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Venezuela - Page Text Content

S: Venezuela 19th Century

FC: Venezuela 19th century | "File:Flag of Venezuela (state).svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Oscar., 29 Sept. 2007. Web. 19 Nov. 2010. .

1: Prologue................................................................. pages 2-5 Simon Bolivar........................................................... pages 6-9 Fransico de Miranda................................................... pages 10-12 Juan Jose Flores....................................................... pages 13-15 Manuela Saenz......................................................... pages 16-21 Cristobal Gutierrez.................................................... pages 26-31 Dinah Wigneron........................................................ pages 34-37 Martinez Escuevar (Rev Leader).................................... .pages 40-45 Epilogue....................................................... ..........pages 44-53 | Table of Contents

2: Prologue | April 1806 : At Puerto Cabello (Francisco’s first try to enter Venezuela with 200 men, It was a total fiasco )somehow August 1806: North of city of Coro (With ten ships and approximately five hundred men, Francisco’s force entered in the town, but he found no support. He left there months later)


4: 1806 | April 19th, 1810 | November 1810 | July 5th, 1811 | March 26th, 1812 | June 29th, 1812 | Francisco de Miranda arose various rebellions, yet they were all were put down | Municipal council of Caracas successfully disposed of Spanish Governor Vicente Emparan. A Junta was then established in Caracas | Civil war broke out between those who support juntas and royalists | Congress declared Venezuela’s independence establishing the Republic of Venezuela | Devastating earthquake hit republican areas killing thousands | After the Battle of San Mateo, the Republic collapsed

5: July 25th, 1812 | August 5th, 1813 | 1815 | 1819 | June 24th, 1821 | October 1823 | 1828 | Miranda capitulated to Monteverde and signed armistice | During Admirable Campaign Bolivar entered Caracus proclaiming restoration of the Republic and his (supreme) leadership in it | Boves’s Llanero army (of royalists) was replaced by Pablo Morillo and set out to attack the rebels | Bolivar invaded New Granada | Bolivar won Battle of Carabobo and Cumana (a royalist stronghold) fell shortly after | Puerto Cabello, last royalist strong hold fell after siege. Marked the end of the war | Republic of Gran Columbia fell and Columbia, Ecuador and Venezuela become independent

6: And of course, I can’t start a revolution only with me; I need many many people to work together in order to thrown out the old government. Today, I want to introduce myself to you as well as how the revolution First thing you want to know about me is probably where i was born and how did i become a revolutionary leader. I was born in Venezuela to a pretty rich family, if you want to know the truth. But I don’t have a very happy life though. My parents died when I was 9 years old. My uncle Carlos Palacios supervised my upbringing. I was then sent to Europe and i met my wife, Maria Teresa there. We loved each other, but she died in 1802 of yellow fever. | My name is Simon Bolívar. As a revolutionary leader in Venezuela, I've always thought about what i should do to lead my country into a condition that people can all live happy. Revolution isn’t a thing that everyone can try. It’s very dangerous, but I think that if we don't get out of the shade of Spain, we will never live happy. | Simon Bolivar

7: I went to Europe for many years to study, I learned the idea of enlightenment when I was very young. In 1810, when Napoleon conquered the Iberian Peninsula and appointed his brother ruler of Spain, we find a chance to get independence. I joined a revolutionary group and was sent to England to search for assistance. | There I convinced Francisco de Miranda, a guy who helped us a lot later in revolution, come Venezuela to help the rebellion. The following years were chaotic; we fight a lot with Spain. I won an important battle at Valencia, which earned me loyalty and admiration of my men. Meanwhile, Miranda became head of the revolutionary government, but he signed an armistice with Spain---a move engendered in part by my having lost a harbor fortress to the enemy. He really disappointed me, so i delivered him to the Spanish. | Thurston, Shelby, Elyse Atkind, and Ann Coppola. "Simon_bolivar." Needham Public Schools. Web. 20 Nov. 2010. .

8: Later in 1824, I helped Peru defeated the Spanish and I was made president of Gran Colombia and Peru. Now, the revolution is almost done, most of the Latin-American country are out of the control of Spanish. But as it comes too fast, I failed to make a strong legislature or government to control my Gran Colombia. | After that, things were getting better to me. Several thousand adventurers arrived from England to help me. I changed strategy to focus on the resource-rich Orinoco River basin, rather than Caracas with its heavy fortifications. In 1817, I established a temporary capital in Angostura, and kept fighting Spanish. After i gained a victory at Boyacá in 1819, I formed a new stat, Gran Colombia, encompassing Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador. | Santa marta | "Simon Bolivar." Raise Your Voice! | Voices Education Project. Voices. Web. 20 Nov. 2010. .

9: Civil war began, I tried to control at least Venezuela, but elections to a national convention in 1828 produced more opposition to me. | In 1830 spring, i headed for exile in Europe, but i made it only to Santa Marta, here, where I am really really sick. | Dollarhide, William. "Finding 1861–1869 Names of Residents & Civil War Soldiers – Part Three - Florida Through Lllinois." GenealogyBlog. 22 Apr. 2009. Web. 20 Nov. 2010. .

