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Passages from Poland & Russia: Silverman Family

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S: Passages from Poland & Russia: The Silvermans

BC: 2013 | Mayer Kirshenblatt’s “Purim Play: The Krakow Wedding"

FC: Passages from Poland & Russia: The Silverman Family

1: "If I seem to see more or appear taller than others, it is because I stand on the shoulders of giants.” --Sir Isaac Newton 1676 --Bernard of Chartres 1159 | by Linda Parker Woodward 2013 for Stacey's 46th Birthday April 28, 2013 Left: Sarah & Bill Silverman; Right: Charlie & Stacey Silverman-Heit

2: Susan, Charlie, Sarah, Alex, Lynn & Bill Silverman Florida, 1970s

3: Sarah Silverman's Memoirs March 15, 1979 Sarah Silverman took time to write down all she could remember of her family history in Poland and Brooklyn for her granddaughter, Stacey Cathleen Silverman-Heit. She wrote two separate memoirs-one for her own family & one for her husband Bill's. We cherish her memory and all the hard times she endured to cross the Atlantic to the safety of the United States. She always said the Silvermans were closely related to Pulitzer-prize winning Harvard historian Oscar Handlin. While she was learning English in Brooklyn, her future husband was working in a family candy store in Hearne, Texas. There was no temple there, so William (Bill) Silverman attended a Methodist Sunday School. When Stacey was born April 28, 1967, Sarah flew to Ann Arbor to meet her. We flew to Flushing ~December to meet Gertrude. It was love at first sight with Stacey. In 1968, Gertrude made her first plane trip to Ann Arbor to visit her new great-grandchild, Stacey Cathleen Silverman. We had a great time as I made homemade noodles, similar to her kreplach. She gave Stacey a bright pink, plaid wool blanket as a gift. And, she was there when Bobby Kennedy was shot on June 6, 1968; Stacey walked the day of his funeral which both GG & I watched, riveted. She died of a sudden heart attack 3 months later in September in her apartment in Brooklyn. When her mother Gertrude (originally Gitler on the 1920 ship passenger list) died, Sarah converted an extra bedroom in her Flushing, NY home into a memorial room for her mother who had been a seamstress with the International Ladies Garment Workers Union all her life. She planted trees in Israel in her memory also. We will always honor the courage they had in leaving all family memorabilia and treasures behind in Poland to start a new life in America. We remember the rough sea passage that immigrants endured to be able to light candles on a distant shore where their fate was unknown. | Sarah Silverman History

4: Chachmei Lublin Yeshiva | Lublin Water-Carrier | Passage on Olav Hellig 3,843 Miles Copenhagen, Denmark to Brooklyn, NY 1920 | Olav Hellig Ship Burden 10,085 Gross; Built 1902 at Glasgow by Alexander Stephen & Sons; Owner: Scandinavian America Line; Dimensions 500.8ft x 58.3ft x 29.2ft ; First Sailing 1903 | Lublin, Poland to Copenhagen, Denmark 512 Miles

5: Lublin, Poland Collage | Lublin is the ninth largest city in Poland, and the second largest city of Lesser Poland. It is the capital of Lublin Voivodeship with a population of 349,103. Lublin is the largest Polish city east of the Vistula River.

