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Depression Era

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Depression Era - Page Text Content

BC: a cartoon from the era

FC: The History of the 1930s | by: Zak Micciche, Becky Vilk, Evan Horvath, Steven Tran, Meghan Hutch, and Emily Pottier

1: The American Economy | - the roaring 20s were a time of prosperity and wealth - however, poor financial planning caused an economic meltdown in 1929 - this was the start of the Great Depression, the most severe economic depression in American history - the two main reasons for the economic crash were extensive stock market speculation and unequal distribution of wealth

2: Unequal Distribution of Wealth - the top 1% received a 75% increase in disposable income - the other 99% received an increase in disposable income by only 9% Poor Financial Planning - 80% of Americans had no savings Economic Growth - total realized income in 1923 was $74.3 billion - it jumped to $89 billion in 1929

3: European Debt - European nations owed the US $10 billion from WWI, but they were unable to pay it back - the US demanded its money back, which caused the allies to demand that Germany immediately pay the reparations that were imposed by the Treaty of Versailles - Europe was unable to purchase goods from the US

4: Farmers had to sell their land in last-minute efforts to earn more money. They went bankrupt and had to make tough decisions in order to survive.

5: Unemployed men standing out in the streets.

6: Tariffs - the US put high tariffs on their goods through the Fordney-McCumber Act in 1922 - other countries retaliated by putting high tariffs on their goods as well - this resulted in a financial stalemate between countries - there was very little trading, and therefore, very little economic growth Overproduction - factories kept producing goods even though people couldn't buy them due to low wages

7: - goods couldn't be sold overseas due to high tariffs - farm income fell in the 1920s - average family income was $750 - average farm family income was $273 - 30% of Americans still lived and worked on farms - the price of farmland fell from $69 per acre in 1920 to $31 per acre in 1930 Black Tuesday - October 29, 1929 was the day the stock market crashed and the depression officially began

8: An unemployed man in the streets.

9: The great dust storms in the 1920's and 1930's contributed greatly to the economic and social problems in the country. Here, a family looks at their house which has been destroyed by a dust storm.

10: Reasons for the Crash - stocks were over priced and not worth their sale price - massive fraud and illegal activity occurred due to a lack of regulation and rules - margin buying, or buying using credit - federal reserve monetary policy - meant to stabilize the economy by establishing a central banking system for the US - the did not address failing banks at the beginning of the depression, and their idleness caused the depression to worsen

11: Many houses were repossessed by the bank when home owners could no longer afford them. Here, a home owner is forced to sell their house.

12: The Dust Bowl Years | 1931 - at this point, there have been a number of years without enough rain - crops are dying, which loosens already extremely dry soil - farmers continue to plow and plant crops in barren soil - the dust bowl is created when high winds begin blowing the dirt and sand around

13: 1932 - there are fourteen dust storms in 1932 alone - blowing sand and dust continue to destroy farmlands 1933 - in March, FDR declared a four-day national bank holiday - in May the Emergency Farm Mortgage Act allots $200 million for refinancing mortgages to help farmers facing foreclosure - the Farm Credit Act of 1933 established local banks and credit unions in hard-hit areas

14: map of the severely affected dust bowl area

15: the sand covered everything in its path

16: - in October, there was a large strike in California's San Joaquin Valley - many displaced farmers came here to find agricultural jobs - more than 18,000 cotton workers went on strike for 24 days - to end the strike, some workers were given a 25% raise 1934 - in May, dust storms start to expand the dust bowl - the most severe drought in US history continues

17: - at this point, the drought affected about 75% of the country and affected 26 states severely - in June, the Frazier-Lemke Farm Bankruptcy Act limited the banks' ability to dispossess farmers in hard times - Roosevelt signed the Taylor Grazing Act, which donated 140 million acres of federal reserve land to livestock grazing - in December, it was announced that 35 million acres of land were destroyed and could no longer be used for crop cultivation

