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Vietnam War

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BC: By: Paige McGaffick Period 7 Mrs. Smith

FC: Vietnam War Chapter 22 | By: Paige McGaffick

2: The Vietnam War was the longest military battle in the history of the United States. It lasted from 1959 to April 30,1975. The Vietnam War was also referred to as the Second Indochina War. It was fought between the communist North Vietnam and the US supported South Vietnam. Over 1.4 million military personnel and an estimated 2 million civilians were killed in the war. The war ended with the defeat of South Vietnam. Ultimately Vietnam was unified.

3: Richard Nixon | Hubert Humphrey | The 36th president of the United States. No president yet has "lost" a war, and he did not want to be the first. So by the end of his presidency, Johnson had announced that he will not be reelecting, | He was a candidate in the 1968 election, and won. He was the first president to officially announce that troops would be withdrawn. | He was a candidate in the 1968 election, and had lost. | LBJ

4: Ngo Dinh Diem | He was a strong anti-communist. He refused to take part of country election in 1956. He did not believe in distributing land to peasants. | PEOPLE

5: William Westmoreland | Ho Chi Minh | George Wallace | He was an American commander in South Vietnam. He was the one to bring more U.S. troops into Vietnam to finish the war. | He directed a brutal and repressive regime. Still won popular support in the North because he believed in breaking up large estates and giving them to peasants. | He was a candidate in the 1968 election, he ran as an independent. Unfortunately he had lost to Nixon by a landslide,

6: Vietcong | Vietcong was a shortened version of the Vietnamese Communists and also known as National Liberation Front (NLF), was a political organization and army in South Vietnam and Cambodia that fought the United States and South Vietnamese governments during the Vietnam War. Though all Viet Minh military forces in the South had be transferred to the North under the Geneva Accords, the political apparatus and organizational framework were inherited by the Vietcong.

7: Vietminh | Founded by Ho Chi Minh in 1941 in North Vietnam. The Vietminh had brought together the communists and the nationalists. Though controlled by the Communist party, the Viet Minh portrayed itself as patriotic, anti-foreign movement. Membership was open to anyone willing to join in the struggle for national liberation and the Communist leadership was played down.

8: Geneva Accords | In 1954, the Viet Minh forces took over North Vietnam according to the Geneva Accord. Nearly one million North Vietnamese fled to South Vietnam. North Vietnam's capital was Hanoi. South Vietnam's capital was Saigon. The leader of North Vietnam was Ho Chi Minh. Ngo Dinh Diem was the president of South Vietnam, who refused to hold elections. The United States refused to sign the Geneva agreement. Most Vietnamese followed the Buddhist religion.

9: Resolution by the U.S. Congress authorizing President Lyndon B. Johnson to use anything necessary to force armed attacks against U.S. forces in Vietnam. It was drafted in response to the shooting of two U.S. navy ships by North Vietnam in the Gulf of Tonkin. | Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

10: Ho Chi Minh Trail. | The Ho Chi Minh Trail was a complex web of different jungle paths that enabled communist troops to travel from North Vietnam to areas close to Saigon. Many times the U.S. had tried to destroy but the Vietnamese would either go around it or rebuild it. The trail was the what kept the Vietnamese so strong through out the war.

11: The Doves on the otherhand, wanted the opposite and wanted the troops to be withdrawn and settle the war with peace. | During the Vietnam War, America was split in half (not literally of course). One side was called the Hawks and they were the side that wanted to increase military force and send more troops into Vietnam to win the war.

12: "Silent Majority" Nixon had named these certain Americans because they were known as moderate people. They were people quietly supported the U.S. efforts in Vietnam. | Vietnamization This was a plan Nixon had made to keep the South Vietnam intact and make peace with Vietnam. Also he was planning to gradually take out troops from the war. In 1969 Nixon had brought home 25,000 U.S. troops. | Richard Nixon

13: During the 1968 U.S. presidential campaign, candidate Richard Nixon ran with a platform that promised "peace with honor" for the Vietnam War. Longing for an honorable end to the war, Americans voted Nixon into office and then watched and waited for Nixon to fulfill his campaign promise. Until the end of April 1970, Nixon seemed to be doing just that. However, on April 30, 1970, President Nixon announced during a televised speech to the nation that American forces had invaded Cambodia. All the doves that supported Nixon felt betrayed and forgotten, and that no president was going to keep his promise. So they had rioted and the National Guard had gotten involved, everything went downhill from there. | KENT STATE MASSACRE

14: Pentagon Papers | The 7,000 page document, written for Defense Secretary Robert McNamara in 1967-1968, revealing to many that the government had drawn up plans to enter th war even as President Johnson promised he would not send anymore troops to Vietnam.

15: The papers showed that there was never any plan to end the war as long as the North Vietnamese persisted. Showed many that the intentions of the war were never honest on their beliefs. The document had stated while not actually damaging the Nixon administration, yet supported what the opponents of the war had been saying.

16: 1 | 9 | MLK Jr. | JFK | April 4, 1968- MLK Jr. was assassinated. June 4, 1968 JFK was assassinated. | Democratic National Convention In Chicago in August of 1968 demonstrators converged to protest at the Democratic National Convention. The convention featured a bloody riot between protester's and police.

17: 6 | 8 | Vietnam wanted a one week truce for their holiday of New Year's Eve to bury their dead. In the end it ended up being a surprise attack on the U.S. where the Vietnamese had held guns in coffins. Gave a bad outlook on LBJ who had thought the Vietnamese were slowly giving up, until TET. Most all public changed their outlook on the war, most aren't supporting anymore. | TET

18: Credibility | "Credibility gap" was originally used in association with the Vietnam War in the New York Herald Tribune in March 1965, to describe then-president Lyndon Johnson's handling of the escalation of American involvement in the war. Many events—particularly the surprise Tet Offensive, and later the 1971 release of the Pentagon Papers, helped to confirm public suspicion that there was a significant "gap" between the administration's declarations of controlled military and political resolution, and the reality.

19: Gap

20: On April 29, 1975, America withdrew completely from Saigon, leaving the old non-communist capital to fall to North Vietnamese tanks. Many decided to leave knowing the North was going to run the South. As of stating the "bad guys", when the U.S. would leave, would end up taking over Vietnam. Many wanted to leave, but the U.S. could only take so much, and so many trips.

21: Saigon

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