FC: ANCIENT EGYPTIAN TIMES | Copyright 2011 by Xavier High School
1: Pharaoh Ptolemy V Today will go down as a very important day in history. At 3o’clock, Egypt will commemorate Pharaoh Ptolemy V to the throne. His journey to the throne has been one of many twists and turns. He will always be remembered in history. At age five, his father Ptolemy IV died leaving him to the throne. Because of his age, a series of regents ruled for him. Agathocles and Sosibuis, two ministers of his father, murdered his mother so they could secure the regency for themselves. In 202 B.C. Tlepolemus, the general in charge of Pelusium, was in charge of a revolt which had Agathocles killed. During these political rebellions, Ptolemy V was crowned Pharaoh at age 12 in Memphis, so he could settle civil problems. While he was crowned, he wrote decrees for Egypt. One of these Decrees of Memphis was discovered in 1799 and became known as the Rosetta Stone. Because of the Rosetta Stone, we are now able to understand what the hieroglyphics meant. Daughter of Antiochus III the Great and Laodice III, Cleopatra I married Ptolemy V. At age 28, Ptolemy died by poisoning leaving their young son to the throne. This forced Cleopatra to become the regent for him. Ptolemy V was one of many great Pharaohs of Egypt. He left us with many important artifacts such as the Decree of Memphis which allowed us to understand hieroglyphics. He was brought up to the throne at such a young age and will be remembered forever in history. By: James Boyce
2: The Discovery of the Rosetta Stone Today, an amazing discover has been made in Rosetta! The unknown French officer Pierre Francios Bouchard, who is a member of Napoleon Bonaparte's military, was building forts in Egypt and stumbled over a block of black basalt stone. This stone is now known as the famous Rosetta Stone. Napoleon Bonaparte, who is the ruler of France, led his military into Egypt. The British were in Egypt defending the rich food supply. Napoleon believed that he could defeat the British and obtain the vast riches supplied by Egypt. Boy was he proved wrong! The British defeated the French and have been stranded in Egypt for the past 3 years. It was during this time that forts were being built and as we know Pierre Francios Bouchard discovered the Rosetta Stone. The Rosetta Stone is a stone that contains two forms of languages which were Greek and Egyptian, and three different types of script which were hieroglyphic, demotic and Greek. The Rosetta Stone contains written text that explains all of the things that Pharaoh Ptolemy V has done that are good for the people of Egypt. Before this discovery, people didn't know what the hieroglyphics meant. Because of the Rosetta Stone, we are now able to understand what the hieroglyphics meant because of its translation into Greek. The Rosetta Stone has been an immense discovery and will be escorted to France so it can shine its light to the world! By: James Boyce
3: Egyptian Pyramids and Temples | Ancient Egypt is a wonderful, historic site with plenty of landmarks to visit. The several major attractions include the great pyramids at Giza, the temples at Karnak and Luxor, the temple of Abu Simbel, and the temple of Dendra, all of which are definitely worth a visit. The pyramids at Giza are the three largest and oldest out of all the ancient pyramids built during the Old Kingdom. The most famous of these is the “great pyramid”, built for the pharaoh Kufu, who had begun planning his pyramid as soon as he ascended to the throne. The outlines of the largest pyramid ever built were marked into the desert sand by workers. Chunks of stone would be cut form nearby quarries, which would be dragged by groups of men to the pyramid’s site and set in place. Most of the workers would work during the season when the Nile River flooded as their fields would be flooded. After the first level of blocks, the workers would build ramps and bring the next set of stones up the ramp and build the next level. This took 20 years of hard work and dedication to be completed. This pyramid was built for the same purpose as any other, to preserve the pharaoh’s body for eternal life and show a sign of honor to him.
