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Truman Time Magazine

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BC: President Harry S. Truman 1884- 1972

FC: A Tribute to President Harry Truman | inside: ~Post-presdency years ~Truman's terms in office ~The fight agaisnt Communism | TIME TIME

1: Truman: The Early Years By: Dana Ringer Harry Truman, born May 8th 1884, came from humble beginnings in Lamar, Missouri. He recieved a public education in Independence, Missouri where he graduated in 1901. After high school, Truman worked as a bank clerk and a timekeeper for a railroad construction company. Rather than taking time to further his career, Truman showed his | deep dedication to his roots by returning to work on his family's farm and helping them in their time of need. His strong desire for doing what was right not only for himself but also others, helped his beginnings in politics. The dicipline he gained from working on his family's farm in Grandview, Missouri helped him throughout his military career, which began when he enlisted in the Missouri National Guard from 1905-1911. Then in WWI Truman was promoted to captain after he helped organize a field artillery unit. Post WWI, Truman was promoted to colonel. Upon finishing his military career, he settled down with his wife Beth Wallace whom he mariied in 1919. Together they had one child, a beutiful baby girl, named Mary Margaret, born in 1924. In 1922, two years before his daughter was born, Truman won the election for judge of the Jackson County Court, which was his first real political involvement. Throughout his many years on the court, he was well known for his honesty and fairness, traits from his upbringing on a farm. This reputation preceded him, and he was elected in 1934 to the United States Senate, where he served two terms, until 1940, when he ran for vice president with FDR. The rest they say, is history.

2: The Presidency of Harry S. Truman by: Denny Lydon Harry S. Truman was sworn in as President on April 12, 1945. Throughout his two terms as President he made many improvements to our country. He tried to make sure our country was safe and wanted to make our government stronger. Truman also had to ensure the citizens that our country was safe from communism since he was President during the beginning of the Cold War with the Soviet Union. One of the first things that Truman did to help our country domestically was order loyalty investigations of all federal employees on March 21, 1947. He did this in response to receiving criticism from republicans who believed that some federal employees were communist spies or communist sympathizers. Then on June 20, 1947, Congress tried to pass the Taft-Hartley Bill effecting the American business and labor. The act would have made closed shops illegal and required that all union leaders swear that they were not communists. Truman thought that it was in best interest of the country to veto this bill. He thought that the bill was discriminatory against labor but Congress over ruled his veto and passed the bill on June 23, 1947. On July 26, 1947, President Truman passed the National Security Act of 1947. By passing this act, it unified the U.S. armed forces into one

3: department. It also created the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), which provides national security information to U.S. policymakers, and the National Security Council. On February 2, 1948, President Truman sent a message to congress asking them to create civil rights legislation. He wanted to help secure the rights of the various minority groups in the United States. Truman did not believe in segregation and did what he could to end it. Then on June 25, 1948, Truman signed the Displaced Persons Act. When President Truman’s first term in office was almost up, he fortunately received the nomination to lead the democratic ticket at the Democratic National Convention in Philadelphia on July 15, 1948. One day after receiving the nomination for the democratic presidential candidacy, Truman signed Executive Order 9981 on July 26, 1948 which desegregated the United States Armed Forces. It also created the President’s Committee on Equality of Treatment and Opportunity in the Armed Services to enforce the Executive Order of 9981. During his re-election bid, Truman embarked on the “Whistle-stop Campaigns”. He began his tour on September 6, 1948 and did not stop until October 30, 1948. During these “Whistle-stop Campaigns,” | Truman traveled the country’s railways delivering 275 speeches throughout the nation. Upon returning to Washington D.C., Truman had to live at Blair House, due to an overall reconstruction and remodeling project going on at the White House. He lived at Blair House from November of 1948 until March 27 of 1952, the last year of his second term in office. On November 2, 1948, Truman was re-elected. He beat out the republican candidate Thomas Dewey, who was heavily favored to win. In Truman’s State of the Union Address, he talked about the “Fair Deal,” which would have created a national health-insurance plan, raise the minimum wage, and provide full employment for all. On January 20, 1949, Truman was inaugurated for his second term in office. In his Inaugural address, Truman called for a program to help underprivileged peoples of the earth which would later be called the “Point IV Program.” Then on August 10, 1949, Truman signed the National Security Act, which established a unified Department of Defense. Throughout Truman’s Presidency, he had to deal with union strikes. On August 25, 1950, Truman ordered a railroad seizure in response to the striking rail workers. This would not be the last time that he would seize an industry. While in office, Truman

