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WC Final- Sierra leone

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S: Sierra Leone


1: Flag:Adopted on April 27, 1961 when Sierra Leone gained independence from Britain.The flag contains three equal sized horizontal stripes. The blue stripe represents the harbor at Freetown (the capital and one of the best ports in Africa). It also represents the Atlantic Ocean (Sierra Leone is located on the coast of the Atlantic). Green represents farming (the country's natural wealth and its mountains), and white represents unity and justice. The tricolor of the flag is derived from the coat of arms, which was granted in 1960.

2: "National Flag of Sierra Leone." Sierra Leone Flag. Web. 16 Apr. 2012.

3: I think they choose the flag because since the Sierra Leone independence, both the people and military governments have faced serious issues in their attempts to promote a good economy. They want to unite the different ethnic groups that live in Sierra Leone.

4: language: Even though English is the official language of Sierra Leone, it is only used regularly by a small amount of people who have learned it. Krio is the first language for 10% of the population but 95% can understand it. Krio is an English based creole- a language that was spoken by the descendants of freed Jamaican slaves who settled in Freetown. The major tribes are Mende, Temne, and Krio. Smaller groups include the Limba, Fula, Kissi, Mandingo, Loko, and Kono. Sierra Leone does not have a special alphabet. The main way of communication is using the Krio language. I think it's amazing how different ethnic groups can unite with just one single language. It shows that Krio is an important language no matter what tribe you belong to.

5: Afternoon= santem, bar= ba, beard= biabia, bargain= bagin, be careful= tek tem, braids= plant, car=motoka, child= pikin, door= domot, drunk= chak, dustbin/trash can= doti boks, ear= yes, enough= I du so, excuse me= komot na rod, friend= padi, girl= titi, goodbye= a de go, happy= gladi, head tie/band= enkincha, hello= kushe.

6: Dress: men and boys usually wear Western-style clothing. Rural women wear lappas (two yards of ankle-length cloth tied around the waist and topped with an African or Western blouse). Women's heads are often covered, wrapped with fabric that matches the lappa. Urban women may wear trousers or skirts. Outside of urban areas, shorts are rarely worn by anyone except young boys. There have been a growing number of teenage girls who wear shorts. Young Urban professionals typically wear Western clothing in addition to more traditional attire. For example, a young man may wear a Western-style suit one day and a traditional kaftan (a long-sleeved shift that extends past the knee) the next. Maintaining good appearance is a priority regardless of the weather or a person’s wealth. On special occasions people wear traditional clothing that is often mad from gara (locally dyed cotton brocade) and batik (fabric printed by coating the areas not to be dyed with wax). Over a lappa, women wear matching long gowns made from gara. Men wear gara shirts with matching trousers. Planting, fancy embroidery in a contrasting color is around the shirt collar and pant cuffs.

7: | | | I think the way they dress is important because they get to make their own clothing and express themselves.

8: Food: Locally grown crops, such as cassava and sweet potatoes, are supplemented by imported goods, such as tea, sugar, salt, and canned goods. The stable foods are rice and cassava. Rice is eaten with plassas (sauce/soup) most commonly made from pounded cassava leaves, palm oil, and chili peppers. Other important foods include groundnuts, beans, fish, chicken, goat, small bush animals such as ground pigs, miniature deer, and an abundance of seasonal tropical fruit (bananas, pineapples, oranges, mangoes, and coconuts). The Fulas who live in Sierra Leone herd cattle and the Krios eat fufu (a cassava paste).Restaurants are generally found in cities. Roadside vendors sell foods such as bread and margarine, grilled meat and fish, fried potatoes and plantains, fruit and roasted nuts. Meals tend to be unbalanced when the price of fish, beans, or groundnuts is high. I think malnutrition is widespread among children because they receive the smallest portions of protein-rich foods (eggs and meat) so it's really nice for them to get help from oversees.

9: | | | | Cooking is done in a pot balanced on top of three stones, between which a small fire is built. | A midday snack is followed by a large meal in the afternoon; leftovers are put aside for breakfast the next day.

