S: Algonquins of The Eastern Woodlands
BC: Hope you learned Something!
FC: Algonquins Of The Eastern Woodlands | By:Samuel Meyer Wise
1: Introduction pg 2 Algonquin Food sources pg 4 Shelter pg 6 Legends pg 8 Rite of passage pg 10 Eastern Woodland recipes HERB JELLY - A delicious condiment! pg 14 SHUSWAP BANNOCK (BREAD) pg 16 GOOSEBERRY COBBLER pg 18 OJAWASHKWAWEGAD ( ALGONQUIN WILD GREEN SALAD) pg 20 Bibliography pg 22
2: The Algonquins are the most widely known tribe in all of Canada.Their territory was mainly in southern Ontario. The Algonquin's customs, food, ceremonies and discoveries are all equally amazing on their own. | Introduction
3: Algonquins are never squeamish
4: maple syrup also has some modern uses! | This beaver is like the ones Algonquins hunted | deer meat | Moose meat | rabbit snare | a rabbit was a challenging but small animal to hunt | collecting wild rice | a long bow
5: a long bow | long bow | Food sources The Algonquins had many different types of food. Their main food was moose meat and caribou, but deer was much more common. They caught large animals like deer and caribou with bows and spears. They caught small animals like beavers and rabbit with snares and traps. They planted and harvested wild rice at the end of the summer to have food for the winter. They also ate many delicious berries, nuts and roots, like carrots. They also had maple syrup, a very important part of Algonquin cuisine. Most of their territory was rocky which is why farming came later. They grew squash, corn and beans where possible. The Algonquians made clay cooking pot and cooked meat in water tight birch bark. They could not cook directly over fire so they heated rocks and put the rocks into the pots to boil the water and cook the meat. When the rocks cooled, they took the cold ones out with tongs and replaced them with hot ones. They worked really hard in the fall and summer because wild game and berries were plentiful .They dried berries and pounded them to a powder. This helped them get through very harsh winter with no food. One of the most difficult times of year was early spring because the supplies were low and the animals hadn't returned yet. I hope you have learned about the Algonquins many food sources and customs from maple syrup to moose meat.
6: Shelter The Algonquins made special kinds of tents called wigwams. Wigwam means “house” in the Abenaki tribe. They are made of bark, wood, sticks and grass .Reeds and string were used to keep it together. Once the birch bark was in place, ropes or strips of wood would be wrapped around the wigwam to hold the bark in place. The wooden frame was shaped in a domed cone or a rectangle with an arched roof. The wooden frame was covered in woven mats and sheets of birch bark. They were then covered with animal skins. Wigwams were domed and could withstand all kinds of conditions. Wigwams served as the main dwelling of Algonquin families. Wigwams are a massive 8-10 feet tall, making it very unique from other tents. Wigwams are very special for the Algonquin way of life as they can withstand and aren't too complex to build. Longhouses were usually a permanent home for Natives because of the time it took to make one. They were built similarly to wigwams. They were made with pole frames and elm bark covering. Long houses were much, MUCH bigger than wigwams. Longhouses could be 200 feet long, 20 feet wide and 20 feet high. Sometimes they made a raised platform as a second floor. These second floors were used as sleeping areas which were divided into separate rooms. These longhouses could house a whole clan or 60 people.! These longhouses were discovered by the Iroquois tribe of the eastern Woodlands. Longhouses were the meeting place, the banquet room and sometimes the only shelter for a whole clan!- Darn important longhouses are aren't they?
7: A wigwam | a longhouse
8: Legends and Theories of Origin. | Gluskap tried to find the magic to kill his brother.
9: This is an Algonquin legend of how the earth was created. Two brothers lived at the beginning of time. Gluskap represented righteousness. He made the plains, food, plants, animals and humans. Malsum represented destruction. He made rocks, thickets and poisonous animals. Malsum tried to find magic to kill his brother, Gluskap. He asked Gluskap, "What is your weakness, what would kill you?" Unsuspecting of Malsum's evil intention, Gluskap replied, "An owl feather." To this, Malsum mistakenly admitted that only a fern root would kill him. One night, Malsum took the feather of an owl's wing and used it in place of an arrowhead to kill his brother. Gluskap fell to his death, but he summoned his own magic and was reborn again. Believing that it was Malsum who tried to kill him, Gluskap went into the forest stream declaring that only a flowering reed would kill him. A toad heard this and hopped away. The toad searched for Malsum in the forest. When he found Malsum, he asked him for the power to fly in exchange for his secret. Malsum refused, for a toad with wings was foolish. In anger and humiliation, the toad sought revenge and returned to Gluskap to warn him of the danger. Gluskap plucked a large-rooted stem. With it he struck down Malsum and his evil magic into the earth. Malsum did not have the power to be reborn like Gluskap. Instead he became a vindictive wolf. Left in peace, Gloskap was able to finish creating the earth from his mother's body.
