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Waves of Feminism

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S: Wave of Feminism

FC: Women's Fights for Their Rights | "Learn from yesterday, live for today, hope for tomorrow. The important thing is not to stop questioning." -Albert Einstein | WAVES of FEMINISM

1: As the human settled and established the civilizations, the human made differences by the classes, the races and the genders, which became more visual and worsened over eras. For example, women became the symbol of evil and wickedness because of the misinterpretation of "Eve" from the Bible, which led women to resemble the wicked side of "witches" and evil. Out of all inequalities, the inequality between the genders was unrecognized the most. To be recognized as a mother or an equal authority not only in the house but also in the society, women fought for their rights by themselves.

2: "Men - their rights and nothing more; Women - their rights and nothing less." -.Susan B. Anthony | Feminism ([fem-uh-niz-uhm]: 1. The doctrine advocating social, political, and all other rights of women equal to those of men. 2.(sometimes initial capital letter) an organized movement for the attainment of such rights for women. | Elizabeth C. Stanton & Susan B. Anthony

3: Lucretia Mott & Lucy Stone (Left to Right) | The first outburst of a desire for equality between men and women became apparent, when Elizabeth C. Stanton and Susan B. Anthony delivered speeches during Seneca Fall Convention in 1868. The prominent leaders of the movements were Elizabeth Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Lucretia Mott and Lucy Stone whom were abolitionists. The rights that they cared of were the official rights, de jure, such as the suffrages, the property rights and the

4: custody rights. Carrie Chapman Catt followed the movement after the prominent leaders. Then, Alice Paul and Lucy Burns, the suffragists who used militant tactics in order to acquire the right to vote and founded National Women's Party (NWP). As the World War I broke, they hardened their militant tactics which led them to acquire their desires. However, After the Congress passed the nineteenth Amendment giving women right to vote in 1919, there was not evident movement for the women's rights until 1960s and 1970s.

5: Alice Paul | Lucy Burns | Carrie Chapman Catt | NWSA | ASWA | NWP

6: (image: Betty Friedan) The Second-Outburst of Feminism movement roared in 1960s and 1970s, which sparked from "The Feminine Mystique," written by Betty Friedan in 1963. Betty Friedan was a Feminism activist who not only an author of women's movement but also a president of National Organization for Woman (NOW) which founded in 1966 After the Second Feminism movement during 1960s and 1970s, the first Feminism movement during 19th century and

7: early 20th century called as "the First-Wave Feminism," and then the second movement called as The Second-Wave Feminism. The Second-WaveFeminism movement had simultaneously experienced great successes and backlash. (Aronson 905) | Images: Betty Friedan & Other founders of NOW

8: Some were Successive, "including the maintenance of movement organizations, as well as a 'broadly institutionalized and effective interest group,' with an institutional base | in academia, particularly women's studies programs" (Aronson 905). For example, the activities of NOW were superior and effective through the marches and speeches.

10: However, there were some back;ashes:, and they were "evident in a decline in grassroots mobilization and negative public discourse by anti-feminist organizations and media figures" (Anderson 905). One of the most controversial topics | of the movement were a birth control pill and an abortion. It challenged a religious law, as Christians considered

11: "having intercourse for the sake of the pleasure as a sin" (Baruch college). The Second-Wave Feminism known as the feminist movement for de facto rights

12: "No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in ,be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance..." -Title 20 U.S.C. Sections 1681-1688

13: or unofficial rights such as an abortion law, birth control law or a rape law. Yet, still there was a step for an official right which was neglected from the first wave-feminism. Pasty Mink wrote the title IX, which stated that the education should be provided without the discrimination by sexes. | (top to bottom) Rosa Park & Pasty Mink

14: The Bra Burning was the action of Liberation not only from the limitation of the physical features but also mental and political aspects. However, the bra burning in 1960s was just a myth as Susan Brownmiller said: | Women during the 1960s and 1970s accomplished in gaining numerous rights, and there was a myth about burning a bra.

15: Our Ancestors | American Feminine Susan Brownmiller | "That's a myth. It was the time of draft-card burning, and some smart headline writer decided to call it a 'bra burning' because it sounded insulting to the then-new women's movement. We only threw a bra symbolically in a trash can." -Susan Brownmiller

16: The Feminism movement changed over time, as the First-Wave feminism's focus was on the official rights such as the suffrage, the property rights and the custody rights, then the Second-Wave feminism's focus shifted to the unofficial rights such as abortion, birth control, or wages. (Thompson and Walker 848) To earn what the people desire, they should earn it by themselves. Our mothers did in order to be respected as a same human and a mother in the family. Thank you to all mothers who had been through the oppression and paved the way to liberation and equality for the daughters.

18: Citation - Images: First-Wave Feminism: ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (

19: Second-Wave Feminism: civil rights act of 1966 ( Pasty Mink: 2004-06-09 19:46 Gerald Farinas 3123788 (82307 bytes) Congressional photograph of late Congresswoman Patsy Takemoto Mink {{PD-USGov}} Bra Burning (http:// NOW: ( ( ( ( ( ( ( "PILL": ( ( ( (

20: Citation - Resources: First-Wave Feminism: Susan B Anthony's Quote ( Albert Einstein's Quote ( First-Wave Feminism (,_2nd,_3rd_wave.htm) (

21: Second-Wave Feminism: Bra Burning ( Feminists or "Postfeminists"?: Young Women's Attitudes toward Feminism and Gender Relations Pamela Aronson Gender and Society , Vol. 17, No. 6 (Dec., 2003), pp. 903-922 Published by: Sage Publications, Inc. Article Stable URL: Title IX ( Birth Control Movement ( The Place of Feminism in Family Studies Linda Thompson and Alexis J. Walker Journal of Marriage and Family , Vol. 57, No. 4 (Nov., 1995), pp. 847-865 Published by: National Council on Family Relations Article Stable URL:

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