12: My name is Francisco de Miranda, I was born in Venezuela on March 28, 1750. My family was very wealthy. I joined Spanish army and in 1771 I purchased a commission in the army. But I lost the commission in 1783 because of misusing of funds, and i fled to the U.S. | For the next two decades, I traveled a lot in United States and Europe. During that time, I formed an idea and convinced that Spanish America should follow the example of British North America and become independent. During 1785-1805, I tried a lot to gain support for my liberation plans. I spent 2 years in Russia trying to get some support, and spent many years in London as a plotter against the crown in Spain. In 1806, I set my liberation plan in motion, with a ship and a few volunteers, I invaded Venezuela. | Francisco de Miranda

13: But I found almost no popular support, Spanish quickly defeated me and I went back to England. Preparing, and waiting for the next chance. | Finally in 1810, I found the opportunity, when a rebellion broke out in Venezuela. Bolivar came to England. He found me and asked me to return home as leader of the revolution. I agreed immediately. When I was 60 years old, I entered Venezuela as commander of the army. Soon after, I was named dictator by the revolutionary legislature although Spanish power was still strong in the country. But, as always, revolution is not an easy thing. | File:Francisco De Miranda by Tovar Y Tovar.jpg. Digital image. Wikimedia Commons. 25 Jan. 2008. Web. 20 Nov. 2010. .

14: My army was not organized, and Spanish’s force was always formidable. I tried as hard as possible to fight Spanish, but we still suffered several defeats in battle. Something does not seem to be right, because the situation was getting worth. So I signed an armistice with Spain. Many patriot leaders, including Simon Bolívar, suspected my action bordered on treason. The royalists arrested me and sent me to prison in Cádiz, Spain, where I am staying now. | Mendez, Lourdes. Archivo De Etiquetas Para "especial-de-hoy" - Moonmentum Blog. Digital image. Moonmentum. 28 Mar. 2010. Web. 20 Nov. 2010. .

15: My name is Juan Jose Flores. I was born on July 19, 1800 in Venezuela. To tell the truth, I am an illegitimate son of a wealthy merchant. My childhood was pretty hard, my father left to Europe and I was left penniless. I worked in a Spanish military hospital and joined the army at the age of 14. | As you have read, I joined the Spanish army, so I actually fought against revolutionaries in Venezuela. Boy, I was crazy, I can’t understand why did i fight to my own country, that is just stupid. Luckily, I got captured by revolutionaries in 1817 and I finally changed my mind to fight for my country’s independence. After I contributed substantially to the crucial victory at Carabobo in 1821, I proved to Bolivar that I’m a valuable leader. Bolivar is a very smart guy who also tries to bring freedom into this land. I worked really hard, and I received rapid promotions, Bolivar promoted me to lieutenant colonel in 1821, and to general in 1826. | ENcontrARTE - Efemérides - 06 De Marzo : Revolución Civil En Ecuador. Digital image. ENcontrARTE - Revista Cultural Participativa #138 - Web. 20 Nov. 2010. .

16: Simon Bolivar created a country called Gran Colombia, which annexed Ecuador, Venezuela Colombia and couple more countries. We just finished our battle with Spanish, so we were pretty weak at that time. File:Gran Colombia Map.jpg. Digital image. Wikimedia Commons. Wikimedia Commons, 6 June 2008. Web. 20 Nov. 2010. . | File:Gran Colombia Map.jpg. Digital image. Wikimedia Commons. Wikimedia Commons, 6 June 2008. Web. 20 Nov. 2010. .

17: I don’t want to say i am disloyalty, but annexing these many countries together is a little too domineering. All of these countries fought for their liberty, oneshould not become the 2nd monarch of these country. Independence is what we fought for, not the power to rule over other country. So, i decided to help get Ecuador independent from Gran Colombia, just like many other parts of the Gran Colombia did. | That’s pretty much i want to tell you about. I could tell you how i become the president of Ecuador, and the troubles I've met in Ecuador. Anyhow, my life wasn’t so good in Ecuador. But, I’m still glad that my country, Venezuela, gained freedom. Though i couldn’t feel that in person, but i can image how happy people are.

18: What I wouldn't give to taste freedom. To really be free, not just physically but also mentally. Suddenly my vision is blurring and I am falling, I don't know if I am dead or just falling away from reality. I hear someone calling my name, at first they seem far away like they are a ghost or just the wind, but then they grow closer and the voice becomes louder and sterner. I feel something strike the back of my head and pain sears throughout my body. I bolt straight up coming out of my dream like stage. The aroma of bread and flour is overwhelming. My hazy vision becomes clear as the throbbing in my head lightens. | February 15, 1816 | Manuela Saenz | |

19: I can make out several stoves with women in black habits drudging over them. The front of my head has a state of tenderness as well as the back. I realize that I have forgotten to bake my loaf of bread. The only way to go to Sunday mass is to bake a loaf bread for the Sunday “feast.” In which only the nuns eat the food that we prepare. Today is probably the most important day and I need to go to mass. I realize that I am the only one still in the kitchen. All the other girls have gone to get ready for mass. I then get an excellent idea. I walk over to the giant rickety cabinet that holds all the baked bread and grab little Lucy’s loaf. I put in it in my slot and leave the kitchen. She will understand one day why I had to do it, she may not understand now while she is getting beaten by the spoon,but she will. I run upstairs to get ready, I am back downstairs before we have to leave, passing little Lucy’s stunned look as Sister Mary holds the huge wooden spoon in her right. I still hear her screams as we walk to mass. I steal a glance at the door and my heart almost stops. There he is, the person that will | give me my freedom, one way or another I am leaving tonight, and will not come back. | "If Bolivar is called the father of the homeland, we'll call you, the mother of the motherland, the mother of the revolution," |

