FC: World History 1980
1: Polish workers, led by Lech Walesa, struck the Gdansk shipyards. The workers won a major victory, when the government agreed to demands made by the newly-formed Solidarity Trade Union to both legalize unions, as well as affirm the right to strike. The victory of Solidarity was the first step in the eventual dissolution of the Soviet Union.
2: Eight U.S. servicemen are killed and five are injured as helicopter and cargo plane collide in abortive desert raid to rescue American hostages in Tehran. The Iranian Hostage Crisis is thought by some political analysts to be the primary reason for U.S. President Jimmy Carter's defeat in the November 1980 presidential election. In Iran, the crisis is thought to have strengthened the prestige of the Ayatollah Khomeini and consolidated the political hold of radical anti-American forces who supported the hostage taking. The crisis also marked the beginning of American legal action, or sanctions, that economically separated Iran from America.
3: Iraq invades Iran. Iraq troops hold 90 square miles of Iran after invasion. Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein decided to attack Iran for a number of reasons. Saddam feared the effect fundamentalism would have on the Shi'ite majority of his country. Furthermore, Iraq and Iran had had longstanding border disputes. Saddam also believed that the anarchy gripping Iran--especially within the armed forces--made this an especially propitious moment to attack. The war lasted 8 years.
4: In January 1980, a group of Quich Indigenous Peoples took over the Spanish Embassy to protest army massacres in the countryside. The Guatemalan government launched an assault that killed almost everyone inside as a result of a fire that consumed the building. The Guatemalan government claimed that the activists set the fire and immolated themselves. | •June 21: Twenty-eight Guatemalan union leaders are abducted from the Guatemala City headquarters of the National Confederation of Labor (CNT). They are not seen alive again. •August 24: Seventeen Guatemalan union leaders are abducted from a Roman Catholic retreat house in Palin, Escuintla. They are not seen alive again
5: Discontent with societal inequalities, a poor economy, and the repressive measures of dictatorship led to civil war between the government, ruled since 1961 by the right-wing National Conciliation Party (PCN), and leftist antigovernment guerrilla units, whose leading group was the Farabundo Mart National Liberation Front (FMLN). The U.S. intervened on the side of the military dictatorship, despite its scores of human rights violations. Between 1979 and 1981, about 30,000 people were killed by right-wing death squads backed by the military. | •March 24: Salvadoran Archbishop Oscar Romero is assassinated by wingnut murderers. •December 2: Salvadoran wingnut death squads kill three American Roman Catholic nuns and one American Roman Catholic lay worker
6: Libyan Troops Intervene in Chad Civil War Civil war broke out in Chad between the forces of President Goukouni Oueddei and Prime Minister Hisseene Habre. Hundreds were killed in the initial fighting. In November, Libya intervened on behalf of Oueddei and captured the capital. | As colonial rule was ending throughout the African continent, and as African-majority governments assumed control - Zimbabwe became independent.
7: The "Gang of Four" went on trial in China. The Gang of Four consisted of Chiang Ching (Mao’s fourth wife), Chun-Chia, Wang Hung-Wen and Yao Wen Yuan; all of whom had been important in the Cultural Revolution. The group was led by Mao's widow, Jiang Qing, and consisted of three of her close associates, Zhang Chunqiao, Yao Wenyuan, and Wang Hongwen. The removal of this group from power is sometimes considered to have marked the end of the Cultural Revolution.
8: The Mariel Boatlift was a mass movement of Cubans who departed from Cuba's Mariel Harbor for the United States between April 15 and October 31, 1980. The boatlift was precipitated by a sharp downturn in the Cuban economy caused by an increasingly effective embargo by the United States, leading to simmering internal tensions on the island and a bid by up to 10,000 Cubans to gain asylum in the Peruvian embassy. The Cuban government subsequently announced that anyone who wanted to leave could do so, and an impromptu exodus organized by Cuban-Americans with the agreement of Cuban President Fidel Castro was underway. The boatlift began to have negative political implications for U.S. President Jimmy Carter when it was discovered that a number of the exiles had been released from Cuban jails and mental health facilities. The exodus was ended by mutual agreement between the two governments in October 1980. By that time up to 125,000 Cubans had made the journey to Florida
9: Mount St. Helens erupts in Washington killing 57 Mount St. Helens is most famous for its catastrophic eruption on May 18, 1980, which was the deadliest and most economically destructive volcanic event in the history of the United States. Fifty-seven people were killed; 250 homes, 47 bridges, 15 miles (24 km) of railways, and 185 miles (300 km) of highway were destroyed.
10: Republican Ronald Reagan, former actor and California governor, is elected President of the United States, ousting incumbent Jimmy Carter. Inflation is running at double-digits, and gas is around $1.20/gallon. To combat the recession, Reagan has developed an election platform based on supply-side economics. In his inaugural speech, he takes credit for freeing the Iranian hostages.
11: John Lennon, formerly of the Beatles, was shot and killed on December 4 in New York City | Voyager 1 probe sends the first high resolution images of Saturn back to scientists and confirms the existence of Janus, a moon of Saturn. | Japan passes the US as the largest automaker | Ted Turner launches CNN, which will air news 24 hours a day on cable television.
12: The 1980 Winter Games, held in Lake Placid, New York, were filled with impressive performances In an unprecedented achievement, Eric Heiden of the United States won all five speed skating races, from 500m all the way up to 10,000m. Nonetheless, for the home crowd, the highlight was the unexpected victory of the US ice hockey team.
13: The United States and 57 other countries boycott the Moscow summer Olympics in protest of Soviet occupation of Afghanistan. Soviet gymnast Aleksandr Dityatin became the first athlete to win eight medals in one year, the belle of Montreal, Nadia Comaneci of Romania, returned to win two more gold medals, but the most thrilling moment of the Games came in the last lap of the 1,500 meters where Sebastian Coe of Great Britain outran countryman Steve Ovett and Jurgen Straub of East Germany for the gold.
14: References http://www.inthe80s.com/time1980.shtml http://www.multied.com/20th/1980.html http://www.history.com/wt.do?century=1900&decade=1980&year=1980 http://www.thepeoplehistory.com/1980.html http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0005262.html htto://www.wikipedia.com http://www.historyexplorer.net/?World_History_Timeline:1974_AD_-_1980_AD