FC: By: Austin and Matthew | Volcanoes!!!
1: Table of Contents | How Volcanoes are Formed, Pg 2-3 Types of Volcanoes 4-5 Volcano Facts, Pg 6 Positive Effects, Pg 7-8 Mt. St. Helens, Pg 9-10 Sources, Pg 11 Volcano Pictures 12-14 | 1
2: How Volcanoes Are Made | The earth is made up of three layers. The three layers are the crust, mantle, and core. Earth's crust is broken into pieces called plates. Volcanoes form when there is a crack in the earth's crust. It is located between the plates or in the middle of the plates. One way they are formed is when plates break and causes a rift zone. Another way is when the plates bump each other forming a seduction zone. | 2
3: When a crack in a zone lets magma through the crust it is called a volcanic eruption. When magma reaches the surface it is called lava. Erupting volcanoes are beautiful sights and the lava looks like wax dripping from a candle. | 3
4: Composite volcanoes are steep-sided volcanoes composed of many layers of volcanic rocks, usually made from high-viscosity lava, ash and rock debris. Mt. Rainier and Mount St. Helens are examples of this type of volcano. Shield volcanoes are volcanoes shaped like a bowl or shield in the middle with long gentle slopes made by basaltic lava flows. Basalt lava flows from these volcanoes are called flood basalts. The volcanoes that formed the basalt of the Columbia Plateau were shield volcanoes. | Types of Volcanoes | 4
5: 5 | Cinder cones are circular or oval cones made up of small fragments of lava from a single vent that have been blown into the air, cooled and fallen around the vent. Lava Volcanoes are formed when erupting lava is too thick to flow and makes a steep-sided mound as the lava piles up near the volcanic vent. The eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980 was caused in part by a lava dome shifting to allow explosive gas and steam to escape from inside the mountain.
6: ~St. Pierre was crowded with people then blew up, no one was left. St. Pierre is located by the Caribbean Sea. ~Dormant volcano means resting. ~Krakatoa killed 40,000 people in 1883. Hot rock collects in weak point, the chamber. ~Mount Fuji is one of the volcanoes in the ring of fire. | Volcano Facts | 6
7: Positive Effects | 7 | Volcanoes cause great harm, but can also bring good effects. They bring gemstones, precious metals, and etc. One of the gemstones is a diamond. One of the metals is gold. The diamonds come because of the heat and pressure. The volcanoes make obsidian. Obsidian is made from rapidly cooling lava/magma. People have made obsidian tools. | ^ | Obsidian Knife | ^ | Snowflake Obsidian | Obsidian ->
8: 8 | Places like Iceland use lava for geothermal energy. The volcanoes will throw rocks out of it at high speeds. These are called Volcanic Bombs. The ash that comes out of the volcano is really good fertilizer. As you can see volcanoes can bring really good effects even though it causes some great harm! | ^ | Volcanic Bomb
9: Mt. St. Helens | St. Helens was a very dangerous volcano in Washington, but people did not fear it. St. Helens had fallen asleep in 1857, and slept for 123 years. St. Helens erupted on May 18, 1980 at 8:32 am. St. Helens continued to erupt into late April. St. Helens now has a crater made from the explosions; because of this the mountain top is 1200 feet lower. The explosions were caused by gas trapped in the molten rock. Rock would travel up to 200 miles an hour and the rocks were as big as cars. These are called volcanic bombs. | 9
10: Mt. St. Helens Erupting | 10
11: Sources | http://geology.com/rocks/obsidian.shtml Person, Stephen Devastated by a Volcano Jen Green Volcanoes Hooker, Merrilee Volcano:the eruption and healing of Mount St. Helens Vincent Bunce Volcanoes Patricia Lauber Volcanoes Michelle Ingber Drohan Volcanoes http://www.weatherwizkids.com/weather-volcano.htm | 11