20: October 24, 1819 I am married. Or at least have been married to the worst most possible man for two years. The nuns found out my plans with and expelled me from the convent. My father felt it was his “duty” to get me married off as soon as possible. He of course chose a man who is twice my age and smells of cigars and whiskey everyday. We have absolutely nothing in common.He does not love me and he knows I do not love him. He is never home and whenever he is I have to host social gatherings for political leaders and government officials. They do not know that I actually listen and that I actually understand what they are talking about. They always share military secrets about the ongoing revolution. This is where I first heard of Simon Bolivar. They were talking about how much they hated him and that they would do everything in their power to kill him. I asked what he had done and when they had finished telling their story I knew I was on Simon's side.I did not agree with what the men in my house were doing, especially not my husband. I can not sleep tonight. As soon as the door closed and the men left with their stupid opinions, I began to plan and began to prepare myself for one of the most important decisions of my life. This morning I got up and went to town. John is once again gone and I do not want to be trapped all day in the house. Once I got out of the carriage, chaos was erupting on the streets. People were yelling and screaming, | |

21: things were strung all over the roads. At first I thought something horrible had happened, but suddenly I heard his name. The name that had haunted my dreams since my husband talked about him. BOLIVAR, BOLIVAR, BOLIVAR!!!! people were chanting his name throughout the city making it seem to shake. When I arrived home that night I knew what to do. I am calling myself a spy. Every time my military officer or government officials come over and tell more secrets, I run upstairs afterward and write them down. I know I am betraying my husband, but what can I do, I am leaving tonight with my notebook and will never come back. I am going to find this Simon Bolivar and give him this book. I am finally back in Quito, my home town. I have missed it so much. And then I see him. Standing in the middle of a huge circle of people giving a speech. The words few words I catch seem to feel me up with something I have never known, a since of freedom. “Judgment comes from experience, and experience come from bad judgment.” When he is finished everyone erupts into screams and claps. They all want to touch him or have him shake their hands. Our eyes meet and abruptly my heart begins beating in my ears. Our eyes stay connected | for a split second more and then someone jumps in my view of him. I was so overwhelmed in his eyes that I hadn't realized that I had dropped my book. As I bend to retrieve it a hand reaches out and grabs it at the same time. Our hands meet and a bolt of electricity blares throughout my body. When I look up I get lost in his dark brown eyes. He has asked me something, but I don't know what it was. My ears don't seem to be working and I can't seem to talk. He touches my face and I realize I am in love with him. I have never talked to him, and only know stories about him, but I know I am in love. He takes my hand and leads me back toward a small house, one that men with guns seem to be flocking towards. I can finally function and I realize he is asking my name and what the book is. I tell him my name, Manuela Saenz, and I hand him the book. As he reads his eyes become wide and continue growing until he has closed the book. He doesn't speak for what seems like years, and then he turns and does the most unexpected thing. He kisses me, I don't me on the cheek or hand, I mean full on the lips. When we break apart I almost collapsed, if it wasn't for is hand on my waist I would have. He tells me he is leaving Quito tomorrow and before I even think I tell him I am going with him. |

22: August 6, 1824 Instead of ignoring me like the other men I have been with, Simon asks my opinion on military proceedings. I have become the official keeper of his personal archive, guarding his private papers and personally maintaining the secrecy of the army's military strategy. Tomorrow may be the end of our lives. I have already fought in two battles with Simon, the battle of Pichincha and the battle of Junin, where I was promoted to the rate of captain by Simon. But tomorrow is different. It will be much harder and many more will die. The smell of gun powder and blood fills the air as me and Simon run side by side to the nearest wall for cover. I fire three shots and in the distance I can almost hear a body drop. Simon is hit but not seriously, the only concern is the cold infected his arm. Suddenly the ground stops shaking and the shooting stops. We have won! In the distance the remaining soldiers are retreating and hopefully will never come back. General Sucre has promoted me to the rank of Colonel and Simon's second in command! Tonight there will be a huge celebration for we have won the battle of Ayacucho. | Liberator of the Liberator | |

23: November 20, 1856 It has been twenty six years since I saw Simon. He died in 1830 of tuberculosis. His skin was so white and his cough was so hoarse I could not bare to listen. His fever was so high and he was so skinny that it looked like he was literally melting away. The only thing I could do was sleep. As my vision became hazy and I shut my eyes. I entered my state of dream. No one would interrupt me or try to take Simon away from me. So I dreamed of the day I saved his life when Simon and I were in Bogata, in the San Carlos Palace, of all places. He had told me it was a treat for staying by his side all those years. It was time to take some time off and enjoy ourselves together. We had had the most romantic dinner and had made love. We were like one person as we slept. But suddenly I see a shadow. It was at the window, but now is at the foot of the door. I can't think, only react. I jump out of bed ripping the covers off of Simon instantly waking him up. I see three men with guns pointed right at at Simon. I suddenly realize that I have to do something. If I die the revolution can go on but if Simon dies it may not have enough to go on. I throw myself in front of Simon shielding him from the men, giving him enough time to escape through the window. | From that day on Simon started calling me the “liberator of the liberator.” But that was twenty years ago when I had Simon.When he died I didn't know what to do. His enemies had gained power in in Columbia and Ecuador so I was not welcome there. So I moved to Jamaica and translated letters to for sailors on whaling ships and sold tobacco and candy. I have had trouble breathing, a very sore throat, and have had this bark- like cough these past weeks. I know I am dying. And I am not scared. I will be able to see Simon again, but this time we will be free. No one will be able to take him away from me, and I will finally taste freedom. -Manuela Saenz died three days later of a diphtheria epidemic that swept throughout the area. Unfortunately, all of her possessions were burned, including all of the letters she had kept from Simon. |

