S: Second Language Acquisition in the Content Areas
BC: The End
FC: By: Kara L. Krause | Second Language Acquisition in the Content Areas
1: My Instructional Environment and the ELLs I Serve | The ELLs I Serve One hundred percent of my 33 kindergarten students are ELL students. All of them speak some variation of Hmong. Some speak Hmong fluently at home with their families, some only with certain family members, and some only English. The majority of my students were born in the United States, but a handful of students were born in Thailand or Laos. These students who were born overseas are refugees. Like my students their families were either born in the United States or in Thailand or Laos. Some parents are second generation and some are first. About half of my student’s parents speak English and the other half cannot speak English or may speak and understand a very limited amount. | My Instructional Environment My school provides a shelter instruction for brand new refugee students in order to help them become acclimated to a school environment and learn basic vocabulary, letters and sounds, numbers, etc. All other students are placed into a regular classroom. Our ELL students do not receive any special ELL services. They are served by their classroom teacher who tries to meet the needs of all of her ELL learners needs. At Hmong American Peace Academy kindergarteners are held to high expectations. It functions like a mini first grade. We are required to teach first grade math and all students are expected to read at a first grade level by the time they finish kindergarten. We do not have time for dramatic play or many typical developmental kindergarten activities nor are they encouraged. The schools philosophy is that academic rigor will provide students with the discipline and motivation necessary to attend college.
2: ACCESS for ELLs Score Grid
3: 3 First Language Acquisition Theories Behaviorist: Children imitate the language used in their environment, receive positive reinforcement, and eventually form correct habits of language use. Innatist/Nativist: Humans are biologically programmed for language. Interactional/Developmental: Humans learn language through experience. Piaget says that children's language is built on their cognitive development. Vygotsky says that Language develops primarily from social interaction and in a supportive environment children are able to advance to a higher level of knowledge and performance. (ZPD & ZAD)
4: 5 Second Language Aquisition Theories Krashen's theory of second language acquisition consists of five main hypotheses: 1. Acquisition Learning Hypothesis According to Krashen, there are two ways of developing language ability. Acquisition involves the subconscious acceptance of knowledge where information is stored in the brain through the use of communication; this is the process used for developing native languages. Learning, on the other hand, is the conscious acceptance of knowledge 'about' a language. Krashen states that this is often the product of formal language instruction. 2. Monitor Hypothesis This hypothesis further explains how acquisition and learning are used; the acquisition system, initiates an utterance and the learning system 'monitors' the utterance to inspect and correct errors. Krashen states that monitoring can make some contribution to the accuracy of an utterance but its use should be limited. He suggests that the 'monitor' can sometimes act as a barrier as it forces the learner to slow down and focus more on accuracy as opposed to fluency. 3.Natural Order Hypothesis According to Krashen, learners acquire parts of language in a predictable order. For any given language, certain grammatical structures are acquired early while others are acquired later in the process. This hypothesis suggests that this natural order of acquisition occurs independently of deliberate teaching and therefore teachers cannot change the order of grammatical teaching sequence. 4. Input Hypothesis This hypothesis suggests that language acquisition occurs when learners receive messages that they can understand, a concept also known as comprehensible input. However, Krashen also suggests that this comprehensible input should be one step beyond the learner's current language ability, represented as i+1, in order to allow learners to continue to progress with their language development. 5. Affective Filter Hypothesis According to Krashen one obstacle that manifests itself during language acquisition is the affective filter; that is a 'screen' that is influenced by emotional variables that can prevent learning. This hypothetical fliter does not impact acquisition directly but rather prevents input from reaching the brain. According to Krashen the affective filter can be prompted by many different variables including anxiety, self-confidence, motivation, and stress.
5: Narrative: Understanding First and Second Language Acquisition Impacts my Teaching of ELLs in that I am more aware of how students learn and develop language. The developmental theory advocates that humans learn language through experience. Piaget says that children's language is built on their cognitive development. Vygotsky says that Language develops primarily from social interaction and in a supportive environment children are able to advance to a higher level of knowledge and performance. This information tells me that the learning environment and the experiences I provide within the classroom are a huge influence on the language acquisition of my students. The importance of classroom environment is also evident in Krashen's Affective Filter Hypothesis. Krashen's theories also impact my teaching in that they tell me that ELL students need teaching that they can relate to and understand through mediums that are familiar to them (input hypothesis). His Natural Order Hypothesis states that teachers cannot change the order of grammatical teaching sequence. This also makes me aware that I need to understand where my students are in language acquisition and teach grammar appropriately so students can understand and learn at their level.