6: Sarah Silverman History

7: Sarah Silverman History

8: JEWISH SITES OF INTEREST IN LUBLIN Very little remains of the former Jewish quarter of Lublin. There is a monument to the victims of the Holocaust in the square between ul. Rady Delegatow and ul. Hanki Sawickiej. One small synagogue remains on the upper floor of the building on ul. Lubartowska 8/10. At the synagogue, there is a small display of ritual and historical documents of the Jewish community of Lublin. Commemorative plaques can be found at the base of the castle steps for the Jewish town that stood at the spot. Another plaque can be found on the inside of the walls at ul. Grodzka 11, the site of the former Jewish orphanage, where Jewish children were murdered by the Nazis on March 24, 1942. The former yeshiva, built in 1924 on ul. Lubartowska 85, is the current Medical Academy building. Inside, there remains an old lecture room of the yeshiva, as well as commemorative room showing the history of the building. The Cemetery The old Jewish cemetery attracts many visitors. It contains tombstones dating back to the early 1500s. It is the oldest Jewish cemetery in Poland, which still exists. Many of the tombstones were destroyed by the Nazis, however, some remain. The cemetery contains the tombstone of Jacob Kopelman ha Levi (died in 1541), which is the oldest tombstone in Poland, the tombstone of Shalom Shachna, who died in 1558 and the tombstone of Tzaddik Jacob Isaac ha Hozen (1745-1815), the Seer of Lublin, which is a site of pilgrimage for Jews around the world. A new Jewish cemetery, on ul. Waleczynch, was established in 1829 and was seriously damaged during the Holocaust. It is still used today by the small Jewish community and has a number of Holocaust memorials. Restoration of the cemetery has begun. Majdanek About two miles from Lublin is the Majdanek death camp. More than 350,000 people were killed here, including 100,000 Jews. Today a museum documents the history of the camp and a monument made from mounds of human ashes commemorates victims of the Nazi extermination. --by Rebecca Weiner http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vjw/Lublin.html

9: Center-New Jewish Cemetery & Iron Gates of Memory to it Top right: Marie Curie Statue, Gates to Crakow-Old Town Center bottom: Kazimir the Great Chapel, 1418 in Lublin Castle; Map, Lublin Old Town | Lublin Invasions Poland Lithuania Russo-Ukrainian Swedish Austo-Hungarian German

10: The first permanent settlements on the future site of Lublin were established in the early Middle Ages, though archeological finds indicate a long, earlier presence of cultures in the general area. The earliest, most significant settlement began in the 6th century on a hill in the suburb of Czwartek (in Polish Thursday, most likely in reference to the market day of the settlement). It is likely that the surrounding hills, site of the present day Old Town, were settled at this time. In the 10th and 11th centuries, the Czwartek settlement became an important trade centre. The location of Lublin at the eastern borders of the Polish lands gave it military significance. The first fortification on the site may have been built as early as the 8th century, possibly on the Castle Hill. Certainly at the end of the 10th century a significant fortification existed there. As the castle grew, the Old Town hill adjacent to it became the main focus of settlement, and the Czwartek settlement declined in relative importance. The castle became the seat of a Castellan, first mentioned in historical sources from 1224, but quite possibly present from the start of the 12th or even 10th century. The oldest historical document mentioning Lublin dates from 1198, so the name must have come into general use some time earlier. The city was a target of attacks by Tatars, Ruthenes, Yotvingians, and Lithuanians and was destroyed several times. It received a city charter in 1317. Casimir the Great, appreciating the site's strategic importance, built a masonry castle in 1341 and encircled the city with a defensive wall. In 1392, the city received an important trade privilege from king Wadysaw Jagieo, and with the coming of the peace between Poland and Lithuania developed into a trade centre, handling a large portion of commerce between the two countries. In 1474 the area around Lublin was carved out of Sandomierz Voivodeship and combined to form the Lublin Voivodeship, the third voivodeship of Lesser Poland. During the 15th century and 16th century the town grew rapidly. The largest trade fairs of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth were held in Lublin. During the 16th century the noble parliaments (sejm) were held in Lublin several times. On June 26, 1569, one of the most important proclaimed the Union of Lublin, which united Poland and Lithuania. The Lithuanian name for the city is Liublinas. Some of the artists and writers of the 16th century Polish renaissance lived and worked in Lublin, including Sebastian Klonowic and Jan Kochanowski, who died in the city in 1584. In 1578 the Crown Tribunal, the highest court of the Lesser Poland region, was established in Lublin. Since the second half of the 16th century, Protestant Reformation movements devolved in Lublin, and a large congregation of Polish Brethren was present in the city. One of Poland's most important Jewish communities was also established in Lublin around this time. Jews established a widely respected yeshiva, Jewish hospital, synagogue, cemetery, and education center (kahal) and built the Grodzka Gate (known as the Jewish Gate) in the historic district. Jews were a vital part of the city's life until they were destroyed in the Nazi Holocaust. Between 1580 and 1764 the Jewish Council of Four Lands Arba Aracot (Sejm of four countries) was held in Lublin in which approximately seventy delegates from local kahals met to discuss taxation and other issues important to Jewish communities. | Lublin, Poland to Post-WW II

