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Woodlands Natives

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BC: In this book about the Woodland Natives, you will learn all about how the Woodland Natives lived, from their methods of transportation that are still used today to the way they built their longhouses. | Thank you

FC: Woodland Natives Nadav Assa, Rachel Mann, David Mochon, Anna Ressin, Arielle Shannon

1: | Table of Contents

2: The Eastern Woodland Natives used different kinds of skins, feathers and bones when making their clothing. They made their clothing out of deerskin. Women and men had similar clothing. Women wore long dresses, tunic leggings and moccasins. Men wore beautiful hats with feathers as well as leggings which ended above their knees. In the summer they wore light clothing made of deer skin; in the winter they added fur robes. All women made clothes. It was a long process. First, they scraped hides with stone and bone. Next, they tanned them by soaking, drying and smoking them. Lastly, they cut out shapes from the cloth and sewed them together using bones for needles and sinew as thread. They made jewellery out of bone, hair, copper, feathers, shells and colourful stones. They even made beads out of teeth. When the Europeans arrived in North America, the Natives traded with them to get glass beads which they used to decorate their clothes. Art style also changed when they came. The Natives started to make curved lines and flower like patterns. The clothes they wore were pretty simple, comfortable and suited the climate. I wouldn’t mind going back in time and wearing those clothes. | Clothing

3: moccasins | Pictures | beaded clothes | Native outfit | Native headdress

4: The Woodland people had all sorts of food. They grew crops, hunted and they fished. Their main source of meat was moose. They also ate caribou and deer. They hunted these animals with spears, bows and arrows, snares, and traps. Their main crop was corn but they also grew squash and beans. The Woodland Natives made a lot of food from the corn like candy corn and popcorn, which were made with sap from the maple trees. When they caught food, they shared with families that didn’t, and when they didn’t catch food, other families shared with them so they were never hungry. The Woodland Natives caught all sorts of sea food. They caught eels, crustaceans, cod, and salmon. They caught fish with spears, nets, hooks, harpoons, weirs, and traps. The women picked and harvested foods such as berries, wild fruit, nuts, and roots. The women also harvested corn in September. The men hunted and fished. The Woodland Natives had all sorts of foods because of the area that they lived in. I think they chose the right place to live. | Food

5: Pictures | corn | cooking on fire

6: There were a variety of ways that the Woodland Natives could get from place to place. The one they were probably known best for was the birchbark canoe. These are the steps they used to make a canoe: 1. Cut out a pattern in soaked bark with woody side intact. 2. Carefully cut the slits. 3. Bend the wood in half so the woody side faces out. 4. Pinch one end and fold up the small tab; repeat with other end. 5. Whip-stitch up and then down the seam on each end. 6. Whip-stitch a small basket splint around the canoe rim. 7. Spread center of canoe to the desired diameter (so it will float). 8. Fill holes and cracks with waterproof pitch so the canoe will float. As the seasons passed, they couldn’t travel by canoe because of the cold; the Woodland Natives then used snowshoes. The snowshoes were made out of wood and strips of animal hide. Snowshoes were used to travel in snow. This is the transportation the Woodland Natives used to travel back then. Even today people use snowshoes and canoes to travel. | Transportation

7: Pictures | snowshoes | canoes

8: Native Games There are many ways the people of the Eastern Woodland Natives had fun in the longhouse. One game that they most enjoyed playing in the summer or hot days was lacrosse. It was played with a deerskin ball stuffed with fur and a long wooden stick with a small net on the end. The point of the game was to get the ball inside the net of the opposing team. Another game played by the Eastern Woodlands was snowsnake. The point of the game was to slide a long smooth pole while the other team yells and cheers to distract the thrower so they miss and lose; the pole that slides the farthest wins. Another favourite game was tossing the ball. This game was played with lots of people and they tossed the ball around. If someone misses the ball you are out of the game. These are some games the people of the Eastern Woodland Natives played.

9: Pictures | snowsnake | Fun in the longhouse

10: Woodland Natives lived in very different homes. The Iroquoians lived in large houses called longhouses. Several families lived in a longhouse, up to one hundred people. Each family had its own living quarters up against the wall of the longhouse. In their quarters each family had a sleeping platform that was one metre high with bear skins on top. Under the sleeping platform, utensils and food were stored. High above the platform there was a loft for food storage. Each family’s quarters was separated from the others by skin curtains. Longhouses are rectangular shaped, are ten metres wide and up to forty metres long. They are made of a frame of wooden poles covered by sheets of bark with a roof of thinner bark shingles. At each corner there are four posts, each ten metres high, sunk one metre into the ground. In between the large posts there were many smaller posts. | Homes

11: At approximately four metres above the ground, the large posts had a ledge. There were four crossbeams placed on the ledges and smaller poles on the cross -beams to form a roof. The covering for the sides was made of overlapping bark boards and the roof shingles were small pieces of bark with holes in them. String like material was threaded through the holes and then tied to the roof like beads. There were also two doors- one in the front and one in the back. These doors were covered with skin flaps. There was a hole in the roof to let out smoke from the fires. The longhouses were built together in villages protected by a log wall. There were up to thirty longhouses in a village, holding up to eight hundred people. Every decade, villages moved to more fertile land. The new village sites were settled by the young men and were near the old ones. The Algonquians lived in settled villages in the summer; however in the winter they lived in wigwams which they built at their hunting camps when they went to hunt in small family hunting groups. Wigwams were small lodges. They could be cone or dome or rectangular shaped. They had a frame made of young saplings covered with animal skins, bark, or woven mats. Wigwams were eight to ten feet tall and could stay in place for months. They were not portable but easy to build, so every year, new ones were built.

12: Pictures | longhouses | wigwam

13: Bibliography: | 1.Ridington, Jillian and Robin, People of the Longhouse . Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre Ltd. 1982 2.Native Languages of Americas website 24 April 2012. 3.gol productions Goldi productions 2007 4. Ansary, Mir Tamim, Eastern Woodlands Indians, Chicago Illinois, Heinemann, 2000 5. Claudine Goller, Algonkian Hunters of the Eastern Woodlands, Toronto, Grolier Limited, 1984 6. NativeTech: Native American Technology and 7.classroom sheet- Opportunities for Fun

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