10: The Algonquin rite of passage is one of the most important parts of Algonquin life. It was when a boy became a man and the ceremony was very spiritual: Older boys went on a vision quest. They stayed by themselves in the forest and did not eat for several days. It was common for them to see a spirit of an animal. This animal became very important to him. Its presence is a good omen, and it's spirit guides him all his life.
11: An Algonquin boy on a spirit quest | Rite of passage
12: Eastern Woodland Recipes (The following are real recipes and must be used seriously. Be warned- some of these ingredients may not be found in stores.)
14: HERB JELLY - A delicious condiment!:Yield: 32 Ounces 2 cups Water 3/4 cup Freshly squeezed lemon juice 1 pkg Powdered pectin (1 3/4 oz) 4 cups Sugar 1/4 cup Fresh chives, finely chopped 1/4 cup Fresh thyme leaves, finely chopped 1/4 cup Fresh oregano leaves, finely chopped 1/4 cup Fresh basil leaves, finely chopped 1/4 cup Fresh tarragon leaves, finely chopped
15: In a large saucepan, stir together the water, lemon juice and powdered pectin. Scrape the sides of the pan to make sure all the pectin has dissolved. Place the saucepan over high heat and bring to a boil. Stir constantly to prevent scorching. Add the sugar and herbs while stirring. Bring the mixture to a full, rolling boil 4 minutes, then remove from the heat. Skim the foam off the top of the mixture and pour into clean, sterilized jars. Seal with paraffin, if desired, and allow setting Overnight . .*** NOTE *** If the herb jelly does not set overnight, remove the paraffin and reheat the mixture over high heat. Bring to a hard rolling boil 2 minutes, Repour into the jars, and reseal. Because you are working with herbs and not fruit, sometimes the pectin doesn't react the first time and needs to be reboiled(note that her jelly could be made with the herb of your choice.)
16: SHUSWAP BANNOCK (BREAD) 3 cups All-purposes flour 1 tbl Baking powder 1/2 to 1 1/2 tsp Salt depending on taste 1 1/2 cups Water 1 cup Blueberries Mix the dry ingredients together, then add the water quickly & continue to stir. Add the blueberries and mix into batter. Spread batter on a pie plate & put in a preheated oven heated to 425F. Bake for 20 minutes. Cut in pieces & serve hot or cold. Excellent with mint tea.
18: GOOSEBERRY COBBLER - Gooseberries and Native Americans are almost synonymous! Serving Size: 6 2 cups Flour 1/2 cups Corn meal plus 2 Tb 1/2 tsp Baking powder 1 tsp Salt 3/4 cup Butter or margarine 3/4 cup Boiling water 2 ea Cans (15 oz) sweetened Whole gooseberries 1 tsp Honey Juice of 1/2 lemon
19: Sift the flour with 1/2 cup corn meal, baking powder and salt. Using pastry blender or two knives, cut in butter or margarine. Quickly add the boiling water, mixing in well. Divide the dough in half, and pat half of it in a buttered 8"x8"x2" baking pan. Sprinkle with 1 Tb corn meal. Mash half of the gooseberries in their syrup, then stir in remaining gooseberries, honey and lemon juice; pour over the dough. Top with remaining dough; sprinkle with remaining Tb corn meal. Bake in very hot oven (425F) for 30 minutes, or until top is lightly browned.Cut into squares and serve.
20: OJAWASHKWAWEGAD ( ALGONQUIN WILD GREEN SALAD) - Of course Native Americans have salad! SALAD: 1 cup Wild onions OR leeks, well chopped 4 cups Watercress 1/4 cup Sheep OR wood sorrel 1 1/2 cup Dandelion leaves DRESSING: 1/3 cup Sunflower seed oil 1/3 cup Cider vinegar 3 tbl Maple syrup 3/4 ts Salt 1/4 tsp Black pepper Toss the salad ingredients together. Combine the dressing ingredients and mix well. Toss the salad in the dressing and serve.
22: Bibliography: Algonquin Hunters of the Eastern Woodlands By: Claudine Goller Published by Grolier Limited Date: 1984 http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/firstnations/myths.html http://www.native-languages.org/houses.htm http://www.thegutsygourmet.net/indian.html