11: Students came to Lublin from all over Europe to study at the yeshiva there. The yeshiva became a centre of learning of both Talmud and Kabbalah, leading the city to be called "the Jewish Oxford"; in 1567, the rosh yeshiva (headmaster) received the title of rector from the king along with rights and privileges equal to those of the heads of Polish universities. In the 17th century, the town declined due to a Russo-Ukrainian invasion in 1655 and a Swedish invasion during the Northern Wars. After the third of the Partitions of Poland in 1795 Lublin was located in the Austrian empire, then since 1809 in the Duchy of Warsaw, and then since 1815 in the Congress Poland under Russian rule. At the beginning of the 19th century new squares, streets, and public buildings were built. In 1877 a railway connection to Warsaw and Kovel and Lublin Station was constructed, spurring industrial development. Lublin's population grew from 28,900 in 1873 to 50,150 in 1897 (including 24,000 Jews). Russian rule ended in 1915, when the city was occupied by German and Austro-Hungarian armies. After the defeat of the Central Powers in 1918, the first government of independent Poland operated in Lublin for a short time. In the interwar years, the city continued to modernize and its population grew; important industrial enterprises were established, including the first aviation factory in Poland, the Plage i Lakiewicz works, later nationalized as the LWS factory. The Catholic University of Lublin was founded in 1918. The city also contained a vibrant Jewish community that comprised nearly half of Lublin's population. After the 1939 German invasion of Poland the city found itself in the General Government. During the German occupation the city's population was a target of severe Nazi oppression focusing on Jews. Germans aimed to "Germanise" the city with an influx of ethnic Germans growing toward 20%-25%, compared with 10%-15% in 1939. Near Lublin, a reservation for Jews was built on the Nisko Plan, also known as the "Lublin Plan." The city served as a headquarters for Operation Reinhardt, the main German effort to exterminate the Jews in occupied Poland. The Jewish population was forced into a ghetto near Podzamcze. The majority of the ghetto's inhabitants, about 26,000 people, was deported to the Beec extermination camp between 17 March and 11 April 1942. The remainder were moved to facilities around Majdanek, a large concentration camp established at the outskirts of the city. Most of them had been murdered by war's end. After the war, the few surviving Jews in hiding or Soviet territory reestablished a small Jewish community in the city, but it quickly shrank to insignificance, as most Jews left Poland for Israel and the West. The Majdanek camp, with the prison established in the Lublin castle, served as a major source of terrorist activities aimed at the non-Jewish population of Lublin and the surrounding district. On 24 July 1944, the city was taken by the Soviet Army and became the temporary capital of a Soviet-controlled communist Polish Committee of National Liberation established in the city, which was to serve as basis for a puppet government. The capital was moved to Warsaw in January 1945. In the postwar years Lublin continued to grow, tripling its population and greatly expanding in area. A considerable scientific and research base was established around the newly founded Maria Curie-Sklodowska University. A large automobile factory (FSC) was established in the city. --Excerpts, Wikipedia 2013

12: Sarah Silverman History

13: Sarah Silverman History

14: Sarah Silverman History

15: Letter from Sarah Silverman to Stacey Cathleen Silverman-Heit March 15, 1979 Right: Ellis Island, Castle Gardens & Brooklyn NY; Bridge photo by Rachel Heit

16: Gitler & Sarah Hertz Arrival Dec.. 21, 1920 Lines 18 (Gitler) & 20 (Sarah)

17: "Happiness is like a butterfly which, when pursued, is always beyond our grasp, but, if you will sit down quietly, may alight upon you." NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE | Castle Gardens, Ellis Island, NY December 21, 1920 | "When we settled, living in one room in the house of my father's relatives, the Cholera epidemic broke out.....Almost all people affected with Cholera die, but I was one of the very few to survive. All those years, from 1912 until 1919 was a very trying time."-Sarah Silverman