4: The ancient temple of Karnak is a historical religious site. Karnak originally began as a simple shrine, but developed over 2,000 years into a massive temple. It was believed to be home to Amun, the chief god of Thebes. Pharaoh’s would come to this temple to pray to Amun for victory in battle. The temple contained sites such as a hall aligned with 134 columns, smaller temples, a chapel, and even a sacred lake. The temple was originally built by King Amenhotep III as a dedication to Amun. Luxor is the town nearest to the ancient Egyptian capital of Thebes. It contains the ruins of the Great Temple of Amun, as the city developed around it after it was built. It was used as a site for a festival called Opet, which was celebrated when the Nile River flooded. The ancient temples of Abu Simbel were constructed by Ramses II to celebrate his thirteenth year of reign. Building a temple in honor of them self was a common thing for a pharaoh to do, however Ramses II may have done so more than any other pharaoh, as his reign lasted for 67 years. The complex consisted of two temples with statues of Ramses himself, his queen, as well as images of his children
5: The temple of Dendera was built in dedication to the Egyptian goddess Hathor. Its entirety was constructed by sandstone and is about 300 ft. long and 135 ft. wide. Its construction began during the 1st century BC in the reign of Ptolemy XI, and ended during the reign of Roman Emperor Augustus, and is very well preserved to this day. By: Joshua Bailey
6: Hatshepsut Queen Hatshepsut was the first woman Pharaoh, and also the fifth Pharaoh of the eighteenth dynasty of Ancient Egypt. She reigned from C1479-1458 BC. She was the daughter of Thutsmose I and Queen Ahmose. She believed that she had a greater claim to the throne than Thutsmose III, who was the son of Thutmose II. She declared herself the “King of Egypt”. Many people thought it was was wrong for a woman to rule. Yet, she silenced her enemies and enhanced her reputation. Hatshepsut spent her reign securing her position and fighting to be known as a prominent and respected ruler. She had a peaceful and prosperous reign. She created monumental architecture during her time as Pharaoh. She began building the temples at Karnak and Luxor.She oversaw the preparations and funding for a mission to the Land of Punt. In 1489 b.c, Hatshepsut sent a large expedition to the quarries of Aswan in Upper Egypt to acquire red granite for a pair of obelisks to be set up in the Temple of Karnak in modern day Luxor. Hatshepsut had started a tomb for herself, which was never completed. After her death Thutmose III took power and destroyed every image and name of her from every part of Egypt. Her statues were destroyed and her obelisks walled up. Her name was replaced of those of Thutmose I, II, or III. She finally died in 1358 BC.
7: Mummification Each body that was being mummified would be taken to a tent where the embalmers wash their body with good-smelling palm and wine and rinse it with water from the Nile. Then, one embalmer will make an incision on the left side of the body and remove the internal organs, besides the heart. A long metal hook is then used to smash the brain and pull it through the nose. The body is then covered and stuffed with natron, which will dry the body out. After forty days, the body is then washed again with water from the Nile, then it is covered with oils to help keep the skin stay elastic. The organs that were removed are wrapped in linen and returned to the body. Then the body is stuffed with dry materials, such as sawdust. Finally, the body is then covered again with good-smelling oils and it is ready to be wrapped in linen. Hatshepsut’s mummification process took 70 days, since she was a Pharaoh. The same process occurred with the Pharaoh besides the wrapping of the body. It was wrapped over 20 times with fine jewels placed in between layers of the body. By: Frank Clarke
8: Egyptian Map
10: Protests Rock Egypt Protests have been taking place here in Egypt because the Pharaoh has been treating us poorly. For most of the year we are stuck farming or occupied by agricultural labor of some kind and then during the flood season we have to waste our time laboring for the king. We have a right to be free and shouldn’t be laboring for the king just because the taxes are so high that we can’t afford to pay them. Then we are forced to labor for him just because we couldn’t pay. Our labor consists of rehabilitating the land, building pyramids, temples, monuments, and other buildings for the king and also maintaining the irrigation system. Even merchants are upset because the taxes on their items are set to a high price. It seems that there is only one way out of this labor. That would be become a scribe, but you cannot just simply become a scribe. You have to work your way up the classes. The bad news is that you can’t. Even though the class you are in isn’t for life it’s hard to move up the ladder of classes in your lifetime, but the good news is your family can climb that ladder by your son becoming a higher up class then his son has the chance to become a scribe. Scribes spend their time learning how to write, read, and record important events for the Pharaoh. They usually go to school until they’re about 16. Something needs to be done about our lack of freedom and how much our taxes cost. We should pray to the God’s that our protesters prevail.
11: Egyptian Calendar System Ancient Egyptians usually kept the time by checking how light or dark it was out, but there was also a better way. The water clock. The water clock was a container with marks on the inside walls and a hole in the base. When water was poured into the container it slowly dripped out of the hole in the base. This made the water level in the container drop. When water dropped from one mark to the next it meant an hour had passed. The earliest Egyptian calendar was based on the moon’s cycle, but since there was no certain way to predict the Nile’s flood the calendar failed. The Egyptians soon realized that the first day, which is called the “Dog Star” was visible right before sunrise was special. This so-called ‘heliacal rising” always took place before their flood by a few days. Based on this evidence they made a 365 day lunar calendar. The agricultural calendar was based around the Nile flooding and their flooding season. I would say that a fix to these calendars would be to simply combine them to make a calendar where both their needs are met, because two calendars can be confusing and cause problems.
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