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Young People of the Civil Rights Movement

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S: Mrs. Miller's 4th Grade Class 2012-13

FC: Young Heroes of the Civil Rights Movement

1: Young Heroes of the Civil Rights Movement Written and Illustrated by Mrs. Knox-Miller's Fourth Grade Class Scholars to Leaders Academy 2012-2013

3: Introduction Claudette Colvin Emmett Till Denise McNair Addie Mae Collins Cynthia Wesley Melba Patillo Ernest Green Minnijean Brown Jefferson Thomas Terrence Roberts Gloria Ray SNCC | David Richmond Ezell Blair, Jr. John Lewis Joseph McNeil Barbara Johns Ruby Bridges | Table of Contents

5: Introduction | In 1954, the Supreme Court ruled it was illegal to segregate schools. Brown vs. the Board of Education declared that separate schools were not equal. This decision pushed children into the Civil Rights Movement. Many brave children marched, protested, and died so future generations could have equal rights. Through this book, "Young People of the Civil Rights Movement," the 4th grade class hopes to show how children impacted the Civil Rights Movement and changed the world.

6: Claudette Colvin

7: Have you ever heard of Claudette Colvin? She helped changed history forever. Let's take a journey back to 1955,when Claudette Colvin was a 15 year old girl who refused to give up her seat to a white woman one day. Claudette's friends moved from their seats but Claudette stayed seated. The bus driver yelled, "I need those seats!" She did not get up. The bus driver summoned the police. Claudette was arrested and freed at night. Claudette Colvin is important because she refused to give up her seat. She stood up for the right thing. She still speaks for equal justice. Claudette Colvin once said, "Early in my life I learned that if you want something you'd better make noise 'never give up on your dreams." Written by Malachi Clark

8: Emmett Till (1941-1955)

9: Late one night, two men kidnapped 14-year old Emmett Till. Mose Wright didn't know this would be the last time he saw his nephew alive. Emmett was born on July 25, 1941. He came to the South to visit his great-uncle Mose Wright. His mother, Mamie Till, sent him there to visit. He was killed because his cousins dared him to go into the market and flirt with a woman named Carolyn. He went in and bought bubble gum, as he left, he said, "Bye Baby" and whistled. Carolyn was a white woman. In the South, everything was segregated and flirting with a white woman was against the "rules." Late that night, two men were at the door. They took Emmett Till from his house. They beat him. They shot him in the head and tied him with barb wire to a cotton gin fan. Finally, they threw him into the Tallahatchie River. Three days after the murder, his body floated to the top of the river. His great-uncle identified his body. The only way he knew it was him was because of his signature ring. People wanted a closed casket, but his mother, Mamie Till, refused and said, "I want everyone to see what they did to my boy." During the funeral, the sight of his face made people lose control and faint. His face was horrible, because the water mutilated his face. After his death, people started getting angry and it started a lot of marches. Emmett Till will always be the spark that started the Civil Rights Movement fire! For now, he sleeps peacefully. Written by Angel Salas

10: Boom! That was the sound that killed 11-year old Denise McNair. She was in the basement of the church when the bomb killed her. Denise didn't do anything to anyone. Denise didn't deserve to die. She was very young when she died. She really wasn't involved in the Civil Rights Movement, but her death made people realize how horrible racism was. Her dad was a photo shop owner and her mother was a school teacher. Denise went to Center Street Elementary School. She played baseball and had a "well-developed social consciousness." This means that she was really aware about the difference between right and wrong. She did poetry readings with her family. During the trial, Teresa Stacy, told the court that "he helped blow up a bunch of niggers back in Birmingham." No one will ever know why the Ku Klux Klan decided to bomb that church. They killed an 11-year old and she did not get to see anything in life. Written by Khia Pacheco

11: Denise McNair (1951-1963)