18: History of Brooklyn, NY Brooklyn (/brkln/) is the most populous of New York City's five boroughs, with approximately 2.5 million residents, and the second-largest in area. Since 1896, Brooklyn has had the same boundaries as Kings County, which is now the most populous county in New York State and the second-most densely populated county in the United States, after New York County (Manhattan). It is also the westernmost county on Long Island. Today, if it were an independent city, Brooklyn would rank as the fourth most populous city in the U.S., behind only the other boroughs of New York City combined, Los Angeles, and Chicago. Brooklyn was an independent city until January 1, 1898 when, according to the Charter of "Greater New York," Brooklyn was consolidated with the other boroughs to form the modern "City of New York." It continues to maintain a distinct culture. Many Brooklyn neighborhoods are ethnic enclaves where particular ethnic groups and cultures predominate. Brooklyn's official motto is Eendraght Maeckt Maght. Written in the (early modern spelling of the) Dutch language, it is inspired by the motto of the United Dutch Provinces (currently the official motto of Belgium) and translated "Unity makes strength." The motto is displayed on the borough seal and flag, which also feature a young robed woman bearing fasces, a traditional emblem of Republicanism. Brooklyn's official colors are blue and gold. Originally, Brooklyn consists of six separate Dutch towns, all chartered by the Dutch West India Company, settled between 1645-1661. 1664 - The English Take Control. In 1664, the English conquer the Dutch and gain control of Manhattan, along with Brooklyn, which then becomes a part of the colony of New York. On November 1, 1683, the six colonies that make up Brooklyn are established as Kings County. 1776 - The Battle of Brooklyn. It is August of 1776 when the Battle of Brooklyn, one of the first skirmishes between the British and the Americans in the Revolutionary War, takes place. George Washington positions troops in Brooklyn, and fighting occurs throughout many present-day neighborhoods, including Flatbush and Park Slope. The British defeat the Americans, but because of bad weather, the American troops are able to flee to Manhattan. Many soldiers are thus saved. 1783 - America Rules. Though controlled by the British during the war, New York officially becomes an American state with the signing of the Treaty of Paris. 1 801 to 1883 - Famous Landmarks are Built. In 1801, the Brooklyn Navy Yard opens. A little more than a decade later, in 1814, the steam ship Nassau begins service between Brooklyn and Manhattan. Brooklyn's economy grows, and it is incorporated as the City of Brooklyn in 1834. Soon after, in 1838, the Green-Wood Cemetery is created. Twenty years later, in 1859, the Brooklyn Academy of Music is formed. Prospect Park opens to the public in 1867, and one of Brooklyn's most famous landmarks, the Brooklyn Bridge, is opened in 1883. Late 1800s - Brooklyn Thrives. In 1897, the Brooklyn Museum opens, though at the time it is known as the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences. In 1898, Brooklyn merges with New York City and becomes one of its five boroughs. The next year, in 1899, the Brooklyn Children's Museum, the world's first children's museum, opens its doors to the public. Early 1900s - Bridges, Tunnels, and a Sports Stadium. When the Williamsburg Bridge opens in 1903, it is the largest suspension bridge in the world. Five years later, in 1908, the city's first subway begins running trains between Brooklyn and Manhattan. In 1909, the Manhattan Bridge is completed. Ebbets Field opens in 1913, and the Brooklyn Dodgers, formerly known as the Bridegrooms and then the Trolley Dodgers, have a new place to play. 1929 to 1964 - A Skyscraper Comes to Brooklyn. Brooklyn's tallest building, the Williamsburgh Savings Bank, is completed in 1929. In 1957, the New York Aquarium comes to Coney Island, and the Dodgers leave Brooklyn. Seven years later, in 1964, the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge is completed, connecting Brooklyn to Staten Island. 1964 to Present - Continuing Growth. In 1966, the Brooklyn Navy Yard closes and becomes New York's first landmarked historic district. The 1980s bring about the Metro Tech Center, a high-rise development in downtown Brooklyn, the Brooklyn Philharmonic, and the beginnings of the Brooklyn Bridge Park. Baseball comes to Brooklyn once more in 2001, with the Brooklyn Cyclones playing from Coney Island's KeySpan Park. In 2006, the U.S. Census Bureau calculates Brooklyn's population at 2,508,820.