24: I find myself writing this entry because there are plenty of things on my mind that are pushing me over the edge. I must admit that how our citizens have been acting lately is driving me insane. From chatter around the town and other officials, freedom has been a main topic amongst their fury. Honestly, I’m afraid that Francisco de Miranda will take over and make this his own issue. If that happens, we could be looking at war, which would be one of the worst possible solutions. | He has a lot of experience, therefore I should have more trust in his actions, but I honestly don't believe he is fit for what we're trying to accomplish. Simon Bolivar would be our main hope for success, but even with him there, I feel there is a slight chance we would come out with the conclusion we're hoping to reach. People talk about him being this "brilliant" or "tactical" leader, but I'm not convinced that he has what it takes to overthrow Spain. It enrages me that our own citizens think they can control us - the government - and they will be backed up by a knowledgeable figure. Everything is smooth as it is, and I just can't figure out why they'd want to make such an evident change.

25: Since the last time I wrote to you [over a year ago], things have incrementally gotten worse. As I last stated, I had a fear of de Miranda commencing a war, and it has happened. He took over as our president and was captured by the Spaniards. I knew he didn't have what it took to lead us to achieve victory, and look what happened... he's been sent to Cadiz to die in the depths of their prison. Considering he made an escape to Columbia, I hope he gets caught and killed. | That would pick my life up from these bitter thoughts. He's brought great misery into my life, causing me to lose my job. I just feel like I’ve been to hell and back. In a way, I needed a break, but this could be a never-ending break, and I don't like the thought of that. | As this war continues to bring me deeper and deeper into my depressing thoughts, I feel like my life is coming to a complete stop, and there's nothing left for me to do but sit here and dwell in my thoughts. Hopefully more opportunities will arise and I can get my life back on track. I feel like the last option I have is to revolt, and become what I once thought was the reason for all my hatred; a rebel.

26: Considering the time it's taken me to get back to writing, I've really had the time to think a lot of things through. Simon Bolivar no longer ticks me off. I've gained a lot of respect for the man. He really listened to what we say which proved me wrong in a sense. The war has ended successfully - we have conquered Spain. I've been brought back into the government, and once again as the head official.Previously due to the loss of my job, I was forced to become the owner of a plantation, and that was not what I had in mind. It made my life completely miserable, rendering life completely useless at the time. They even made me fight in the war of independence, but I was lucky enough to be pulled out early to represent our government.Things have gone completely opposite of what I thought... and thank the lord. I felt I'd never get my job back, and live a poor life, but that has totally changed. I'm now back in control and ready to make a positive influence on our people. I feel my thought process has come to an end, so for now, I'll be leaving on the positive note.

28: June 23 1821: This is the first time that i am writing in here, my name is Cristobal Gutierrez, i am a a rebel in the fight against Spanish control our leader is Simon Bolivar and tomorrow we will fight. I cannot wait to fight for my right to freedom against this cruel tyranny they call a government. My family is relying on me to win this war so i can come home a victorious fighter and not a sad broken man. There is a lot of talk in the camp tonight about the strong possibility of battle, men are writing to there families for wait they think is the last time.

29: But i am not to concerned we have a British legion with us that should give us they edge to win, whether or not I live is a different story but as long at the rebellion is a success my death is worth it.... | The battle was a success we destroyed there forces and crushed any hope of them winning this war! they have almost no soldiers left and there morale is gone. Tough this victory did come at a high cost for us too we lost most of our British legion troops because they took a hill that seemed impossible to us. But now we have there forces on the run, victory is in our grasps now. I cannot wait to see my family again to see my son

30: Juan run free in our farm land, oh and how i miss my wife Sarita. I must write them soon telling them of our great victory and how I was a part of it, they will be so proud of me. | 23 July 1823: We our stationed on a boat in the lake of Maracaibo, if we win this battle some our saying that it will be they end of this war. God i hope they are right i can not stand this war anymore. It has been 2 years since my last entry because i have been so busy and never motivated to right in this bloody diary. I haven't seen my family in so long, I miss them so much i want to go home and stop this fighting.

31: But soon I shall have my wish whether we win or lose I don't care anymore...The battle is over, it was much scarier then anything on land. cannonballs whizzing all around us, wood splinters flying everywhere the screams of men either dying from wounds or drowning in the sea. Tough it seems as if the war is done here is rumors that Spain has given up on the fight, there where many cheers around the camp at that, but most just | want to leave and go home. I received a letter from Sarita they other day, she writes about she misses me, and how Juan has been playing soldiers just like his father. This letter made me more sad then anything, i am so home sick I hope my wife doesn't leave me i am in a terrible state of mind, | struggle to understand wrong and right in this world now my dreams are full of dead people all the ones i have killed. I have a feeling every day is my last and that God will make me pay for all the people i have killed, how can i face my son when i have killed people his age...

