S: American Home Front Scrapbook Project
BC: Olivia Mokler & Paige McGaffick Period 7
FC: Lucienne Victoria Bloch Age: 10
1: Our first family photograph of my mother, father and myself when I was an infant.
2: Ms. Lucienne Bloch 2371 Grovemont Ave. New York City, Ny Air Service A.E.F
3: Dear Princess, I’m so glad that you wrote me, Lucienne. No drill today, so I will have time to write a letter or two. It has been so long since I’ve seen you. How's little Walter and your mother doing? I miss you all so much, and I pray for the day that this war comes to an end. Please pass my love on to your brother and mother for me. We arrived at the front line just over a week ago, and the smell was so bad that many of the men were sick. To describe the smell would be an impossible task, but some of the causes will give you an idea of just how bad it is. Body odor from men who haven't had a decent wash for weeks, dead bodies rotting in shallow graves, the smell of exploded bombs, and the odor of Mustard gas which lingers for a few days after the attack all add to the unpleasantness of the trenches.The rain is a constant companion flooding the trenches and turning the floor into mud. It is so bad that some of the men are getting sores on their feet and can hardly walk with the pain. Sleep is so hard to come by with the constant booming and banging of the shells from both sides, my bed is a bunk which has been placed in a dug out section of the trench, a mud roof, a mud floor, and the constant threat of a stray shell keep me awake at night. I can't wait until I can sleep in my own house and bed again feeling safe. I hope to come home soon. Lots of love, Daddy
4: Efforts of American Women
5: The social changes caused by labor shortages. Women performed jobs previously thought to be "mans book" in factories. Valuable contribution during the war led to the passage of the 19th Amendment. When the U.S. entered the war, a nationwide Woman's Committee of the Council of National Defense was established to coordinate the war work of existing organizations of women.
6: African Americans moved north in large numbers. Hoped to escape racial violence , discrimination and prejudice in south. Seeking war production work opportunities. Great Migration led to northern race-riots! African Americans migrated to escape racism, and to find jobs in the city. It was the largest movement northward and into cities that had occurred among African Americans to that point in history.
7: Great Migration
8: 1918 Flu Epidemic
9: The influenza pandemic of 1918-1919 killed more people than the Great War, known today as World War I (WWI), at somewhere between 20 and 40 million people. It has been cited as the most devastating epidemic in recorded world history. More people died of influenza in a single year than in four-years of the Black Death Bubonic Plague from 1347 to 1351. Known as "Spanish Flu" or "La Grippe" the influenza of 1918-1919 was a global disaster. In the fall of 1918 the Great War in Europe was winding down and peace was on the horizon. The Americans had joined in the fight, bringing the Allies closer to victory against the Germans. Deep within the trenches these men lived through some of the most brutal conditions of life, which it seemed could not be any worse. Then, in pockets across the globe, something erupted that seemed as benign as the common cold. The influenza of that season, however, was far more than a cold. In the two years that this scourge ravaged the earth, a fifth of the world's population was infected. The flu was most deadly for people ages 20 to 40. This pattern of morbidity was unusual for influenza which is usually a killer of the elderly and young children. It infected 28% of all Americans. An estimated 675,000 Americans died of influenza during the pandemic, ten times as many as in the world war. Of the U.S. soldiers who died in Europe, half of them fell to the influenza virus and not to the enemy. An estimated 43,000 servicemen mobilized for WWI died of influenza.
10: Anti-German (propaganda posters) | C.P.I. | Discrimination in workplace | Acts of violence | Towns with German names were changed | Changed food item names | German books removed from library
11: Propaganda generated by the U.S Government | Twice in the twentieth century the United States government formally established agencies whose purpose was to generate and mobilize public support for war. The Committee on Public Information (CPI) during World War I and the Office of War Information (OWI) during World War II directed extensive wartime propaganda efforts at the American public as well as foreign audiences.
12: World War I Victory Liberty Loan Poster. Funding to fight the war was partially raised through the sale of War Bonds to the U.S. Government by its citizens. | World War I Victory Liberty Loan Poster. Funding to fight the war was partially raised through the sale of War Bonds to the U.S. Government by its citizens.
13: In World War I the Secretary of the Treasury, William Gibbs McAdoo, hoped to create a broad market for government bonds, the famous Liberty Loans, by following an aggressive policy of "capitalizing patriotism." He called on everyone from Wall Street bankers to the Boy Scouts to volunteer for the campaigns to sell the bonds. He helped recruit the nation's best known artists to draw posters depicting the contribution to the war effort to be made by buying bonds, and he organized giant bond rallies featuring Hollywood stars such as Douglas Fairbanks, Mary Pickford, and Charlie Chaplin. These efforts, however, enjoyed little success. The yields on the Liberty bonds were kept low mainly by making the bonds tax exempt and by making sure that a large proportion of them was purchased directly or indirectly by the Federal Reserve. Patriotism proved to be a weak offset to normal market forces. | Financing the War
14: Factory Work
15: World War 1 was a pivotal time for women. This is because it gave women an opportunity to prove themselves in a male-dominated society, doing more than cleaning the house and tending to the children. With so many men going to war, there was a large gap in employment and, in response, women came in to replace the men. Some of the more well-known roles of women in WW1 include: nurses, munitions factory workers, sewing bandages, and selling war bonds, shipyards and spies. The Women's Royal Air Force was created, which is where women worked on planes as mechanics. By 1917 its was surveyed that 68% of women had changed jobs since the war began, 16% had moved out of domestic service, 22% that were unemployed in 1914 now had work and 23% had changed factories (from one factory to another).
16: In his plans for the U.S. Food Administration, Woodrow Wilson emphasized public voluntarism, or the “willingness” of democracy. He recognized a nation that revered the efficiency of business and a libertarian spirit. Before 1917 the US government had been hesitant to interfere in “the freedom of individual initiative” or in the economic matters of private business. Some members of Congress strongly objected to granting unprecedented power to war agencies like the Food Administration, even when the public supported it. Wilson sought to grant the Food Administration the power to control food supplies, distribution and pricing. The president's opponents feared control over profits and a “revamping of the economic order” of the country. Supporters pointed to the “oppressive price of food” and “the violence of starving thousands” in Europe. | Voluntary rationing seemed like the best and only realistic approach for a government hesitant to expand its powers and for a public believed to be comprised of rational, cooperative individuals. The “reason-why” style of advertising, which used convincing prose to rationalize a smart purchase, served as a model for many war messages. Consequently, WWI posters were careful to explain, often with highly rational detail, why wartime cooperation and voluntary behavior changes were necessary. The U.S. Food Administration consulted with modern home economists to help establish guidelines for the homefront. The economists recommended “wheatless” and “meatless” days, believing that “if Americans could be taught about interchangeability of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates,” they could be persuaded to adopt the concept of substitution. | Personal Sacrifices in Regards to Food
17: Civil Liberties | A. Committee on Public Information propaganda effectively cast Germans as evil force in World War I. B. Espionage and Sedition Acts 1. Loosely worded laws which gave the government wide authority to prosecute war critics 2. Numerous arrests and convictions with long prison sentences for those seen as "disloyal" 3. Supreme Court upheld acts, using "clear and present danger" doctrine to limit free speech in time of war C. Persecution of radicals: Wilson administration focused on IWW and Socialist Party as targets of suppression | Civil Liberties