10: Music- Portuguese sailors brought the first guitars to Sierra Leone. The local people used the guitars for Palm wine music, or Maringa. Maringa blended with funk, soul, and Congolese dance music. In the ‘50s and ‘60s Ebenezer calendar recorded popular Maringa songs and hits in an older style people called goom- bay (gumbe). Goom- bay led to a form of street music called milo-jazz, which was named after the chocolate powder can that (when filled with water), became the style’s signature percussion instrument. Olofemi (Doctor Oloh) Israel Cole and his Milo-Jazz Band gave this music its start. During the 1970’s, Sierra Leone was part of the electric Afropop explosion that was sweeping Africa. When the recording industry’s fell apart due to the civil war, ambitious and talented artists like S.E. Rogie went to England to make their careers. The most successful electric artist of the ‘80s and ‘90s was vocalists, guitarists, and percussionist Abdul Tee- Jay who blends palm wine and Congo music from his base in London. A few traditional artists are still working today in Freetown, including Ngoh Gbetuwai and Great Steady Bongo.

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12: Young musicians are using music and lyrics to express their frustration with their society and government. The wars and civil conflicts has resulted in a decrease in the presence of the traditional music artists.The internet and spread of culture has encouraged the youth to express themselves through new styles of music. I think that music is important to Sierra Leone because many songs have political and social themes in them and they play a role in informing the populace and checking politicians of the changes needed in Sierra Leone.

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14: Michaela De Prince

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16: Michaela's story: 17- year old Ballet dancer at the American Ballet Theater.She was born in Sierra Leone during the war. Her mother starved to death because her husband was shot when he was out trading. She was brought to an orphanage by her uncle. People called her the "Devils child" because she had vitalago ( a loss of color pigment in the skin) and she was the least favorite child in the orphanage. Elaine DePrince and her husband adopted two little girls from Sierra Leone; Michaela was one of them. When she first arrived in the U.S., she was a very sick child. She had mono and hepatitis A from malnutrition. When she recovered from her illness, all she wanted to do was dance. She was enrolled in dance class at a very young age. She was offered a scholarship at the American Ballet Theater two years ago and has been dancing there since. She is one of the leading world class ballerinas.

17: I think no matter where you come from and what you've been through, having a loving family and support is all you need to achieve your goals. -Michaela De Prince |

18: History: 1- Portuguese explored the coast in 1462 and named it Serra Lyoa (“Lion Range” or “Lion Mountain”) for the roar of waves crashing into the steep peninsular mountains. 2-In 1896, Britain proclaimed a protectorate over Sierra Leone. During this colonial rule, the country was influenced by trade and missionary education. 3- In 1961, Independence was gained from Britain and Sir Milton Margai became the first prime minister.

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20: 4- In 1967, Siaka Stevens was elected prime minister and became the first president following the constitutional changes in 1971. All political parties other than Steven’s All People’s Congress (APC) were banned in 1978 and Steven’s ruled a one-party state until he retired in 1985. 5- In 1991, a war between the government and the Revolutionary United Front (RUF), a violent group associated with warring Liberian factions, began. 6- In January 1996, Brigadier Julius Maada Bio scheduled peace talks with the RUF and held multiparty elections in February after taking power through a deposing the president.

21: The war devastated the economy, killed more than 10,000 people, and left thousands of others homeless and starving. Some believe that the war was started because the opposition to APC rule was very high. | |

22: 7- Ahmad Tejan Kabbah was elected president and signed a peace pact with the RUF in November but the fighting resumed in March 1997. Kabbah relied on a civilian militia known as kamajors to help the army fight the RUF. In May 1997, the army violently forced the president from power because they were insulted by what Kabbah had done and they blamed Kabbah for the collapse of peace. Coup leader Jonny Paul Koromah declared himself head of state. RUF rebels then joined his forces. They looted Freetown, killing hundreds of civilians. 8- In July 1999, a peace agreement granting the RUF positions in a transitional government was signed. RUF leader Foday Sankoh became vice president to Kabbah. The fighting subsided but the RUF refused to give up the country’s valuable diamond mines. They smuggled millions of dollars of diamonds to finance the war which violated the peace treaty.