6: WIDA CAN DO Descriptors: A Cool Tool
7: WIDA CAN DO Descriptors are useful for teachers because... 1. They illustrate how English language learners process and use language proficiency standard, language domain, and language proficiency level by grade level cluster. 2. They outline how English language learners process and use language for each level of language proficiency in grades K-12. 3. They describe how English language learners process and use language for each language domain and level of language proficiency by grade level cluster. 4. They document how English language learners process and use language in the domain of speaking or writing for each level of language proficiency based on three criteria: linguistic complexity, vocabulary usage, and language control in grades K-12. | Detailed Differentiation Responses: 1.) Have Rhino verbally tell you episodes from the story that he remembers in his own words - you write them down on cards, shuffle and have him lay them out in order. 2.) The profile described Rhino as having better listening than speaking skills. I would use pictures cards of events in the story with one or two words describing each. Allow him to put them in order and explain to a parter with native language experience, then retell again to another partner using the supports (pictures, interactive, scaffolded practice) for guidance. 3.) You could module sequencing as a whole group once or twice using a different story before having having him do so individual. I also like the idea of having a partner who he can retell the story to but perhaps have the other child start first to give him a better idea of what he is suppose to do. 4.)How about a card with the number and dots to match underneath? Have her put them in order with a partner and practice saying the numbers, and counting up to them as well. As she improves, have her use just a number card and put the number of counters that match the number under the card.
8: Building Background Knowledge for ELLs
9: Narrative: What I Learned After researching and implementing several strategies for building background knowledge with ELL students, I learned how crucial it is to helping ELL students make connections to content. As a teacher I have the power and responsibility to make sure all of my students meet district and state standards. By creating more opportunities for students to connect their prior knowledge or new experience to classroom content can help students become more successful academically, as well as increase their self esteem. Helping students understand what they are going to be learning about in context to their life or experiences is powerful and necessary when working with ELLs. | Websites to Support Teachers: http://www.everythingesl.net http://www.colorincolorado.org/ http://www.eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/index.jsp http://www.eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/index.jsp
10: Supporting Academic Reading for ELLS
11: Narrative: What I learned Supporting Ells before, during, and after reading is key when helping Ells to be successful readers. Implementing Academic reading strategies increase overall comprehension of text and academic concepts. Through using academic reading strategies with students, I can help my Ells master the academic language that we are working with as well as help them understand the concepts we are learning more successfully because students are supported throughout the learning process from introduction to assessment. | Differentiation using the Can Dos Reading Domain Grid
12: Supporting ELLs within Writing
13: Narrative: How I can support ELLs in Writing It is crucial that ELL students are supported in learning to write and learning to write in specific genre. In order to support ELLs in writing I need to build the field, or in other words build background knowledge, experiences, and academic language students will need in order to write in a particular genre. Next, I can support ELLs by modeling what the genre of writing SPECIFICALLY looks and sounds like. It is so important to verbally explain and show what the genre you are expecting students to do. Thirdly, I can support my students in their writing by helping them construct their writing through interaction and conversation. Finally, students need to have time to write independently at the end of this process. As the teacher, my job is to ask probing questions to make sure students are using and understand the academic language they are working with in a particular genre.
14: Kindergarten Sequence Graphic Organizer
15: Useful Tips for Creating Graphic Organizers 1.) Make it grade level appropriate. 2.) Make sure your organizer scaffolds the organization of the particular genre/ 3.) Include specific language features according to your genre. 4.) Make it engaging!
16: Creating A Language Learning Rich Environment
17: Narrative: Useful Strategies to Create a Language-rich Environment I can increase the academic language in my classroom by incorporating activities that incorporate all four learning domains (listening, speaking, reading, and writing). It is also highly important that students feel safe to share with others. Some strategies that can create a language -rich environment include extending teacher-student exchanges, giving students time to think, appropriating and recasting student language, encouraging literate talk, and making reasoning explicit. | 3 Useful Strategies for Teachers 1.) Picture Sequencing-Have a set of pictures that show predictable sequence. Students will work in small groups or pairs to place cards in order. Students should not show their picture to peers, instead they need to put the cards in order by describing their picture. 2.) Picture-sentence Matching-Provide pairs of students with a set of picture cards and a set of sentences that explain the cards. Student A has the pictures, student B the sentences. Student A describes the picture to student B and student B chooses the picture to match the sentences. 3.) Word-picture Matching-Students can match key words to pictures. For example, students could cut out magazine pictures that represent the three stages of matter and label the state both in their mother tongue and in English.