32: I have returned home to a land raped by passing soldiers, my wife is pregnant and i am not the farther, tough i know she had did not cheat, she was raped by my fellow rebels. This still does not comfort | me i have returned home a broken victorious man, i struggle to find joy in this new government, it is as if we have swapped a foreign oppressive rule for a local oppressive rule. They say we have a new flag, yellow for our land wealth, blue for the sky and sea's,and red for the blood spilt in the revolution, i think the flag should just be all red. Juan wants to fight in a war, there are talks that this government wont last long and the way that Juan talks

33: I think they might be right. tough if there is another revolt i will not be a part of it i am to old and warn out for it, i just want to stay home and be with my Sarita and the new child who hopefully wont grow up and want to fight like our other. oh how depressing life has gotten

34: Dear Diary, A few years ago Manual Gual and Jose Maria Espana started to overthrow the Spanish rule and tried to start a republic. They started the republic and it is being completely ruled by Venezuelan creoles. And in 1810 we started a revolution! Simon Bolivar is helping us out and is trying to help us get our land back. During most of the fighting I’m just staying back and not doing much because I’m not sure what I should do. Most of the women are helping the people who are getting injured in the war or they are with the men loading the weapons but I just got involved with this revolution and I’m not sure what to do. But recently there have been earthquakes that are hurting the cities and people. There are a few other countries in Gran Columbia and the Venezuelan government is trying to join them to really establish a federal government but we are fighting against them so we can gain our independence and we can become our own country instead of part of Gran Colombia. | Emma Fichtner

35: Dear Diary, It has been a while since I wrote because I’ve been very busy. Lately I have been helping heal and take care of the wounded. Last time I mentioned that Venezuela was trying to join with other Gran Colombia countries and we did! But it seceded in 1829 so we became independent! But a while before that when we all thought Bolivar was helping us by getting us our land back he ended up losing it a year after he got it. But that isn’t important anymore. Because now we are in the middle of a federal war. It’s a civil war that is going on between Caudillos. Jose Tadeo Monagas overthrew the government in 1858 and no on wanted to deal without so a federal war broke out and now they need as many women as they can get to help out with people and with loading weapons. Hopefully this war will end soon and I’m hoping more won’t start after this. Since Jose Tadeo Monagas is a military dictator I very nervous about this war because he is very controlling and powerful. | Emma Fichtner | Graphs

36: Dear Diary, My name is Dinah Wigneron, I am a slave in Venezuela. I work at a wheat farm, along with many others such as me. I was unfortunately separated from my family when I was taken away. | But I have started a new life here in Venezuela, even though it is not a good life. Today is November 22, 1824. The war has been going on for a long time. It has been affecting me majorly, with food issues, work load, and the bad temper of my owner. The war, which many call the Revolutionary War, has been a major effect on my life. There have been many food issues. This is because my owner has decided to join the fight for Latin America’s independence. My owner has been off doing training, and planning with the lieutenant, | | Dinah Wigneron

37: Antonio de José Sucre and what i have heard is that he has gathered 6,000 men to fight at the battle of Ayacucho. Because my owner has been caught up in the battle of Ayacucho, he has not been able to supply us a supplement amount of food, and many of us here don't get to eat some nights. Dear Diary, I miss my family I miss my little children, my mother, my husband, and of course my brothers and sisters. Today is November 30, 1824. I have been asked a proposition. Many slaves, if they join the fight for the independence will be set free. I am not quite sure if I want to join. I am one of the better workers here, I live in the house, and I do have a better job then some workers. Sure there are some days when Owner is not in the best mood. But would I be willing to give up my life just to be free? The thing is, that i know what goes on during the war. And what that is, is guns. What if I get shot? I can't risk that. And i know nobody would help me if that was to happen. Owner was making a speech about it to some of us, he even let us hear the speech that Simon Bolivar

38: gave; "we find ourselves engaged in a dual conflict: we are disputing with the natives for titles of ownership, and at the same time we are struggling to maintain ourselves in the country that gave us birth against the opposition of the invaders. Thus our position is most extraordinary and complicated." I am not quite sure what i am to do. I find his speech very inspiring, i must sleep on it. Good night. Dear Diary, I am not sure what day it is today. I believe it is December 20, 1824. It's cold, and I can't feel my nose, and the pages are starting to curl because of the cold dry air, and my diary got wet on the way over. I am sorry to have leaft you off at a cliff hanger. I chose to join the revolution. I am not fighting for Venezuela, since it is not my home land. But I am fighting for my freedom. If i survive this, i will finally be free of my brutal services at the farm. Since I am a woman, i am not actually fighting, but I do tend to the men that have been wounded. There have been many men wounded and it terrifies me to |

39: death. I also make food for the fighting men, and gather the water when they are thirsty. Simon Bolivar better be right. He better lead us to win this battle. All I am trying to do is survive at this point. There have | been many ambush attacks. I am afraid. I must go, the men are hunger. Epilogue for Dinah: Dinah Wingerton later died that night, due to yet another ambush attack. She never got her freedom, but she fought for what was right. |