23: 9-Sankoh refused to cooperate with the United Nations when they asked him to disarm his group in 2000. The RUF had begun killing and looting again, even capturing 500 UN peace keepers and holding them hostage by May. Sankoh was eventually captured and the RUF went on the offensive by overrunning the government and UN positions and shattering the peace. | |

24: 10- In March 2001, The RUF announced that they would give UN peace keepers access to its controlled territory if new elections were scheduled. The UN agreed and peace was formally declared in January 2002. In the May elections, voters reelected Kabbah to another presidential term. Opposition leader Earnest Bai Koroma succeeded him as president in the September 2007 elections.

25: My thoughts: Throughout his presidency, President Koroma has faced many challenges as he tries to help Sierra Leone overcome the devastation caused by years of civil war. Sierra Leone remains one of the least developed countries in the world.

26: Religion: 60percent Muslims, 10percent Christian, 30percent traditional beliefs. Most Muslims belong to the Sunni Branch of Islam. Christianity was brought to Sierra Leone by European colonists and returning salves. It gained members through missionary schools. Most people believe in a supreme being. Others who are converts to a formal religion believe in animism and how it plays a role in their daily lives. The older people of Sierra Leone believe the in natural herbs to cure illnesses of the body. Participation in secret societies is very high even with Christians and Muslims. Most people participate in the secret Bondo society where they dance, initiate new members, and share lessons on Womanhood.

27: | | I think religion influences the culture of Sierra Leone because Sierra Leoneans of different faiths live in harmony because they are willing to accept various beliefs as part of an eclectic approach to religion.

28: currency: The currency is the Leone (SLL). It is sometimes referred to in pounds. One pound equals two Leones. One SLL equals 0.000231 U.S. dollars. You will need 5000 SLL’s to equal 1 U.S. dollar. 1 US dollar equals 4330.00 SLL. The currency reflects Sierra Leone because it has the colors of the Sierra Leonean flag on it. It shows that the government and people are loyal to their country.

29: | | The Leone is a reflection of the culture because it includes the colors of the Sierra Leonean flag. That shows that the people are proud of their country and they want to show it as much as they can so they put it on their money.

30: Labor Force is 2.207 million. 70 percent of the population is below the poverty line. The inflation rate is 18 percent. | | | | | | |

31: Economics: I don't think Sierra Leone has a strong economy because Sierra Leone is an extremely poor nation even though it has substantial mineral, agriculture, and fishery resources. It's physical and social development is still recovering from the civil war. Nearly half of the working age works in subsistence agriculture. Manufacturing is mainly the processing of raw materials. Alluvial diamond mining remains the major source of hard earnings which accounts for nearly half of Sierra Leone's exports. The fate of the economy depends on the maintenance of domestic peace and the continued support of substantial aid from abroad.

32: | | I think that Sierra Leone has a strong government because President Ernest Koroma understands Sierra Leone's past and he has hope for Sierra Leone.

33: Government: Sierra Leone is a constitutional democracy. Voters directly elect the president, who is allowed to serve a maximum of two five-year terms. The legislative branch consists of the House of Representatives. Of its 124 members, 112 are elected to five-year terms. The remaining 12 seats are reserved for elected paramount chiefs. The voting age is 18. The president (currently Ernest Bai Koroma) is head of state and government. The British government controlled Sierra Leone until 1961 when the country gained independence. Sir Milton Margai became prime minister after that.

34: Arts: Disco dances that last until dawn accompany special events, even in towns with no electricity, where a generator and sound system are rented for the occasion. Strangers are not allowed to attend certain secret society events where traditional performances take place because traditional music, dance, and theater events play important symbolic roles in the lives of the people, especially those who live outside of the capital. Folk artists produce leather work, wooden carvings of animal and human figures, and pottery and detailed designs. The gara cloth is a popular handicraft. Artists apply wax design to a fabric, place the fabric in a dye bath, and remove the wax to reveal the pattern. Garas are used for clothing, wall hangings, tablecloths, and other purposes. I think art is important because it gives the different tribes ways to express themselves.