19: About Ellis Island From 1892 to 1954, over twelve million immigrants entered the United States through the portal of Ellis Island, a small island in New York Harbor. Ellis Island is located in the upper bay just off the New Jersey coast, within the shadow of the Statue of Liberty. Through the years, this gateway to the new world was enlarged from its original 3.3 acres to 27.5 acres mostly by landfill obtained from ship ballast and possibly excess earth from the construction of the New York City subway system. Before being designated as the site of the first Federal immigration station by President Benjamin Harrison in 1890, Ellis Island had a varied history. The local Indian tribes had called it "Kioshk" or Gull Island. Due to its rich and abundant oyster beds and plentiful and profitable shad runs, it was known as Oyster Island for many generations during the Dutch and English colonial periods. By the time Samuel Ellis became the island's private owner in the 1770's, the island had been called Kioshk, Oyster, Dyre, Bucking and Anderson's Island. In this way, Ellis Island developed from a sandy island that barely rose above the high tide mark, into a hanging site for pirates, a harbor fort, ammunition and ordinance depot named Fort Gibson, and finally into an immigration station. | Bridge, Townhouse photos by Rachel Heit shown standing on Brooklyn Bridge 2011

20: In 1965, President Lyndon Johnson declared Ellis Island part of the Statue of Liberty National Monument. Ellis Island was opened to the public on a limited basis between 1976 and 1984. Starting in 1984, Ellis Island underwent a major restoration, the largest historic restoration in U.S. history. The $160 million dollar project was funded by donations made to The Statue of Liberty - Ellis Island Foundation, Inc. in partnership with the National Park Service. The Main Building was reopened to the public on September 10, 1990 as the Ellis Island Immigration Museum. Today, the museum receives almost 2 million visitors annually. | Oscar Handlin is Emeritus Professor of History, Harvard University. Among his many books are The American People in the Twentieth Century, Race and Nationality in American Life, and Boston's Immigrants, 1790-1880. Awarded the 1952 Pulitzer Prize in history, The Uprooted chronicles the common experiences of the millions of European immigrants who came to America in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries—their fears, their hopes, their expectations. Sarah Silverman said he was her 2nd cousin.

21: Ellis Island From 1794 to 1890 (pre-immigration station period), Ellis Island played a mostly uneventful but still important military role in United States history. After much legal haggling over ownership of the island, the Federal government purchased Ellis Island from New York State in 1808. Ellis Island was approved as a site for fortifications and on it was constructed a parapet for three tiers of circular guns, making the island part of the new harbor defense system that included Castle Clinton at the Battery, Castle Williams on Governor's Island, Fort Wood on Bedloe's Island and two earthworks forts at the entrance to New York Harbor at the Verrazano Narrows. The fort at Ellis Island was named Fort Gibson in honor of a brave officer killed during the War of 1812. Prior to 1890, the individual states (rather than the Federal government) regulated immigration into the United States. Castle Garden in the Battery (originally known as Castle Clinton) served as the New York State immigration station from 1855 to 1890 and approximately eight million immigrants, mostly from Northern and Western Europe, passed through its doors.Throughout the 1800's and intensifying in the latter half of the 19th century, ensuing political instability, restrictive religious laws and deteriorating economic conditions in Europe began to fuel the largest mass human migration in the history of the world. It soon became apparent that Castle Garden was ill-equipped and unprepared to handle the growing numbers of immigrants arriving yearly. Unfortunately