18: in some areas, sand piled up like snow

19: dust clouds were known to block out the sun

20: 1935 - in January, the federal government established the Drought Relief Service - the DRS bought cattle at fair prices from drought-ravaged areas of the dust bowl and destroyed those that were unfit for human consumption - in April, FDR provided $525 million for drought relief through the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act - this created the Works Progress Administration, which employed 8.5 million people - on April 14th, Black Sunday occurs - this was the worst "black blizzard" in the dust bowl years

21: - black sand swept across the dust bowl and was said to block out the sun - congress declared soil erosion a "national menace" 1936 - in May, the Soil Conservation Service published a soil conservation district law - this allowed farmers to set up their own districts to enforce soil conservation 1937 - FDR devised a plan that called for a large number of trees to be planted across the dust bowl

22: dust clouds completely enveloped towns

23: - it would cost $75 million and take 12 years - when the project was transferred to another department within the government, it was put on hold and had limited success 1938 - planting trees, re-plowing the land, and other conservation methods are put into practice - sandstorms are reduced by 65% - however, the drought continues 1939 - in the fall, rain falls again and the drought is broken

24: Presidents of the Depression | Herbert Hoover - he was the 31st president of the US - he was a republican - the depression began in the first year of his presidency - his response was generally seen as a day late and a dollar short - however, he did push for measures to combat the depression - these included tax hikes on the wealthy, tariffs, and public works programs - these measures returned little immediate benefit, but they greatly assisted FDR later - he tried his best to fix the depression, but believed most of the aid should come from local sources

25: Herbert Hoover was the 31st president of the United States

26: President Hoover was seen as distant and cold

27: - he wanted to avoid creating a welfare-dependent society - therefore, his federal response was rather weak - Hoover was mocked by the public - shanty towns that sprang up across the country were called "Hoovervilles" - he was seen as distant and unsympathetic to the plight of the common man - he ran again in 1932, but was defeated by FDR Franklin Delano Roosevelt - he was the 32nd president of the US and he was a democrat - he was elected on the promise of fixing the depression

28: - due to a democrat-controlled congress, he was able to start passing the "Alphabet Soup" acts that made up the New Deal - The New Deal was a large collection of public relief programs that regulated business, provided economic support and work opportunities, and reformed the financial institutions of the country - his programs were generally successful, and the country began to recover by the late 1930s - WWII helped to bring the country out of the depression - FDR is the only president to be elected four times - he had polio, which prevented him from walking - however, the press agreed to never photograph him in his wheelchair

29: President Roosevelt hid his disability from the public

30: Hoover addresses Congress

31: - he also had a flair for PR, which helped him to get elected four times - despite allegations of "Socializing” the country, his acts and policies received wide support - his detractors were usually republicans who saw his policies as overly socialist - during this time, the two parties began to take on their modern roles

32: In the 1932 election, FDR won against Hoover in a landslide.

33: Arts and Science in the 1930s | Literature - many of America's most distinguished writers produced works of fiction during the 1930s - some of the novels of this time explored what was happening during the Great Depression - John Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath chronicled the life of a displaced Oklahoma family during th Dust Bowl Years - Richard Wright took on the issue of racial prejudice and the plight of the blacks in Native Son - the poet Carl Sandburg published the poem "The People, Yes" in 1936

34: the musical "Anything Goes" was produced by Cole Porter

35: "Snow White" was the first full-length animated movie

36: - one of the most renowned children's authors of the time was Dr. Seuss - he delighted children with his rhyming books that taught them how to read Music - music during this time expressed the joys and hardships of the depression era - it was made popular by the radio and movie theaters - a popular song was "It Don't Mean a Thing (If it Ain't got that Swing)" by Duke Ellington - during this time, Broadway produced some of the most famous and lasting American musicals

37: - one of them was "Anything Goes", produced by Cole Porter - in 1931, congress designated "The Star Spangled Banner" as America's national anthem - many wanted "God Bless America" to be the anthem, but congress decided that the former was easier to sing Film - the 1930s are often referred to as Hollywood's "Golden Age" - it turned out movie after movie to entertain Americans during the depression

38: Americans fell in love with the sweet young actress known as "Shirley Temple"

39: "Gone With the Wind" is one of the most successful and popular movies of all time