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36: Family Life: Extended families are treated as nuclear families. Aunts may be addressed (and obeyed) as mother and cousins are called brother or sister. Three to five generations may live together. It allows care for both the young and the old while the able-bodies work. If there is more than one wife in the family, the wives share daily tasks and take care of the children. The average woman gives birth to five children during her life time. Families are smaller among certain groups like the Krios. A childless woman may be loaned a child to raise as one who will care for her in her old age. Sometimes in exchange for help with household chores, a child may also be shared with a wealthy person or relative who will educate and provide for him or her.

37: In urban cities, many people live in nuclear families. Marriage indicates that a man is financially stable enough to support a wife. Unmarried couples without incomes are supported by their parents or married siblings. Women generally take care of the chores (laundry, fetching water and firewood, working in the market and garden, and raising children) while men hunt, clear land, and do farm work. |

38: Girls are generally expected to help their mothers with the household chores while boys helped their fathers with electronics, construction, and farming. Men may help with the raising of the children but with a lesser extent than women. Their tradition states that men are considered superior and more capable in most areas than women. Families are expected to provide for children until the age of 18 or when they graduate from higher education. Poor families are only expected to provide shelter and one meal a day. When roles were set, men viewed doing household chores as demeaning and since women weren't really a big part of community and the government, that tradition still lives on. People who work are generally traders at the marketplace.

39: Women now hold several positions in parliament and numerous positions within government agencies. Education and literacy rates are rising and more women own more independent businesses. Although women now have opportunities, they still fall behind men in terms of literacy, education, and government involvement. I think the roles in the family unit are very important because the people of Sierra Leone want their children to grow up with respect. The roles help control the family unit. | |

40: Architecture- Middle and upper class live in houses made of cement blocks, roofs consisting of corrugated metal sheeting and tiled or paved cement floors. Homes are often painted. The sitting room is the main room, which is decorated with comfortable chairs and sofas and a low table for serving refreshments. Others rooms include three or more bedrooms, a kitchen, and a bathroom. The insides are often decorated with photos and artificial flowers. The majority of urban families own a television and VCR or DVD player. |

41: Poor urban residents- live in lower-quality with smaller houses usually built entirely of metal sheeting or timber. In rural areas, it is common for members of an extended family to share an often crowded compound, which contains a single cooking house and multiple houses for sleeping. Most rural buildings are made of mud bricks reinforced with bamboo. Few people paint the inside or outside of their houses and floors are unpaved. Roofs are often thatched even though metal sheeting is also used. People usually furnish their homes with benches and chairs. Other furnishings are sparse and there is generally no place for storage. |

42: Architecture (cont.)- Nice furniture, like nice arm chairs, is usually reserved for parents. Most people sleep on mats or grass-stuffed mattresses. Rural places generally do not have access to running water and rely on wells or nearby streams or rivers. Electricity is rare and is usually provided by generators, which only the wealthy can afford. Many homes are passed down through generations of a family. Buying a home is difficult for all but the wealthiest. Even those who have saved enough money to buy a home find it difficult to locate available land. The cost of building material and construction are high in comparison to the wage of the average person. Despite the challenges of owning a home, home ownership is valued and respected in society.

43: I think a lot of the population live in poor houses because they cannot afford a good house. The unemployment rate is very low and most people depend on diamonds as a source of income. it's sad that some people result to killing because Sierra Leone has a lot of resources that other countries have or need. If you don't have a rich house, you are frowned upon in society and if you do have a rich house, you are envied in society. I think many Sierra Leoneans have the ability to make very nice houses but instead they depend on jobs to help them buy rich houses.

44: Climate- The climate is warm year-round; daily temperatures are rarely below 84 degrees Fahrenheit. The seasons are distinguished largely by rainfall and humidity. During the rainy season (May-October), day time relative humidity is high, usually more than 80%. The heaviest rain falls in July and August, when the average precipitation is around 35 inches in coastal areas. The dry season (November-April) has lower humidity and dusty winds out of the northeast, especially in December and January. I think the two seasons are important to Sierra Leone because it helps them trade more. Sierra Leone's climate allows the people to grow more agricultural foods that others countries are not able to grow.