40: April 20th, 1810 Dear Diary, This is my first time writing in one of these things, and I thought it would be suitable now considering all the events that have been going on. As of right now, I am one of the wealthiest merchants in Caracus. I don’t really focus on work anymore because of all of this talk of revolution is distracting. It is quite aggravating that Spain has put all of these restrictions on us, and does not allow us to free trade, unlike continents under British rule. I’m personally undecided whether or not to help out. On one hand it would benefit me a great deal to be independent from Spain and lift these restrictions and taxes. If I helped out I would also be named a hero for Venezuela given my influence in this town. Yet, if we don’t gain independence it will be hard for years to come. Even if we do gain independence I am fearing the slaves would be freed which would be awful for business. If I think about it, I am not surprised we are pushing this. Our people have an incentive to win because they saw how the American and French got their independence in their revolutions. The American Revolution also showed that the under dog, like us, could win. With Napoleon striking fear in Europe, Spain probably isn’t even paying much attention to some small country when their homeland is at stake. I remember back four years ago when Francisco de Miranda tried to start a rebellion which was quickly repressed because of how few followers supported it. Now the up and coming war seems to be the center of attention, with many people in this town supporting it. I think the Enlightenment brought these ideas to influential people like Francisco de Miranda to start this war. I have thought similar thoughts knowing that my decision will have a major impact on the town.

41: As I am writing this, I start to think that we actually may be able to gain our independence. While I look out my bedroom window, I see people shouting and preparing for war, and for the first time in a while, hope is in their eyes. Simon Bolivar has been a major help towards this cause. He is the one who brought back Francisco de Miranda and is leading our fight for freedom. There has even been talk of Congress declaring us the “Republic of Venezuela.” The municipal council of this town led a successful movement just yesterday, to dispose Vicente Emparan. They keep pestering me to join the new Junta, which represents our independence. With my influence I could easily rally up others to support Simon’s cause. Considering the high tension between those who want to split and stay jointed to Spain, a Civil War may also erupt causing chaos. You know what I have decided? With all the glory I will have when we gain our independence, I am going to join the fight for our freedom. I know there will be much work to be done, but with persistence we shall succeed. -Martinez Escuevar | | Diary entry inspired by info from: "Simón Bolívar." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 30 Oct. 2010. "Venezuela” :: History -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia." Encyclopedia - Britannica Online Encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Oct. 2010. “Venezuela" World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 28 Oct. 2010.

42: August 7th, 1813 Dear Diary, After yesterday’s events I thought I needed to write in this old thing again. After much fighting I am uncertain who will win. We have had so many ups and downs. Truthfully, I am tired and sitting in my tent. My war gnarled hands don’t want to touch anything again. I can’t imagine what my troops outside feel like... As I predicted in my last entry, a civil war erupted in November, three years ago. Provinces like the Maracaibo and Guayana didn’t want to support our Junta and wanted to maintain loyalty to Spain. At first their lack of hope angered me, but now I somewhat admire their realism. War does things to a man’s hope, especially when he has everything to loose. Back when this was going on we tried to conquer these provinces yet they held us off. One thing we did do right was suppressing that uprising in Valencia two years ago. It showed our strength, and my men looked up to me then. The congress headed by dictator Francisco de Miranda declared our Independence on July, 5th 1811, a day to remember. We had to accomplish many steps in order to get this far. First we had to establish our Junta and congress. After that we declared our independence once we rallied our support. We as leaders, had such an influence on our people it was pretty easy to get their support on this. Change is needed. Yet, our biggest challenge on top of fighting for our territories is the government we are trying to establish. Our first Republic was established then and we had such high hopes. |

43: Shortly after this, the battles became aggravating. All of last year we had a hard time getting by with meager funds and the blockade the Spanish set up. Britain and America were able to get by it though. Even if they really didn’t help us, its nice to have a counter measure against Spain. It makes it feel like its not a two sided war. One of the worst things that happened was the infamous earthquake God had put upon us. On March 26th of last year, an earthquake hit our territory killing thousands who were fighting for their freedom. In these desperate times, Miranda was made the official dictator. Yet at the dreaded battle of San Mateo the Republic collapsed and Miranda signed an armistice which forced him to leave. The fall of the first Republic was a bitter disappointment. I doubted our cause. I’m sure we all did. But every downside has an upside as well. With Miranda gone, Bolivar stepped in declaring Venezuela a democracy. After our fighting efforts against enemies like Boves, we started to regain our strength. Just yesterday he told me of the reformation of the Republic. Cheer erupted throughout the rebel camps, showing the Spain that we don’t need their government. While this is exciting news, we all still feel a little saddened inside. War truly can bring out the worst in someone. I just don’t feel the zeal I used to for my luxurious lifestyle or being an important person in Venezuela. My home town is about to become a battle ground for Boves. I don’t think I can help command my troops to victory. It’s just too personal... -Martinez Escuevar | Diary entry inspired by info from: "A Time of Revolutions, 1776-1825." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 28 Oct. 2010. Reilly, Kevin. Worlds of History: A Comparative Reader Third Edition. 3rd ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2009. " Venezuela" World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 28 Oct. 2010. |