12: Have you ever heard about the four little girls who got bombed in a church? It shattered windows and doors. It was like boom, bang, pow! They laid dead. Addie Mae Collins was one of the four little girls who died. She was only 14 years old when she was killed. Addie Mae Collins was born on April 18, 1949 in Birmingham, Alabama. Addie Mae Collins was a softball player. The Ku Klux Klan bombed the church because that's where Martin Luther King Jr. had meetings for freedom. After Addie Mae Collins died, more people started to march. When the bomb went off and took the life of Addie Mae Collins, people felt sad and angry. The NAACP honored the girls with a program called, "The Love that Forgives." Written by Raymond Trujillo

13: Addie Mae Collins (1949-1963)

14: Boom! That is the sound of a bomb in the 16th Street Baptist Church. Twenty four people were killed or injured in the bomb. Carole Robertson was in the girls' bathroom and BOOM she was killed. Carole Robertson's parents were Alpha and Alvin Robertson. Carole Robertson was born on April 24, 1949. She was a straight A student. The morning that Carole was killed, she was going to march in the Civil Rights Movement. The KKK placed the bomb at the church because they had a lot of meetings there. They used 122 sticks of dynamite. Carole Robertson is important to the Civil Rights Movement because it showed the world how evil segregation was! Written by Isaac Mora

15: Carole Robertson (1949-1963)

16: Splash! Splash! Roar! Teenage Melba Pattillo had to escape lit dynamite and acid thrown in her eyes. She was a part of the Little Rock Nine. She was the first with with eight others to integrate Central High. They all had to go through something, but she had to go through something, but she had to go through the most. "My life is about seeking equality for everyone." These are the words of Melba Pattillo. She was born in 1941 and grew up while the Civil Rights was going on. She went to the all black Horace Mann High School in Little Rock, AK. She decided to be a part of a group of eight other black students who integrated the all white Central High School. To get to school she had to go through a crazy mob. While she and her mother went through that mob, they got branches thrown at them. Her mother's shirt got ripped. She made it home alive, she was lucky! The next day when she went to school, the crazy mob broke into the school. Luckily, she and the eight other black students were taken to safety. Melba took learning seriously. She said, "Education is a privilege, not a right. When it is available to you, it is a sin not to avail yourself of it. Take your educational opportunities as a huge gift." Melba Pattillo is a hero because she integrated schools so everyone would have the privilege of education. Written by Jasmine Desilets

17: Melba Pattillo (1941- )

18: Ernest Green (1941- )

19: "All we wanted to do was go to school." Those are the words of Ernest Green when he was asked about integrating Central High School in Little, Rock, AK. Ernest Green was a member of the Little Rock Nine. He joined the Little Rock Nine, because he wanted to help in the Civil Rights Movement. Ernest Green became a part of history when he was only 17-years old. Ernest Green helped in the Civil Rights Movement. He was a part of the Civil Rights Movement by marching and writing news. He knew integrating schools was important. He said, "This was something bigger than our individual courses." After all Ernest Green went through, he is still alive. He was such a big part of the movement that he is in many books. Ernest Green is really humble and gives a lot thanks to the adults who helped during that time. "We were really ordinary people and we really owe a debt of gratitude to (their adviser) Daisy Bates and to our parents." Written by Seth Quirova

20: Have you ever heard the story of Minnijean Brown? Well, she didn't get the message to not go to school. She showed up and had to face an angry mob. She wasn't afraid of 1,200 armed soldiers. Minnijean Brown was a teenager when all of this happened to her. She helped to integrate Central High School. Minijean Brown was born on September 11, 1941. She helped the Civil Rights by not being scared of most things. She helped her school by being a good students and getting a lot of awards and being strong. One day when she was in the cafeteria she dropped a bowl of chili on two white boys. Then she called a white girl, "white trash." She did these things because these people harassed her in school. Minnijean Brown is a young Civil Rights hero because she wasn't scared and she took responsibility. She said, "I want them to know that you can take responsibility and you must." Written by Delila Martinez

21: Minnijean Brown (1941- )

22: Jefferson Thomas (1942-2010)

