S: A Year in Review - 1960
FC: A Year in Review - 1960 | Based on thee song, "We didn't start the fire", by Billy Joel | Maria Sofia Smith
1: Syngman Rhee was a democratic Korean leader who was exiled from his country twice. He had a strong academic foundation and orientation for politics. For his first 20 years in exile in Honolulu, Hawaii, he was the head of the Korean Provisional Government. Rhee returned to Korea after WWII in 1948, and was elected president of the First Republic of Korea. Syngman Rhee was then reelected in 1960. Unfortunately, Rhee was accused of cheating in the Vice Presidential elections, because the candidate he was favoring won with 90% of the votes, which the public though had to be an exaggeration. | After student riots, and the National Assembly voting on his resignation, he was, indeed, forced to resign and he fled to Hawaii. Luckily, the Americans always supported him when he was president and when he was exiled. He died a few years later of a stroke. The song, “We Didn't Start the Fire”, by Billy Joel contains important events, people, and places during the 1950s - 1960s. Syngman Rhee is included in the song because he made a difference in Korea, specifically in 1960, because it was the year that everything changed. He witnessed his country, Korea, change and was there to fight for independence and democracy. | Syngman Rhee
3: For 1960, a summit meeting had been planned between the presidents of Russia, France, US, and the British Prime Minister, in Paris. It was canceled by Russia because President Eisenhower, of the US, sent spy planes to Russia, and was caught. At first, the Russians had assumed that it was a weather plane, strayed from its course, but soon realized that it was a U2 spy plane. The U2 planes were created by the Americans and were sent to Russia to verify that there was not any development of a nuclear bomb or weapons. One of these planes was shot down and the pilot, Francis Gary Powers, with his aircraft was taken to Moscow on, on May 1, and accused of espionage, but exchanged for a Soviet prisoner in the US. The president of Russia, Khrushchev, canceled his invitation to the conference. Russia expected an apology from Eisenhower, but none was given. Instead, Eisenhower agreed to not fly any American plane over Russian soil. Later that same year, Eisenhower admitted that he had ordered the flight of the U2 plane. This event caused important problems between Russia and the US. Billy Joel included it in his song, because it was a significant event that revealed the way that the US found out about secret actions of other countries. | U2
4: Chubby Checker | Chubby Checker, whose real name is Ernest Evans, got his name because Chubby was like Fats, and Checker was like Domino, and the name just stuck. His rise to fame involved knowing the right people and having the right commitment and dream. From when he was young, Checker knew that he wanted to be in the business and sing. Checker was
5: the one who made “The Twist” famous in 1960. However, he wasn't the original writer or the first to perform it. Chubby, as a mere teenager, publicized it well and the song rose to #1 by the summer of 1960. He also started the concept of dancing apart from the beat. Chubby didn't only sing a hit, but create a dance that people would dance forever. The incredible fact is the radio never played the version of “The twist” that Chubby recorded. Instead, he gained all his fame by constant TV interviews and performances. From then on, Chubby went uphill with many more hits. | With Marilyn
6: 1960 was an important year for many countries, like the U.S. with Kennedy, and Syngman Rhee is Korea, but it was also important for the Congo, and countries in Africa. This situation represented the inspiration that the Congolese people had, to fight for their freedom. For decades the Congo had officially been a Belgian colony, but when other African countries like Ghana and Tunisia became independent in the late 1950s, the native people of the Congo were inspired to free themselves from Belgium. However, they weren’t prepared to govern themselves. Even so, the Congolese were desperate, having constant riots and when a Congolese started a political | BELGIANS in
7: party (Congolese National Movement) all the natives joined. The Belgians wanted to protect their own in the Congo, and they didn’t want any fighting, or even war, so they granted the Congo with their independence from Belgium. They knew that Congolese would need the Belgian influence anyway, because they weren’t fit to rule themselves. As they thought, the province of Katanga asked for help from the Belgians. Meanwhile, in the Congo the native military committed mutiny against the Belgian commanders of the army, and so a civil war began that would last 4 years. | the CONGO
8: Billy Joel wrote “payola” along with other events of the 1960 because it was the year in which payola was legalized and it had a great effect on music and radio stations of the time. Here is an article, written in 1960, about payola and the Freed scandal. This year, 1960, payola has become illegal, due to a scandal with a disk Jockey. The word payola means a secret or private payment in return for either playing or publicizing a song on a radio station. The legalization of these actions was caused because of Alan Freed, the first to be caught accepting payola. Freed was guilty of receiving $250,000 from different recording companies, to play songs on his radio program. With this, the companies gained publicity and sold more songs. After Freed was tried, he paid a small fine, but was fired from the radio station. From then on, anyone caught accepting payola will have to pay a minimum of $10,000 fine and up to 1 year in prison.