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46: Geography- Sierra Leone covers 27,699 square miles of West Africa. It is bordered on the north and west by Guinea and on the southeast by Liberia. The The coast’s 70- mile- wide lowlands are characterized by marshy inland waterways with extensive mangrove swamps. The east has plateaus of forests and mountain peaks. The drier north consists largely of savannas. Tropical rain forests are in the south and east, but much of the land is used for agriculture. The chief rivers are the Great Scarcies and Little Scarcies, located in the north, and the Sewa and Moa in the south. I think the geography of Sierra Leone is important because its coastline features one of the world’s largest natural harbors.

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48: Gestures/Manners: It is important for a person to greet another before beginning a conversation. An initial “Hello” (Kushe in Krio, Bua in Mende, and Seke in Temne) is acceptable. Men and women shake with the right hand. When meeting a person of high rank, one supports one’s right arm with the left arm which implies that that the other’s hand is of great weight. People may also touch their right hand to their heart after a hand shake. It is polite to ask “how are you?” when greeting someone. A typical response is the equivalent of “I give thanks to God”. Good-bye is often said in short phrases. People often address others by the Mr. or Miss followed by their first names.

49: When addressing someone the same age as you, brother or sister is acceptable. You may use auntie, uncle, ma, or pa to address older people. Padi (friend) is often used to address starngers. It is improper for a woman to whistle. Hissing and using the phrase Ah sey (I say) is what Sierra Leoneans frequently use to get someone’s attention. Sierra Leoneans may “suck teeth” (make a sound by pulling air between pursed lips) to express displeasure in a rude way.

50: People only use their right hand to pass things. They avoid pointing the soles of their feet at another person. People of the same sex often hold hands or maintain close body contact while talking. This is rare between people of the opposite sex. Friends visit (keep time) with one another frequently. Men enjoy sitting in the evenings and drinking fresh palm wine. Women socialize at the cooking house of the family compound. You often tell friends in advance to expect a visit from them, but unannounced guests are also welcome. It is not important to bring a gift when visiting but it is important to accept what the host offers- usually water or food.

51: Although an event may have a designated starting time, guests can arrive up to two hours later. When guests leave, they are escorted at least to the edge of the host's property. The husband may be served separately while the wife and children eat together. When visitors are present, adults eat from the common platter and children may be given spoonfuls of rice in their hands or a separate bowl. In villages, people eat with their right hand while squatting on the ground. In towns, spoons and chairs are more common. People drink only after the meal. At the end of a meal, a bowl of water is passed around for washing the face and hands.

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53: I think that gestures and manners are important because respect is highly valued in the culture of Sierra Leone. A lot has happened to Sierra Leone but through all that, they have still managed to keep their culture alive by teaching their children about their culture. It is important for the children to know what struggles their parents went through so they can choose a bright future. It is important to follow manners because you can get disowned by parents if you are rude.

54: Information Technology: 14,000 main line telephones in use, 2 million cellphone users, 1 government-owned TV station, 1 government-owned national radio station and about two dozen private radio stations are primarily clustered in major cities, 280 internet hosts, 14,900 internet users. Sierra Leone has improved a lot of the years on technology.

55: Sierra Leone is still recovering from their civil war.I think it has been hard for them to rebuild their country because they don’t have enough money to rebuild everything right away. Technology is limited because the government is focusing on trying to rebuild Sierra Leone. I don't think lack of technology is affecting the schools because most children can’t afford to buy textbooks. The lack of technology tells me that Sierra Leone does not focus on being in the future. Instead they focus on trying to rebuild their once great nation and proving to the world that there is hope for Sierra Leone.

56: Traditions/Holidays: Sierra Leone’s national holiday is Independence Day (April 27) and it is celebrated by eating and drinking during the day and taking part in lantern parades at night. Western and Christian holidays (New Years, Easter, The Day of the African Children, and Christmas) are celebrated universally. Pray Day, the last day of Ramadan, is also celebrated universally. A tradition for Pray Day is that children often go door- to- door asking for (and sometimes dancing and singing for) money during Pray Day. Muslims celebrate Moulid Ul Nabi (the birthday of the prophet Muhammad), Eid Ul Fitri (the last day of the month of Ramadan) and Eid Ul Adha (Two months after Ramadan).

