BC: Honors World Cultures
FC: Who's who, What's what, and Where's where in.... | China!
1: Who's who? | Hu Yaobang was a leader of the Chinese Communist Party. He lived from 1915 to 1989, and he became part of the Communist Party at a young age. Starting out as just a member, his status was elevated until he was eventually named the general secretary of the Communist Party. Being close allies to Deng Xiaoping, he was able to move up farther to being chairman of the Communist Party. Many people say that his greatest accomplishment was trying to rehabilitate persecuted people during the Cultural Revolution. His death inspired the students to demonstrate in Tiananmen Square where the army used killing to deal with the protests. | Confucius lived during the time of the Warring States. He hated war, so he tried to implement his ideas of peace, but the government rejected them. Since that did not work, he started writing and teaching people around him about how to live in peace and happiness. His works were made into a book called The Analects of Confucius. He lived around 551-479 BCE.
2: Wu Zetian was the first empress of China. She was famous for her beauty, wit, and intelligence; and she soon became the wife of the emperor Kao Tsung. Even though she did not become the emperor until a little later, Wu managed to get her sons into the seat of emperor and ruled through them. After she became empress she replaced military men in government with scholars, and lessened the army's size. She was also fair to peasants, and elevated women's statuses. | Mao Zedong was one of the most influential Communist leaders of the last century. He lived from 1893 to 1976. He was responsible for the death of millions of people because of the programs he set up. They included the Great Leap Forward and the Harvest Uprising. After being thrown out of the Communist Party, he formed The Red Army which also caused deaths. He succeeded in becoming the chairman of the People's Republic of China, and later after another struggle for power, was named the supreme commander of China and the army until his death.
3: Qin Zheng was the first emperor of the newly united country of China which started out as a group of Warring States until he overcame it. He changed his name to Shi Huangdi which means "first emperor." The Chinese people despised him for his cruelty because he used burning, killing, and destroying to stop rebellion. His kingdom wasn't secure, as Mongols were attacking, so he decided to force every grown man in China to build the Great Wall of China. This is how the Great Wall got started, but he died before it was finished. | Wu Zetian | Hu Yaobang | Confucius
4: <-- The Great Wall of China | Calligraphy --> | Terracotta soldiers and horses <--
5: What's what? | Caligraphy is the Chinese form of writing. Writing in calligraphy is more like drawing a picture than writing words, and the calligraphers use seven different lines to make up the pictures. Calligraphers in ancient China used different textured animal hair to make their paintbrushes, the thicker the hair the bigger the lines. Naturally, drawing these pictures took a long time, so imagine how long it would take to write a book! That is why they invented stamps by carving each letter in a block of wood and dipping that in the ink to make letters. Now books were easier and faster to print. The ancient Chinese were the first people to print a book. | China's One Child policy is a law where a couple is only allowed to have one child, and if that child was a girl they may be allowed to have a second child, but that is the limit. Having 1/5 of the world's population, China's government was worried about overpopulation and put the One Child policy in place. Unfortunately, males are considered more valuable than females, so some couples will have abortions before the baby is born, or wait until the baby is born and send her to a orphanage or worse. If officials catch a woman during her second pregnancy, they will force her to have an abortion. The policy was established in 1979 and is still in place to this day.
6: The Great Wall of China was started by the first emperor of China, Shi Huangdi, and the construction of it lasted for hundreds of years as each next Chinese emperor continued on it. Though it did not work very well, its purpose was to keep intruders, such as the Mongols, from taking over the empire. It also separated the southern farmers from the northern nomads. It is one of the 7 wonders of the world because it was built with human labor, it is the longest wall in the world, and it can be seen from space! It is also a huge tourist attraction. | The Silk Road was a trading route that stretched halfway across Asia, linking East Asia and Mediterranean world. It got its name from the demand of Chinese silk in the West. Along this route caravans traded riches such as Roman glass and Persian coins, and ideas and inventions such as religions and the wheel. Natural forces and gangs of thieves made the Silk Road dangerous.This trade route allowed Chinese trade with the world to expand.
