get the job done. The neuron is a long cell that branches out into one of the regions called a dendrite. The dendrite receives impulses and carries them to the second region of the cell body. The third region is called an axon. The axon is an extension of the neuron. it carries impulses away from the cell body and toward other neurons, glands, or muscles. The most exciting part of our tour is the CNS or also known as the Central Nervous System. The CNS coordinates all of the body's activities. Its parts of the brain called the cerebrum, cerebellum, medulla oblongata that take part in specific activities. The cerebrum controls intelligence, memory, language,skeletal muscle movements, and senses. The cerebellum controls balance, posture, and coordination. The medulla controls activities such as breathing and heart rate. Another system apart of the nervous, is strictly based on nerves that carry messages to and from the central nervous system. Together the CNS and the PNS work to respond to stimuli from the external environment. Another important part of the nervous system are the neurotransmitters. The neurotransmitters transmit nerve impulses throughout the body. The last segment of our tour ends with the reflex arc. During the reflex arc, the brain is bypassed the sensory neurons synapse and the spinal cord responds with a reflex action. The bodies quick reacting reflex protects the adventure of the human body tremendously.
5: The Nervous System Station Circulate to the right to see the Circulatory System.
6: Fasten your Seatbelts as we transport you to you to the heart of the Circulatory System... | The human circulatory system has the function of transporting blood and oxygen from the lungs to various tissues in the body. The heart pumping blood throughout the body is the main function of the circulatory system. The blood on the ride side of the heart is different from the left. The blood on the right side is oxygenated where the blood you see on the left is not. In that blood, there are four different components. The red blood cells that pick up oxygen, the white blood cells that are helpful for immunity, platelets that are little segments in red blood cells that help prevent bleeding, and lastly plasma that is the liquid part of the blood. There are two main types of circulation, pulmonary and systemic circuits. Pulmonary circulation carries oxygen depleted blood away from the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood back to the heart. During the systemic circuit blood leaves the heart through the aorta and goes to all the organs through systemic arteries and then returns to the heart through systemic veins.
7: The heart also has a very interesting beat. The heart beats when the atria and the ventricles work together to contract and relax the pump blood causing the heart to beat. As for blood pressure, the blood is forcedly pushed through your artery walls as it moves through your circulatory system. The blood pumped is produced by bone marrow. An unfortunate segment we during this stay is heart disease. Diseases such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. Hypertension is a medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is increased. This forces the blood to pump harder increasing the chance of a heart attack. Atherosclerosis is when the artery wall thickens because of fatty materials such as cholesterol. This is a serious condition that can also increase the rate for a heart attack.
8: Digestive System Station! | The main function of the digestive system is to change the food you ingest into molecules that your body can use for energy. The many parts of the digestive system starts with the mouth. The mouth breaks down food when you chew it. The food is then swallowed and goes down a muscular tube called the esophagus. The esophagus connects the mouth to the stomach. When it reaches the part of the stomach chemical and mechanical digestion is used to break down the food. Mechanical digestion is the actual break down of food, such as your teeth chewing on food. Chemical digestion is the use of chemicals to digest and break down food. The small intestine is a 6m long tube that completes the digestion of food. Some food is used and stored for energy. Enzymes are broken down and used as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. The liver and the pancreas have very important roles in digestion. The liver is the synthesis of bile acids that eventually turn fatty foods and absorb them for proteins and vitamins. The pancreas produces enzymes that eventually lead to carbohydrate metabolism. As I end the journey of our digestive system I would like to talk about the villi. The villi is the lining of the intestinal wall. The villi is useful to digestion because important nutrients pass through and are absorbed. The break down of food and the absorption used for energy is what make our digestive system so great!
10: Excretory | System Station | 2 March 2012 | Welcome to the Excretory System! Excretion is the process of discharging/ejecting waste product of metabolism from an organism. The skin, kidneys, lungs, and liver all have a big role is the excretory system. The skin produces sweat that removes waste from the body while controlling its temperature. The kidneys have the big role of maintaining and filtering wasteful fluids. The lungs constantly secrete gaseous waste from the bloodstream. This is done through respiration. Lastly, the liver takes toxins out of your blood and takes them to be sent out of the body all together. The kidney has many parts that helps it function all together. It has 2 main veins and arteries that bring blood to and from the heart. It also contains the pelvis where the urine waste is stored and released by the ureter. The nephron is the basic structural and functional unit of the kidney. It regulates water and soluble substances by filtering the blood and reabsorbing what is needed and excreting the rest into urine. We will end the excretory system with the discussion of filtration and reabsorbtion. Filtration is the process of taking something out and letting something pass through. Reabsorbtion is the process of filtering a fluid and bringing it back into the body. Both major roles of the kidney. And both major roles of the excretory system!
11: Your Journey Ends Here. | EXIT HERE