23: "Our nation owes Mr. Thomas a debt of gratitude for the stand he took half a century ago, and the leadership he showed in the decades since." These were the words of President Barack Obama when he learned that Jefferson Thomas had died. Jefferson Thomas was a hero in the Civil Rights Movement, he was 67 years old when he lost the fight against pancreatic cancer. Jefferson was a young person during the Civil Rights Movement. Jefferson Thomas was important to the Civil Rights Movement because he was a part of the Little Rock Nine. The Little Rock Nine was an important part of the Civil Rights Movement because they integrated Central High School. Each of the Little Rock Nine received Congressional Gold Medals. President Bill Clinton presented these medals in 1999. Clinton issued a statement calling Thomas, "a true hero, a fine public servant, and a profoundly good man." Black students should be able to get an education, and now because of Jefferson Thomas, they can. Written by Caroline Maestas

24: Blacks should have the right to go to any school. Terrence Roberts was 15 years old when he joined the Little Rock Nine. He joined the Little Rock Nine because he wanted to be one of the nine who changed the way students went to school. He integrated Central High School. Terrence Roberts was born on December 3, 1941, in Little Rock, Arkansas. "I really feel it was a violation of public trust to practice your own personal policies of racism in that position. You endangered not only my life, but the hundreds of other people, both black and white." Terrence Roberts was telling the governor that he hurt everyone by trying to keep segregation alive. Terrence Roberts said this about the governor of Arkansas. Terrence Roberts believed he had a right to go to any school he wanted. Written by Annalicia Hernandez

25: Terrence Roberts (1941- )

26: Gloria Ray was a member of the Little Rock Nine. Gloria was born on September 26, 1942. Gloria Ray was important to the Civil Rights Movement because she integrated Central High School. Gloria Ray was only 15-years old when she tried to enter Central High School. Gloria Ray has been very successful. She has a Congressional Gold Medal. She earned a Bachelor's degree in Chemistry and Math. She is the editor of a computer magazine. Gloria Ray was an amazing young person and now is an amazing woman! Written by Kalijah Jenkins

27: Gloria Ray (1942- )

28: The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee was founded by young people so that black people could receive equal rights. This group is also known as SNCC. SNCC was responsible for a lot of the sit-ins. A lot of white people were also involved with with this group. "Back then everything was segregated, now days nothing is segregated." These are the words of one of the founding members of SNCC. The death of Emmett Till pushed SNCC into action. After his death, a lot of the members knew it was time to change the country. Being in SNCC was dangerous. SNCC members sometimes got lynched. They risked their lives because they wanted something to change. They wanted everything to be integrated. SNCC did get their wish. SNNC fought for what they believed in. They didn't think segregation was fair. They wanted to be known as people and not colored people. The members of SNCC were an important part of the Civil Rights Movement. Written By Jose Estrada Pizarro

29: Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee Founded in 1960

30: David Richmond was born in Greensboro. Before Joseph McNeil, SNNC and Ezell Blair, Jr., David Richmond started the sit-ins. When David was in school, he belonged to many clubs. He was one of the Greensboro Four who sat in at the Woolworth's lunch counter. They sat down at the lunch counter because they were hungry and they thought they had a right to sit there and be served. His protests also included segregated hotels, movie theaters, and stores. One day, because of his involvement in the Civil Rights Movement, David Richmond was forced to move to a mountain community for nine years. He had to go into hiding because people were trying to kill him. After nine years, his parents became really, really ill. When his parents became really ill, he went back to Greensboro to take care of his parents. Things were beginning to change. David Richmond won the Levi Coffin award in 1980. He has three kids. When he was only 49 years old, David Richmond died. He died on December 7, 1990. Written by Joshua White

31: David Richmond (1941-1990)

32: Blacks should have the right to go any lunch counter. Ezell Blair, Jr. sat at a lunch counter to get equal rights. "I didn't do this for profit. I did it for love of God and country and for those who weren't born yet." These were the words of Ezell Blair, Jr. when he was asked about his participation in the lunch counter sit-ins. Ezell Blair, Jr. was the president of the Junior Class at North Carolina A&T. He worked his hardest to teach the students so they could have better lives. Ezell Blair, Jr. did sit-ins. He wanted equality rights for everyone. That's why he did sit-ins. Ezell Blair, Jr. didn't think about how to change the world, he just did it! Lunch counters are now integrated. Written by Anahi Rodriguez