compounding the problems of the small facility were the corruption and incompetence found to be commonplace at Castle Garden. The Federal government intervened and constructed a new Federally-operated immigration station on Ellis Island. While the new immigration station on Ellis Island was under construction, the Barge Office at the Battery was used for the processing of immigrants. The new structure on Ellis Island, built of "Georgia pine" opened on January 1, 1892; Annie Moore, a 15 year-old Irish girl, accompanied by her two brothers entered history and a new country as she was the very first immigrant to be processed at Ellis Island on January 2. Over the next 62 years, more than 12 million were to follow through this port of entry During the evening of June 14, 1897, a fire on Ellis Island, burned the immigration station completely to the ground. Although no lives were lost, many years of Federal and State immigration records dating back to 1855 burned along with the pine buildings that failed to protect them. The United States Treasury quickly ordered the immigration facility be replaced under one very important condition. All future structures built on Ellis Island had to be fireproof. On December 17, 1900, the new Main Building was opened and 2,251 immigrants were received that day. While most immigrants entered the United States through New York Harbor (the most popular destination of steamship companies), others sailed into many ports such as Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, San Francisco and Savannah, Miami, and New Orleans. The great steamship companies like White Star, Red Star, Cunard and Hamburg-America played a significant role in the history of Ellis Island and immigration in general. First and second class passengers who arrived in New York Harbor were not required to undergo the inspection process at Ellis Island. This scenario was far different for "steerage" or third class passengers. These immigrants traveled in crowded and often unsanitary conditions near the bottom of steamships with few amenities, often spending up to two weeks seasick in their bunks during rough Atlantic Ocean crossings. Upon arrival in New York City, ships would dock at the Hudson or East River piers. First and second class passengers would disembark, pass through Customs at the piers and were free to enter the United States. The steerage and third class passengers were transported from the pier by ferry or barge to Ellis Island where everyone would undergo a medical and legal inspection. If the immigrant's papers were in order and they were in reasonably good health, the Ellis Island inspection process would last approximately three to five hours. Despite the island's reputation as an "Island of Tears," the vast majority of immigrants were treated courteously and respectfully, and were free to begin their new lives in America after only a few short hours on Ellis Island. Only two percent of the arriving immigrants were excluded from entry. During the early 1900's, immigration officials mistakenly thought that the peak wave of immigration had already passed. Actually, immigration was on the rise and in 1907, more people immigrated to the United States than any other year; approximately 1.25 million immigrants were processed at Ellis Island in that one year. Actually, the death knell for Ellis Island, as a major entry point for new immigrants, began to toll in 1921. It reached a crescendo between 1921 with the passage of the Quota Laws and 1924 with the passage of the National Origins Act. These restrictions were based upon a percentage system according to the number of ethnic groups already living in the United States as per the 1890 and 1910 Census. It was an attempt to preserve the ethnic flavor of the "old immigrants," those earlier settlers primarily from Northern and Western Europe. The perception existed that the newly arriving immigrants mostly from southern and eastern Europe were somehow inferior to those who arrived earlier. --http://www.ellisisland.org/genealogy/ellis_island_history.asp