7: The Terracotta Warriors are an army of clay soldiers baked hard. These soldiers are life sized and no two are alike! They were built by Shi Huangdi, and they were meant to guard his tomb. With the soldiers are also life sized horses and wooden chariots. There were more than 3,000 of the soldiers found. | S I L K --> R O A D | Terracotta Soldier <--
8: Where's where? | Guilin is the most spectacular city to visit in China. It is famous for its natural beauty, with two crystal clear rivers running through it. It is valuable to both scientists and tourists because of the surrounding karst (limestone) caves and rock forests and formations. In order to believe the beauty of all the surrounding scenery, like the karst caves, you have to see it with your own eyes. Guilin is also home to the tallest peak in South China, Kitten Mountain. | The Forbidden City was the home of 24 emperors during the Qing and Ming dynasties. It is called the Forbidden City because the palace was forbidden to enter without the permission of the emperor. It is the world's largest palace complex, complete with a moat, a 10-meter-high wall, and 8,700 rooms. Being a home to so many emperors, it has accumulated many rare treasures. This means it serves as an awesome museum and tourist attraction. It was even named as a World Cultural Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1987.
9: Shanghai, one of the largest cities in China, has been important to China's economical and trade growth for centuries. One reason is because of its excellent port. Shanghai's economy continues to increase every year. Because of its location, temperature, sunlight, rainfall, and fertile soil Shanghai is also a major producer of agriculture. Since there are many industrial rich areas, the city continues to grow in its industrial output. The city's well developed transportation system and service industries add to the city's success.
10: Tiananman Square is located in the center of Beijing city, the capitol of China. It is the largest city square in the world able to hold 1,000,000 people at one time. After the death of Hu Yaobang (who was greatly respected by young people and students in China), students protested against the Communist government and demanded to meet with Premier Li Peng. When they were turned down, they marched to Tiananmen | The Three Gorges Dam is considered the largest construction project in China since the Great Wall. It is a hydroelectric dam that spans the Yangtze River. In addition to producing electricity, it is also intended to increase shipping production on the Yangtze River as well as reducing the potential for floods. Even though the government expects great problems to be resolved by the dam, there are many controversies attached. More than a million people have had to be relocated. Many were farmers who were moved to a less fertile farming land, losing the farmlands that were in their family for centuries. The dam has also flooded many archaeological sites. Because the industrial sites were not rid of their pollutants, the reservoir may become pollution-ridden and a health hazard.
11: Square to protest. More people joined them, so then there were over a million people in the square. Martial law was declared to control the square, and on June 4, 1989, thousands of people were killed. This event shocked the world, and China received much criticism for it. | Tiananmen Square --> | <-- Three Gorges Dam | Forbidden City -->
12: http://people.cohums.ohio-state.edu/bender4/eall131/EAHReadings/module02/m02chinese.html | http://www.yourdiscovery.com/ancient_china/famous/wu_zetian/index.shtml | http://www.ess.uci.edu/~oliver/silk.html | http://www.chinahighlights.com/greatwall/fact/ | http://www.womeninworldhistory.com/heroine6.html | http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/tang/emperor_wuzetian.htm | http://gochina.about.com/od/whattosee/p/TC_Army.htm | http://factsanddetails.com/china.php?itemid=128&catid=4&subcatid=15 | http://www.wnmu.edu/academic/hum/contest2004/onechildpolicy.pdf | http://www.travelchinaguide.com/cityguides/beijing/forbidden.htm | http://www.wisegeek.com/what-was-the-tiananmen-square-massacre.htm | http://www.wisegeek.com/who-is-mao-tse-tung.htm
13: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/274138/Hu-Yaobang | http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/1999/china.50/asian.superpower/three.gorges/ | http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_gorges_dam | http://www.travelchinaguide.com/cityguides/shanghai/economy.htm | http://www.guilinchina.net/travel-guide/location/ | http://www.chinahighlights.com/guilin/guilin-travel-guide.htm | Our world Cultures textbook | The Story of the World Volume 1: Ancient Times by Susan Wise Bauer