33: Ezell Blair, Jr. (1941- )

34: John Lewis (1940- )

35: Have you ever heard of Selma, Alabama: The march to vote, the wrong day to march, Bloody Sunday? He marched over a bridge. When he marched over the bridge, he was beaten. John Lewis was an important part of the Civil Rights Movement because he helped blacks get the right to vote. John Lewis was born on February 21, 1940. John Lewis received the Martin Luther King, Jr. Nonviolent Peace Prize. He was a founding member of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). He served as the president of SNCC from 1963 to 1966. John Lewis asked an important question, "If not us, then who? If not now, then when?" This question was so important because he believed it was his job to take action. Written by Lasha Wilson

36: Joseph McNeil (1942- )

37: Why would anyone want to deny someone the right to sit at a lunch counter? That's crazy! Well, Joseph McNeil thought that was crazy too. That's why he participated in a Woolworth's Sit-in, a form of peaceful protest. Joseph McNeil once said, "We had no idea that a simple act of protest would change lives for many people in the South." After earning a degree in engineering, he became a pilot in the Air Force. He earned the Medal of Honor in 2002 and became a general soon after that. He retired into a happy life in 2004. Joseph McNeil was an important young person during the Civil Rights Movement. He was important because he helped integrate lunch counters. He had the courage to sit-down to stand-up! Written by Brandon Johnson

38: Imagine a place with segregated schools, where black schools are not as good as white schools. This place existed in 1950-1960. In 1951, Barbara Johns called the whole student body to vote for a plan for a student strike. "Don't be afraid, just follow us out," Barbara Johns said as she led the strike. Barbara Johns helped with school integration. She was a part of the Brown v. Board of Education decision. She led protests. She waited until the principal was gone to begin protesting. That was smart! All of the students agreed to walk out of the school and protest against segregated schools. Barbara hosted a few other protest meetings. She was only 16 years old. She got to further her education. Barbara Johns changed the world and herself. She was child who got all the children involved in the Civil Rights Movement. Written by Kirianna McNerney

39: Barbara Johns (1935-1991)

40: Ruby Bridges (1954- )

41: On November 14, 1960, Ruby Bridges went to a white school and people were yelling and throwing food at her. When Ruby Bridges went in the school, she was the only one in the school. The school was empty for most of the year because white parents didn't want their students there with a black girl. Ruby Bridges was born on November 8, 1954. She was six years old when she integrated William Frantz Elementary school. Every day she went to school, she had to listen to an angry crowd calling her names and yelling at her. Ruby Bridges was very brave. Ruby Bridges is an important part of the Civil Rights Movement, because she was brave enough to go to a school where people hated her because she was black. Ruby Bridges once said, " Don't follow the path. Go where there is no path and start the trail." That's what Ruby Bridges did! Written By Tomas Samano-Silva

43: When I decided to present the Civil Rights Movement as a possible subject of study to fourth graders, the thought did cross my mind that fourth graders may not be ready to handle the atrocities of the time. I wasn't sure they were ready to grapple with the idea of lynchings and the Jim Crow South. I struggled with the question of how to teach this content without making these wonderful kids feel jaded. As always, your children proved me wrong. They worked through the injustices to discover the fighting spirit of little children just like them. They worked through the atrocities to find stories of hope. Through this experience, far more than I taught these children, I learned that when children are presented with what is not right in the world, they can see the silver lining and they can understand how to fix it. Children are remarkable. They are able to process and understand in a unique way. This is why children were so important to the Civil Rights Movement. The journey to this final product has been a long one, but as we wrap this unit of study, I can most assuredly say, I have learned far more than I taught. I hope that you enjoy this book as much as we enjoyed creating it! Alexis Miller | Words from the Teacher

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