22: Harry Lieberman 1880 –1983 Harry Lieberman was born in Gnieveshev, Poland. Nephew of a Hassidic rabbi, he prepared for the rabbinate, but forsook that career, and emigrated to the United States in 1906. Harry Lieberman died in 1983 at the age of 102. His paintings are part of the collection of the Seattle Museum of Art, The Miami University Art Museum in Oxford Ohio, the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture garden in Washington D.C., and in many important collections of Jewish ethnic and religious folk art. He has a famous You Tube video on his life & art. -Taken from http://www.amesgallery.com/ArtistPages/Lieberman.html

23: BELARUS After an initial period of independent feudal consolidation, Belarusian lands were incorporated into the Kingdom of Lithuania, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and later in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, and the Russian Empire and eventually the Soviet Union. Belarus became an independent country in 1991 after declaring itself free from the Soviet Union. Belarus and the United States belong to a number of the same international organizations, including the United Nations, Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, International Monetary Fund, and World Bank. Belarus also is an observer to the World Trade Organization. SHTETL A shtetl (Yiddish, diminutive form of Yiddish shtot, "town," similar to the South German diminutive "Stdtle," "little town"), was a small town with a large Jewish population in Central and Eastern Europe before the Holocaust. Shtetls (Yiddish plural: shtetlekh) were mainly found in the areas which constituted the 19th century Pale of Settlement in the Russian Empire, the Congress Kingdom of Poland, Galicia and Romania. A larger city, like Lemberg (Lviv) or Czernowitz, was called a shtot (Yiddish); a smaller village was called a dorf. The concept of shtetl culture is used as a metaphor for the traditional way of life of 19th-century Eastern European Jews. Shtetls are portrayed as pious communities following Orthodox Judaism, socially stable and unchanging despite outside influence or attacks. The Holocaust resulted in the disappearance of the vast majority of shtetls, through both extermination under Nazi occupation and exodus to the United States and Palestine — as well as to the main cities of Russia, open to Jewish habitation since the fall of the Tsarist regime. The history of the oldest Eastern European shtetls began about the year 1200 and saw long periods of relative tolerance and prosperity as well as times of extreme poverty, hardships until pogroms in the nineteenth century, inspired by Russian tsars.The attitudes and thought habits characteristic of the learning tradition are as evident in the street and market place as the yeshiva. The popular picture of the Jew in Eastern Europe, held by Jew and Gentile alike, is true to the Talmudic tradition. The picture includes the tendency to examine, analyze and re-analyze, to seek meanings behind meanings and for implications and secondary consequences. It includes also a dependence on deductive logic as a basis for practical conclusions and actions. In life, as in the Torah, it is assumed that everything has deeper and secondary meanings, which must be probed. All subjects have implications and ramifications. Moreover, the person who makes a statement must have a reason, and this too must be probed. Often a comment will evoke an answer to the assumed reason behind it or to the meaning believed to lie beneath it, or to the remote consequences to which it leads. The process that produces such a response—often with lightning speed—is a modest reproduction of the pilpul process. The May Laws introduced by Tsar Alexander III of Russia in 1882 banned Jews from rural areas and towns of fewer than ten thousand people. In the 20th century revolutions, civil wars, industrialization and the Holocaust destroyed traditional shtetl existence. However, Hasidic Jews have founded new communities in the United States, such as Kiryas Joel and New Square. Not only did the Jews of the shtetl speak a unique language (Yiddish), but they also had a unique rhetorical style, rooted in traditions of Talmudic learning: the shtetl operates on a communal spirit where giving to the needy is not only admired, but expected and essential On three things the world stands: on Torah, on service [of God], and on acts of human kindness. Tzedaka (charity) is a key element of Jewish culture, both secular and religious, to this day. It exists not only as a material tradition (e.g., tzedaka boxes), but also immaterially, as an ethos of compassion and activism for those in need. Eastern Europe, and Poland in particular, had given rise to numerous Jewish artists who dedicated much of their artistic criers to the depictions of the Shtetl. Artists come mind such as, Marc Chagall, Chaim Goldberg, Mane Katz and others. Their contribution is in making a permanent record in color of the life that is described in literature--the Klezmers, the Weddings, the marketplaces and the religious aspects of the culture. | Left: Paintings by Harry Lieberman 1880 –1983

24: Hearne, TX Train Depot, Downtown, DT Library, POW Camp, General Store, Historic Home & Franklin, TX Library | Hearne is a city in Robertson County, Texas, United States. The population was 4,690 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Bryan-College Station metropolitan area with a total area of 4.1 square miles. Hearne was subject to heavy flooding on May 13, 2004 when 17 inches (430 mm) of rain fell in an hour. Stacey & I visited Adele Silverman in March, 1983. Her grandparents were very happy I was taking her to Hearne, her grandfather Bill’s birthplace and childhood home. (Technically, he was born in Franklin, TX.) He was raised as a Methodist as there was no synagogue in town. I remember some beautiful old homes around Main St. Adele gave us directions to the Hebrew Rest Cemetery outside of town. It was very unkempt, sadly. She lived in a small, white frame house that was immaculate & we were her guests overnight. She died in 1999 and I found her obit on-line. The Jewish Cemetery is located on the left-hand side of the road as you are leaving Calvert and driving toward Franklin. It is adjacent to the Calvert Hispanic Cemetery, which is near the high school.