57: Sierra Leoneans of all religions celebrate Christmas, but it is a religious holiday for Christians only. The rest of the population sees Christmas as a festive time for family gatherings and exchanging gifts. During Christmas, people who followed economic opportunities or migrated to other countries try to return to Sierra Leone. Men hunt in the bush, families dress in matching clothes made of ashorbies (fabric of similar colors), and dancers and bands perfrom in public areas during Christmastime.

58: People in urban areas decorate their homes with trees, bells, and lights. Friends, families, and colleagues organize parties. Palm wine is the traditional Christmas drink. During the month of Ramadan, Muslims fats each day from sunrise to sunset. Parents buy new clothes for their children, and husbands buy clothes and other gifts for their wives for Eid Ul Fitri. Each community agrees upon an imam who will lead prayers in an open field. A prayer is said giving thanks for a successful Ramadan, and then carols are sung. A common tradition surrounding New Year’s and Easter is to have a party, sometimes with a sound system, at a nearby river or beach. In towns with high hills, like Kabala, the New Year’s tradition is to climb the mountain, taking along livestock to be slaughtered for a celebratory feast.

59: Masquerades are a popular part of big celebrations. The Day of the African Child is celebrated by parents, teachers, and children. Children dress in traditional clothing. Schools and movie theatres play the movie Sarafina, which tells of the struggle for quality education in South Africa. The day is also celebrated with prayers, speeches, concerts, and having students explore different professions. I think traditions and holidays are important to Sierra Leone because it helps them celebrate their culture that they are still rebuilding. They have a way of showing the world what Sierra Leone still has left after all the war.

60: Demographics: The population of Sierra Leone is 5,485,998. They have a population growth rate of 2.277%. The median age is 19 years in total. Males have a median age of 18.5 years while females have a median age of 19.6. The total life expectancy is 56.5 years. Males have a life expectancy of 54 years and females have a life expectancy is 59 years. 35% of the total population can read and write English, Mende, Temne, or Arabic. The literacy rate for males is 46.9% and females have a rate of 24.4%. The total unemployment rate for youth is 5.2%. 21.3% of children under the age of five are underweight. There are 2,800 HIV/AIDS deaths with 49,000 people living with HIV/AIDS. 49% of the population has an improved water source while 87% of the population has an unimproved water source.

61: These statics tell me that even though boys have more opportunities than girls, girls live longer because they don't have to do some many hard labor chores. Not everyone can afford a good education so people are only educated to elementary or middle school level. Sierra Leone has a high rate for diseases because of HIV/AIDS and the poor water source. Malnutrition is very common because half of the population lives in poverty. Even though a lot of people live in Sierra Leone, there are not many job opportunities for people.

62: Education: Sierra Leoneans greatly value education and hold educated people in high regard. Schools may be private, public, or religious. Formal education is based on the British model. In order to proceed to each level of education, students must pass certain exams. Primary schools begin at age six. Classes are usually taught in English, although in rural primary schools, instruction is often in local languages. Students study subjects like English, math, sciences, local languages, and history. Entrance to secondary school is determined by students’ scores on the National Primary School Certificate (NPSC). Secondary school is divided into two levels: lower (which students begin at age 11 or 12) and upper (which begins at age 14 or 15 and ends at age 18 or 19).

63: Students take the Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE) in order to proceed from lower to upper secondary school. In upper secondary school, students may choose certain electives while still studying the basic subjects. In order to enter university, students must pass the West African Senior School Certificate Exam, which is taken by students in English-speaking countries throughout West Africa. Sierra Leone has several teacher-training colleges and universities. To improve literacy rates (particularly lo among women), the government offers free primary education in public schools. Students must still pay for their books, supplies, and other fees. In secondary school, students must also pay tuition.

64: When a family has limited resources, they usually choose to send boys to school rather than girls. Boys are also more encouraged to study, while girls are expected to help with a greater share of the household chores. Many children must earn their own school fees because their families cannot afford to pay them. About 70 percent of girls and 90 percent of boys complete primary school. Nearly 50 percent of students enroll in secondary schooling and just over 2 percent go on to higher education. Education is more available in urban areas than in the countryside. Students may have to travel long distances to reach their schools. Local education, “bush schools”, or secret societies teach children skills and customs perceived as necessary by village elders. This prepares children to join society as adults.