40: - going to the movies was an easy and inexpensive way to escape real life for an hour or two - Clark Gable, Bette Davis, Greta Garbo, Errol Flynn, W.C. Fields, Bob Hope, and the Marx Brothers were popular stars of the time - America fell in love with the little curly-haired girl known as Shirley Temple - people flocked to theaters to see her tap dance and sing - one of the most successful films of all time was "Gone With the Wind", which debuted in 1939

41: Science - the many scientific advancements during the 30s paved the way for a better quality life for future generations - one innovation was a new and safer way to perform blood transfusions - this saved many soldiers in the war to come - in 1931, Dr. Gibbon and Dr. Churchill first used phenobarbitone for anesthesia - this also helped to save soldiers in WWII - in 1935, the first vaccine for yellow fever was introduced - in 1935, Dr. Gibbon, Jr. successfully used a heart-lung machine during surgery

42: in 1932, rubber tires began to replace steel wheels on tractors

43: the first copy machine was created in 1938

44: - this operation is now commonly used today - in 1937, Chicago's Cook County Hospital opened the first blood bank that stored blood given by live donors - it could last 10 days in refrigeration - also in 1937, the first vaccine for typhus was used Technology - in the 1930s, the majority of farm tools were made out of steel instead of wood - in 1932, rubber tires began replacing steel tires on tractors - later in the decade, tractors were built with diesel engines, which made them more powerful

45: - in 1939, Professor Albert Einstein recommended to President Roosevelt the development of an atomic bomb - in 1930, Pluto was discovered - in 1938, American physicist Chester F. Carlson made the first copy by an electrostatic process called xerography

46: The Role of Women in the 1930s | - when the depression hit many men lost their jobs - in order to support their families, many women sought work outside their homes - women workers were often frowned upon - when more women started getting jobs, many people became outraged and accused them of stealing good jobs from out-of-work men

47: woman working in a glove factory around 1930

48: - in 1930, the percent of women workers 14 and older was 24.3% - this number jumped 1% in 1940, which stood for a gain of 2 million jobs - most women held nursing, sales, factory, an clerical jobs - in 1939, a study showed that the number of men unemployed matched the number of women employed - critics of women workers suggested that women give up their jobs for unemployed men

49: women working in a hat factory around 1930

50: - in 1933, Frances Perkins became the first woman to be appointed as a cabinet member - President Roosevelt assigned her as the Secretary of Labor - her acceptance as a cabinet member would pave the way for other women in government - from 1933 to present day, there have been a total of 25 female cabinet members

51: Frances Perkins became Secretary of Labor in 1933

52: - Eleanor Roosevelt also had an important role in politics - she was a major influence in government activity during the Great Depression - she used her position as first lady to support equal pay for women and equal rights for African Americans - she also took part in the New Deal’s first resettlement project that would help Authurdale, an impoverished mining community

53: first lady Eleanor Roosevelt showed that women could take an active role in their government to help better their communities

54: - the view of women workers in the US changed after the depression - the labor force lacked employees once men left their jobs in order to serve in WWII - the government knew they had to do something to keep businesses thriving - the US used propaganda to get women to join the workforce - they suggested that women had a responsibility as American citizens to help the country in its time of need

55: this poster, known as Rosie the Riveter, gained the US 2 million women workers

56: Education and Segregation in the 1930s | Schools - the depression caused school budget cuts around the country - salaries for teachers dropped by 10 to 20% - many teachers formed unions - some teachers were expected to work for free - teaching and testing were standardized

57: schools all over America were facing budget crises

58: Segregation - black and white students went to different schools - white schools received better funding, while black schools received mostly second-hand materials - even during the depression, white schools received significantly more funding

59: this is a black school from the era - it is clearly more run-down than white schools

60: Drop-Out Rate - many students left school early in order to find jobs - 3 million children between the ages of 7 and 17 left school - 40% of people between the ages of 16 and 24 were not in school or working - the drop-out rate continued to increase until the 1970s

61: this is a white school

62: Classes and Students - the average class size was 15-30 students per teacher - grades k-6 went to school from 9am to 3pm - most children walked to school, even if it was miles away - a failing grade was 75% or below

63: average class size in the 1930s

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