10: In 1960, a big change happened in the United States, John F. Kennedy, a democratic Roman Catholic, was elected president. Kennedy first announced that he would be a candidate for the upcoming presidential elections in January of 1960, and began his campaign. In the Democratic primary elections, he became triumphant against senators form Oregon, Minnesota, and Texas. His final opponent was Vice President Richard Nixon, whom he faced in the first televised U.S. Presidential Debate. Kennedy defeated Nixon 49.7% to 49.5%, one of the closest elections in all American history. However, many people of the country doubted the fact that Kennedy was Roman Catholic, and used it against him. Here is an excerpt from an article communicating the doubts with Kennedy. “Our newly elected president will be inaugurate in January next year, But the question is, will our 35th president be successful as president? Americans fear that Kennedy's decisions will be impacted by his Roman Catholic views, but in the words of our president: “I do not speak for my church on public matters - and the church does not speak for me” - J. F. Kennedy”
11: John F. Kennedy
12: PSYCHO | Alfred Hitchcock | In 1960, a film was released that changed all the ideas of horror that people had. It was ordered that no one enter the movie theater after the movie had begun playing. The director, Alfred Hitchcock, did a stunning job with the movie “Psycho”, a story about a woman who steals money from her boss and ends dead within the first 50 minutes of the movie. The killer is a ‘psycho’ man who thinks he’s being possessed by his long dead mother. Anthony Perkins plays the main character, Norman Bates, and Vera Miles plays the supporting character, Lila Cranes. This impressive movie was nominated for 4 Oscars and won 3 of them. “Psycho” was put into Billy Joel’s song because it was a new type of movie which showed violence and insanity closer and more graphic than any other movie before it. Unlike other scary movies, the monster or enemy is the protagonist and it is human, furthermore, there is realness to the monster, implying that anyone can be bad.
14: POP QUIZ! | 1.The Russians thought that the U2 plane was a ______? a.Bird b.Weather plane c.UFO d.Cloud | 3.Payola became illegal ________? a.Before the Allan Freed scandal b.During the year of the scandal c.After the Allan Freed scandal d.It's legal | 4. Kennedy’s opponent for the a.Elvis Presley c.Ronald Reagan | 2.To where did Syngman Rhee flee from Korea? a.China b.Alaska c.Hawaii d.Venezuela
15: 1960 presidential elections was _______? b.Syngman Rhee d.Richard Nixon | 6.The director of “Psycho” was ______? a.Alfred Hitchcock b.Ronald Reagan c.Steven Spielberg | 7.The Belgians _________? a.Granted the freedom b.Killed all the people c.Fled the country d.Committed suicide | 5.Chubby Checker’s hit was called _______? a.The Hit b.The Swing c.The Twist d.The Air
16: Bibliography | 1.Clifton, Daniel. America’s Century. New York: Dorling Kindersley, 1995. N. pag. Print. 2.Uschan, Michael V. The Korean War. San Diego: Lucent Books, 1942. N. pag. Print. 3.“The Payola Scandal.” Rewind the Fifties. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar. 2010.
17: Answers to the quiz: 1. b. 2. c. 3. b. 4. d. 5. c. 6. a. 7. a. | U2 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/ce/US_Air_Force_U-2_reconnaissance_aircraft.jpg http://www.eaec.org/images/newsletter/francis_gary_powers.jpg Payola http://kilburnhall.files.wordpress.com/2009/03/payola2.jpg http://www.tangentsunset.com/rise/graphics/payola.jpg Chubby Checker http://www.stevefriess.com/podcast/chubby-checker.jpg U/s400/Chubby+Checker+The+Twist.jpg Syngman Rhee http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/82/Syngman_Rhee_2.jpg http://www.usswisconsin.org/Pictures/1950%20Pic/751%20Pres.%20Syngman%20Rhee%20Capt.%20Flaherty.jpg Kennedy http://pacolandia.files.wordpress.com/2009/08/470px-john_f_kennedy_white_house_photo_portrait_looking_up1.jpg http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/40967000/jpg/_40967024_kennedy_ap.jpg http://images.businessweek.com/ss/08/08/0825_tech_candidates/image/john-f-kennedy.jpg Psycho http://www.phillyfunguide.com/images/event/49335/psycho_1.jpg http://eatbrie.com/large_posters_files/PsychoLC8.jpg http://www.best-horror-movies.com/images/psycho-hitchcock.jpg Belgians in the Congo http://www.workers.org/2008/world/ww1960Congo.jpg http://image.absoluteastronomy.com/images/encyclopediaimages/c/co/congo_belge_campagne_1918.jpg http://pagesperso-orange.fr/yann.michel/mad_armee_1947_g.JPG http://sumaletera.files.wordpress.com/2007/05/400px-leopold_ii_garter_knight.jpg