44: October 25th, 1823 Dear Diary, I thought now would be the best time to share my thoughts about this war. To sum it up, we won. We gained the independence that we have been longing for so long. I can’t even express my gratitude towards all who helped out. I am doing better than ever. My business is booming, and I am one of the most influential people now. All of my doubts from before have been forgotten and I am doing better than ever. Back in 1813 my home town fell to Boves, and with all the chaos the second republic fell even quicker than the first. The fall of my own town made it more personal than ever, and my incentive to fight completely changed when everything was truly on the line. Even with Boves dead, which seemed as though it would be a major victory for us, it was not the end of it. We still had a war to fight and territory to retake. With Bolivar commanding us, we set out to gather the remaining troops and prepare for the many battles that would lie ahead. We started to do this in 1815. Simon Bolivar’s “Letter From Jamaica” discussed his plan to liberate our fellow nations and to form the independent republic as the state of New Granada. Yet no one could predict what lay ahead for us. Boves’s trained army, the Llanero, was the biggest army ever sent here. With such a great number of enemy troops, we were forced to retreat as I watched my men die on the battlefield. Yet we couldn’t give up. When we were outnumbered we developed a counter strategy. Bolivar sided with Manuel Piar and Jose Antonio Piaz. Although even with this alliance we suffered failures to retake our central homeland, but we always provided great counter attacks against Spain, leaving us at an impasse. |

45: Four years later, we decided that we needed to make a move, so Bolivar embarked to take back New Granada. This glorious victory proved an excellent base for us against Morillo’s forces. After years of fighting we all wanted to end this as soon as possible. So in that year New Granada and Venezuela united as the Republic of Columbia to fight against the Spanish monarchy. This provided one of the first feelings in awhile. People laughed and drank to this new found alliance. People started to hail us leaders as heroes. But we all knew it wasn’t over just yet. In 1821, I was told to rally my troops at Carabobo. We had our reason for starting this war foremost in our my minds and fought hard. After a decisive victory and high morale, we made our decent to take back Cumana. After two years the fall of Puerto Cabello eventually led us to take back Cumana in October. They tried to reconquer us at the Battle of Lake Maracaibo but we showed our might and will to fight. We then were truly called “independent”. Our Independence set an example for many other surrounding countries. I am better off because of it and I hope others are too. I prospered financially from this war and was given the title of “Liberator”. It is clear that I am now in one of the highest positions Venezuela has. Right now I’m a little sad because I don’t want to leave my lavish lifestyle here and continue to fight for others. That is one thing that I admire about Bolivar helping free the other nations. Through all these defeats, came the biggest victory, independence. -Martinez Escuevar | Diary entry inspired by info from: (Primary document) "Simón Bolívar: "Letter from Jamaica" (1815)." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 29 Oct. 2010. "A Time of Revolutions, 1776-1825." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 28 Oct. 2010. |

46: 1810 Dear Consuela, My master is currently away. I am stuck here at the farm tending to the animals and keeping watch over the crops while he is gone commanding troops in the revolution against Spain. He doesn’t know that I can write and I took some stationary paper. I found an ink and feather and I am not sure whether this will be my last letter or not. I don’t know what this revolution has in store for me, who knows I might even be able to return to the family. All I know is this war is escalating. Francisco Miranda is leading our country into a revolution against the Spanish opposition, but of course you already know about it, you’re right in the middle of it. Right in the middle of this war torn country and I’m stuck here nestled away on these farm. Its awful, staying here, all of my life working to keep up everything another man owns, not being able to work at my life, at my animals, with my family. Sadly, that’s not how it works; I have to stay here until the master returns. Hopefully we will win this revolution and the master will relieve me. I hope, however this ends, that I can come home. I don’t think that Francisco will be able to do this. The Spanish are too organized, their army is too massive. They won’t give up our country easily. Francisco Miranda will lead a brave crusade, but I feel that we won’t be liberated this year, possibly in this decade. I’m tired, tired of all of this conflict, I just want to come home.

47: I want to come home to you, and the animals, and go back to the simple life we had. The master’s family has gone into hiding, if the Spanish caught them, they would be murdered or worse, if the connection was made between him and them. I want nothing more than the master return successful from this conquest for freedom. We need this, not just the country, but our family. We could be together again, and I could try to get the master to free me. Things could go back to the way they were, before Spain attacked our land and oppressed our freedom. Back to the days before, was sold into slavery. I know that we are the lowest class of our society, but we were happy. I hope we can go back to being happy, I miss that life, and I miss you. I know, deep down, that someday we will be free from oppressive tyranny, and we can go back to being a family. Life will be peaceful and we can return to our lives. The lives we had before our country tore them apart. Sincerely, Suave

48: 1812 Dear Consuela, Francisco Miranda could not complete the job, The Spanish royalists are advancing after earthquakes are crippling our patriot held cities, allowing the Spanish to rampage through the country. I fear that we won’t win this war. Things are looking bad, very bad, at this rate I might not be able to come home, I might not even survive if the troops come out to this remote countryside. The master has taken up the main revolutionary fronts and is now our new revolutionary leader. His name, Simon Bolivar, is now known throughout our country and it is a sign of hope for all revolutionaries hiding throughout the country. If they know that I am his slave, they will surely kill me. Our major strong holds are the cities held by our patriots, not the master, but his second in commands as well as his lower ranking officers. Those strongholds are starting to crumble because there are terrible earthquakes racking our cities. We cannot control them and they seem endless. It seems that god is favoring the Spanish forces in this lengthy time of oppression. With our fortresses and strongholds in various states of deterioration, the Spanish are easily able to break through and advance further into the country. The Spanish are as numerous as locusts and they plague our lands destroying everything in sight. Without our revolutionary held cities, there are now no main barriers to withstand against the rising flood of Spanish sweeping over Venezuela.