65: I think culture does influence education because girls are limited to education and follow their tradition of staying home and doing chores. Men are more valued in the culture even after so many women have gotten an education. I think they want the girls to stay home because that’s what they will do as mothers. They don’t really find education necessary for girls and parents worry more about their daughters finding rich, educated husbands so they will have someone to take care of them after their sons leave rather having educated daughters.

66: Entertainment: Soccer is Sierra Leone's most popular sport and matches are usually well attended. Men and boys enjoy watching televised international soccer matches and most people have an allegiance to a European soccer team. Volleyball and weightlifting are other common sports. Lack of resources and leisure time make other organized sports uncommon. Students compete in a variety of events (mostly track and field) during inter-school competitions. One event is the paw paw race where students run while carrying smaller students on their backs.

67: Young boys enjoy games of tag. Men and boys play games like draughts (a game similar to checkers), Scrabble, and cards. Women and girls prefer ludo (a board game) and skipping rope. Akara is popular among young girls. It is played in groups of two to three. Players jump up and down two or three times simultaneously and then land with one leg extended. One player is the leader and the other players try to guess which leg she will extend. When a player and the leader extend the same leg, the other player becomes the leader.

68: An important activity is visiting friends and relatives. In urban areas, movie theaters usually show Nigerian, Ghanaian, and other imported films. Children often gather at night to play games, like hide-and-seek, by the light of the moon. Children often find ways to make toys, such as paper flutes, drums (from pots) and rag soccer balls. Beaches are popular weekend sites for playing soccer and swimming. During the dry season, rural people enjoy playing, singing, and dancing to traditional music by moon light. The most popular game is lampas (dodgeball). Vacations are rare for most Sierra Leoneans. When people have time off, they may visit relatives in rural areas and vice versa. Some urban families with roots in rural areas send their children to spend time in their ancestral home so that they can become familiar with their tribe and culture.

69: I think that culture has an impact on the entertainment of Sierra Leone because most of the games children play have a reflection of something they've learned from their culture. Entertainment is a way for most school kids to connect. A lot of entertainment is games because most of the population is below the poverty line and so they can not afford to go out very often. It's amazing how these people have learned how to live with what they have. It proves that money truly can't buy happiness.

70: Current Issue: Government-provided health care is inadequate. Many services, such as vaccinations, are provided by the World Health Organization and missions hospitals. In 2010, the government introduced free health care for children and pregnant women, reducing maternal and infant mortality rates in the country. People who cannot afford medical care may turn to a peppeh docta (pepper doctor), who gives medical treatment despite lack of qualifications and training. Sierra Leoneans generally rely on a combination of traditional and Western medicines. Medications are widely available on the black market, and many people resort to diagnosing and treating themselves this way. Limited knowledge of nutrition and preventive care results in chronic illnesses such as anemia, malaria, and typhoid. Water is not potable. In the northeastern highlands, goiter is endemic because the iodine content of the water is low.


72: Trivia: Bones are left in the food; soft ones are eaten and hard ones are set aside. Sierra Leone residents refer to Sierra Leone as Salone. People tend to be realistic and practical about their circumstances, which helps them to bear difficult situations. Urban people strive for material wealth as a sign of security. There is no strict hierarchy, but members of a local chief's family are treated with great respect.

73: Relationships form early between boys and girls due to the coeducational system. Parents try to discourage pregnancy but it is common among young girls. Most spouses practice arranged marriages regardless of the area. Those who choose their own spouses must get approval from their parents. School functions, sporting competitions, and organized social events like birthday parties are where people who are still in school meet.

74: Once school is over, there are many occasions where young people can meet such as social functions or night clubs. Men wait to marry until they are financially able to support a wife. Marriages may be arranged at any age in villages but the ceremony does not formally take place until the girl reaches puberty. The husband agrees to pay the bride's parents a marriage payment after a great of negotiation and, sometimes, input from the whole village. The major event is the preparation for marriage and not the wedding itself.