4: Walters Act. Congress however, over ruled his veto on June 27 of 1952 and passed the act. As you can see, Truman did what he could to help our country develop into a better nation. He ran for two terms and won both times because voters thought that he was a great and honest leader. Truman had to make many decisions throughout his years as President and for the most part, he made good ones. | was nearly assassinated at the Blair House. On November 1, 1950, two Puerto Rican nationalists tried to assassinate President Truman. Due to the valiant efforts and ultimate sacrifices of U.S. Secret Service Officers, President Truman escaped unharmed. On December 6, 1950, President Truman sent a letter to music critic Paul Hume regarding newspaper reviews that Hume had written about the President Truman’s daughter, Margaret Truman’s piano recital. President Truman was very upset about the bad review and let Hume know about it. After nearly four years of living in the Blair House, President Truman finally moved back into the White House on March 27, 1952. On April 8, 1952, when Truman heard there was a threat of a steel mill strike, he ordered Secretary of Commerce Charles Sawyer to seize the Nation’s steel mills, in the interest of National Security. He wanted to prevent the strike but on June 2 of 1952, Congress ruled that the seizure was unconstitutional. Congress presented Truman with the McCarran-Walters Act on June 25, 1952. President Truman thought that the act was infringing on American ideals of freedom and opportunity. He also thought that it was over discriminatory and therefore, he vetoed the McCarran-

6: Fighting for Freedom Against Communism by: Rachael Austin During President Truman’s time in office from 1945-1953, he put into action several excellent foreign policies to help protect our country and others. First was the Potsdam Conference which began on July 17, 1945, just after the ending of World War II. During the meeting Great Britain, the United States, and the Soviet Union decided to divide Germany into four sections which they would each control an area of, along with France. Then the capital | of Germany, Berlin, would also get divided into four sections to help build up the country. Meanwhile, the war was not yet over and Japan was the United States next target.

7: After previous fights during World War II, Truman could not stand the thought of thousands more dying and decided to use the atomic bomb. He tried to be peaceful with Japan but they gave the U.S. no cooperation. So on August 6, 1945 the first bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, and three days later a second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. Alone the first bomb killed between 70,000- 80,000 people and destroyed miles of land. Although no one wanted to see thousands killed, this action brought confidence to U.S. citizens by showing that the U.S. would do whatever it took to end this war. Finally on August 15, 1945 the Japanese finally surrendered and in 1946 Truman signed a proclamation officially declaring World War II over. Even though World War II was over, another was just beginning. This war, known as the Cold War was a mental race between the United States and the Soviet Union, with no physical fighting. The Soviet Union, a communist country, was trying to take over as much land as they could to spread Communism, even if it meant by force. Meanwhile the U.S. was peacefully trying to spread Democracy, but would use necessary force if the Communists gained too much control. With two countries having the same idea but with different government ideas, the future was set up for lots of | fighting. As predicted in August 1946, Communists rebels rose up against Greece’s corrupt monarchy. In response in March 1947 Truman announced the Truman Doctrine which gave $400 million in aid to Greece and its neighbor Turkey to help defeat the rebels. The Truman Doctrine was a success and stopped the spread of Communism, but it angered many Soviet leaders. So now the Soviet leaders, metaphorically speaking, had a fire of anger towards the U.S., and the Truman doctrine just added fuel to it. Back to Germany, after being in there for 3 years, the U.S., France, and Great Britain wanted to give Germany back their land, but the Soviet Union refused. So instead, they joined their sections of the country and Berlin to form West Germany, a Democratic government area. This act angered the Soviet Union because they were afraid they would get taken over. As a result, they blocked off all transportation between West Berlin and West Europe. Suddenly the tables were turned and West Berlin was in fear of a Communist takeover since they were only left with 40 days worth of food. The U.S. looked at the situation very carefully and decided not to go to war, but to fly goods into Berlin. This act became known as the Berlin Airlift and it lasted for

8: attacked the weak South Korean army. Deciding not to let another country fall to Communism, U.S. soldiers entered South Korea and fought against the North, along with 15 other nations. This war involvement was Truman’s last major foreign issue and he went out of his presidency trying to protect another country from being forced to accept Communism. Overall, Truman's foreign policies have helped shape the world to what it is today and for that, we should all appreciate his | for 321 days before the Soviet Union opened up the transportation ways again. Disaster seemed inescapable in a country divided into two, with the West side being Democratic and the East side Communist. While this struggle was going on with the Soviet Union, many countries sought protection and came together to form the North Atlantic Treaty Organization also known as NATO in 1949. The members included the U.S., Canada, Iceland, and nine Western European nations who promised to defend each other if one country was attacked. After NATO was organized though, the Soviet Union made the Warsaw Pact with the countries that it controlled forming their own security to keep the powers balanced. But again in 1950, the United States found itself involved in its third war during Truman’s time, the Korean War. Korea, a country with two governments (Communist and Democratic just like Germany) was separated by the 38th parallel to keep peace between the governments. After World War II, the U.S. rebuilt the South (hence forming a Democratic system) and the Soviet Union the North (therefore a Communist system). In 1949 both countries left Korea, but both North and South Korean governments claimed the entire country. Before anyone knew it, the North Korean forces crossed the 38th parallel and

9: commitment to the three wars he was involved in to try and make the world a better place free from Communism.

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