49: I fear that it is only a matter of time before they find me and when that day comes I will most likely be taken from this earth. Things are looking bad for the master and his troops, and the earthquakes are only crippling us even more. The lack of our fortresses and the sheer numbers of the Spanish forces have turned the tides in their favor. I will not be surprised if I hear that the master has been captured soon. With the way that the revolution is going, I am almost positive that our country will remain under the oppressive control of the Spanish. I don’t think I will be able to write another letter. If you do not hear from me soon just assume the worst and move on. There is nothing in false hope and you should move on with your life and find someplace safe. If you get out of the country I am sure you will be safe. Sincerely, Suave

50: 1821 Dear Consuela, I know that I haven’t written in a long time, you probably have thought I died. We are free, Simon Bolivar, the master, has finally liberated our country from the dreaded Spanish forces. This is the first time in 9 years that I have felt it has been safe enough to write. Master sends new that he is returning home, and I only hope they he will grant me my freedom. I know you are mad that I et you think I was dead, but it was for the best. I still can’t believe it. Freedom, how ironic is it that our country has just been liberated form oppressive forces of tyranny, yet its liberator is oppressing the freedom of one in his house. However, I am happy. You can return to the life you once had, peace will come back to our lands and you can live out your life and enjoy yourself, even if I am stuck here. I am so relieved to hear that this struggle is finally over. It has taken over 12 years for this day to come. And it is surreal to think that the Spanish forces are gone from our lands. It is just too much to process, I almost don’t believe it is true. This year will be remembered as one where we beat the odds. Where others thought it was impossible we persevered and pushed through the hardships. We were outnumbered, and outgunned. The resources of the Spanish were vast and far technologically surpassed that of our own. Yet, despite all of the opposition, we emerged victorious.

51: It is a relief to know that I don’t have to worry about troops storming the farm and murdering me, or worse, selling me into slavery again. Although I am still not free, you are, and that, to me, is just as good as being freed myself. No matter what happens when it comes to the master granting me freedom, you must enjoy yourself. Keep up the farm or at least rebuild form the destruction the Spanish wrought upon it. I will do whatever I can to return home to you. You must enjoy your freedom, because we have all paid dearly for it. The master’s courage and valor will make his name go down in history as one of the greatest revolutionaries ever, for that is how inconceivable our victory is. Remember what6 happened and tell it to the kids and their kids as well. Keep our history alive and never forget about me, or this revolution. I don’t know what the future will bring me, but after the veil of oppression has been lifted. I am optimistic that it will be bright. Sincerely, Suave

53: Dear Diary, Everything hasn’t been going to well lately. Even though The United States of Venezuela were created that did not do much to Venezuela. These states were created by Juan Falcon and little did we know that he was going to end up being a dictator. At the moment we, the people of Venezuela, have been going through tough times because of his dictatorship. For example, Ever since Falcon has come into power we have suffered from political instability and people have been getting very violent because they are unhappy with the way he is ruling our land and us. Many people have died in the wars and now they are dieing because of the awful dictator and his harsh rulings. Now the government officials and other important people are fighting over the Venezuelan boundaries. But I have a bad feeling that some of our territory is going to be lost. | Emma Fichtner

58: Epilogue | Perhaps the most outstanding achievement of the Bolivarian Revolution has been the reduction of extreme poverty, which fell from 42% in 1998 to 9.5% in 2008, and general poverty, from 50.5% to 33.4% | . |

59: Population Growth

63: Graphs

64: The majority of Colombians speak Spanish, the country's official language. Most indigenous ethnic groups have their own languages. Among 80 groups, 40 languages are spoken. Dialects spoken by some black groups reflect their African roots. Many people from the San Andrés and Providencia islands in the Caribbean speak Creole. Ethnic languages and dialects share official status with Spanish in certain areas, where formal education must be bilingual. | Language |

65: Primary education is compulsory and is free in public schools; many schools are private. Colombia's literacy rate has risen substantially as the number of rural schools increased; unfortunately, the literacy rate remains much lower among the indigenous and black populations. Approximately 75 percent of all students complete primary education (five years) and continue to the secondary level (six years). Secondary schools are found in most municipalities and offer either technical or academic tracks; many are private. Vocational schools and universities are located in major cities. Bogotá has 15 major universities. Scholarly achievement has been important throughout Colombia's history. | | Education

66: Venezuela does not recognize an official caste system although it does participate in a strongly defined class structure that is not without its strong caste implications. The class system places most of the political and economic power in the hands of a very small group (less than 10 percent of the population). The elite is composed of the traditional white population; this also provides white (European) immigrants greater opportunity for participating in Venezuela's economic wealth. Meanwhile this color/racial division is most dramatically felt by Latin American immigrants of African and Indian ancestry, who are forced to form the lowest ranks of Venezuelan society. | Government |

67: Capital: Caracas Current Time: 9:06 AM Latitude: 10.30 Longitude: -66.56 Population: 27,223,228 (rank=45) Area, sq. mi.: 352,143 (rank=33) Area, sq. km.: 912,050 Human Dev. Index rank: 58 of 182 countries Adjusted for women: 55 of 155 countries Real GDP per capita: $12,156 Adult literacy rate: 95% (male); 95% (female) Infant mortality rate: 22 per 1,000 births Life expectancy: 71 (male); 77 (female) Currency: Bolívar | | Conclusion

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