76: The groom usually does not attend the engagement ceremony because it is a chance for the older members of his family to meet and assess the bride's family without being swayed by the man's feelings. Wedding ceremonies are usually traditional and religious in rural areas. If the bride and groom belong to different religions, it is not unusual for a single wedding ceremony to be held in both a mosque and a church, however, the bride is expected to convert to the groom's religion after marriage.

77: Urban couples often have a civil ceremony at the office of the registrar or they may not marry at all, establishing a common-law relationship instead. An important part of most wedding receptions occurs when the singers call upon wealthy guests to compete in donating money to the couple and the performers. |

78: The donations may be scattered over the performers or thrown onto the couples table. Polygamy is common among Muslims and traditional rulers but it is not practiced by Christians. Infidelity in men is both widespread and tolerated. It is considered shameful if a woman has an extra-marital affair because women are generally seen as more committed in relationships. Divorce is extremely rare in rural areas but it happens occasionally in the cities. Many people find it difficult to remarry after divorce.

79: | I think marriage is very important in Sierra Leone because if a woman does not have a husband, she will bring shame to her family. Girls spend a lot of time at home learning how to be a good wife and mother because family comes first in Sierra Leone.

80: Global Contributions: Sierra Leone is known for its diamonds. It has been a major diamond producer for 70 years. At first, the mining diamond resources was a legal, economic endeavor. However, Lebanese traders within Sierra Leone quickly discovered smuggling diamonds brought easy profits, and illicit mining and trading grew throughout the country.A diamond rush began in the 1950s and the government gave up policing the diamond districts. After independence from Great Britain in 1961, diamond smuggling became a political and economic problem. On March 23, a civil war began when the Revolutionary United Front invaded east Sierra Leone. Throughout the nine-year civil war, fighting concentrated in and around the diamond districts.

81: Child Soldiers: Children were allegedly recruited in Sierra Leone by Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD) to fight in Liberia in July 2005. Many child soldiers belong to organized military units, wear uniforms, and receive explicit training. 10,000 fought in Sierra Leone's 10-year civil war | I think that Sierra Leone is a country that is able to provide for themselves but people are too selfish and greedy and turn resources into survival. It's not right for a place that was blessed with an abundance of resources to be one of the poorest countries in the world.

82: Sources: (Book source) Family Life, Dress, Traditions and holidays, Gestures and manners, and Climate- LeVert, Suzanne. Sierra Leone. New York: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark, 2007. Print. Demographics and Information tech- “Sierra Leone.” CIA the World Fact book, 2012.Web. 22 May. 2012 Economics, currency, and government- Grolier- Hargreaves, John D. "Sierra Leone." Encyclopedia Americana. Grolier Online, 2012. Web. 16 Apr. 2012. Flag- "National Flag of Sierra Leone." Sierra Leone Flag. Web. 16 Apr. 2012. Geography and food- Spitzer, Leo, and Manon L. Spitzer. "Sierra Leone." Lands and Peoples. Grolier Online, 2012. Web. 5 May. 2012.

83: Global Con- "Sierra Leone: Child Soldiers." Sierra Leone: Child Soldiers. Web. 21 May 2012. Global Con- "What's Going On?: Child Soldiers in Sierra Leone." UN News Center. UN. Web. 21 May 2012. Global Contributions"Sierra Leone." Child Soldiers Global Report 2008. Web. 21 May 2012. History, Education, and Current issues- "Sierra Leone History | Professional Jeweler." Sierra Leone History | Professional Jeweler. Web. 21 May 2012. Language- "Krio Language." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04 June 2012. Web. 17 Apr. 2012. Language- "Visit Sierra Leone." Krio Words and Phrases. Web. 17 Apr. 2012.

84: Music- "Music of Sierra Leone." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 15 May 2012. Web. 18 May 2012. Music- "Sierra Leone." Afropop Worldwide. Web. 18 Apr. 2012. Religion, Art, Architecture, and Entertainment-"Sierra Leone." CultureGrams Online Edition. ProQuest, 2012. Web. 16 Apr 2012.

85: Thank you!!!!

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  • By: Lucia J.
  • Joined: about 6 years ago
  • Published Mixbooks: 1
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About This Mixbook

  • Title: WC Final- Sierra leone
  • This is my final project for World Cultures.
  • Tags: None
  • Published: about 6 years ago