25: THE NATIONAL HOTEL (out of print) By Ruth Rucker Lemming 1982, Eakin Publishers The 1880's hotels were fashionable. A number of successful men resided in the places and many of the townspeople ate their meals in their spacious dining rooms. One of the early "star boarders" at The National Hotel was Abe Silverman, who accumulated great wealth in land buying and selling before the time of his death. In later years, after Rucker's death, his wife continued to operate the hotel until, finally she sold it to Bob Reeves, who converted it into the Pioneer Motel. The former hotel building today is the present-day two-story portion of the Pioneer Motel. The original National Hotel structure included only the two-story enclosed portion of the current building along with the wide porches. Two wings housing motel rooms and the Horseshoe Cafe have been added to the original hotel in recent years. “ Mr. Silverman was our permanent guest. To Mama, he seemed to belong. To me, Mr. Abe Silverman was the only man always in my life. His room was upstairs at the head of the stairway. It contained the most beautiful wash stand I had ever seen, with two little high marble shelves on each side. There was a bowl and pitcher in each room, and a tall Betsy; but there was just one bathroom and one toilet on each floor - even in the later rebuilt hotel. I often heard Mr. Silverman’s stories about how he had started his business career with a pack on his back. Going through the country, he would peddle his novelties and necessities; later he had a general mercantile business in Franklin and a jewelry store and several other buildings in Waco. Mr. Silverman never married but had brought numerous brothers and sisters and nieces and nephews from the old country to the United States. They lived in Hearne, Texas and New York City - both of which seemed far away to me. He was decidedly civic-minded, gave the money for a sidewalk to be placed all around the new school building, and was on every committee for the good of the town, and was such a good domino player that men would drive for miles to play by his rules. Every night at supper, where the people had a boarding house reach for the sausage and smoked ham, Mr. Abe would watch the biscuit plate carefully until someone took the last biscuit. Then he would rub his hands together exultingly, gloatingly, and pounce: “Just enuff beeskits!” On other occasions he would rub his hands together pleasurably and contentedly: “Mrs. Rucker, there are nice things you serve to eat that I like. All of ‘ems hash.” At meal time, Robert would go through his little spiel about “What will you have to drink? Buttermilk, sweetmilk, iced tea, hot tea, cofeeeeeeee” - drawling it out and almost making a song of it. Then - “What kinda pie will you have? Coconut, pecan, chocolate?” There was always a choice from soup to nuts, and he always saved a little sliver of pie for me. But Mr. Abe was especially attentive to me. Frequently, he would take me on his knee and come out with “Molly Bailey’s circus is coming to town. Ain’t that wonnerful? They got fourteen elephants. Why-y-y-y-y, Rut, your eyes are as big as saucers.” One habit of Mr. Abe’s which I will never forget was his usual custom on Christmas Eve. He would come down the street from Gilland Brother’s store with a cherry grin on his face, crying out, “Creesmus gift! Creesmus gift!” Then he would hand each member of the family a small square package. We did not need to open them. Year after year they contained the same gift; a ladies white handkerchief with a small colored flower embroidered in the corner. I don’t think anyone ever thought of saying ‘Happy Hanukkah!’ to him. Source: http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~txrober2/NationalHotel1.htm http://www.franklintexas.com/historyprint.htm http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~txrober2/HistoricFranklinTour.htm

26: History of Hearne, TX Hearne is on the Missouri Pacific and the Southern Pacific railroads, U.S. highways 79 and 190, and State Highway 6, twelve miles southwest of Franklin and nine miles south of Calvert in southwestern Robertson County. It is on land originally granted to Francisco Ruiz, Mexican commander of Fort Tenoxtitlán in 1830. In the 1840s Code Brown operated a tavern and stage stop in the area. Passengers traveling between Houston and Port Sullivan stopped there for refreshments, and the tavern functioned as the local post office and general store. During the 1850s Robertson County grew rapidly. The Hearnes, gentlemen planters of the Old South, moved in 1852 to the region, where they acquired 10,000 acres. There they operated large cotton plantations. In 1858 Christopher C. Hearne, determined to construct a railroad through the county, offered railroad promoters right-of-way and townsite land. However, the Civil War erupted before the railroad reached Hearne's plantation, and work halted. Eventually, Hearne's widow deeded 700 acres to the Houston and Texas Central Railway. Railroad construction resumed in 1867 and finally arrived at the new Hearne depot in April 1868. Soon large homes, a hotel, general stores, several saloons (initially housed in tents), and a drugstore lined the streets of Hearne. Soon thereafter churches organized, a Masonic hall was built, and Daniel Brady established a cotton gin. A post office opened in 1869. In 1870 the International-Great Northern negotiated a right-of-way across Robertson County on an east-west axis. The two lines intersected at Hearne. The cotton gins and two railroads established Hearne as the regional center for cotton marketing. The town incorporated in 1871 and in 1885 had four churches, schools, two gristmill-cotton gins, two hotels, and a newspaper, the Hearne Enterprise. The Hearne Democrat was published by J. Felton Lane in 1911. The population grew from 1,300 in 1885 to 2,129 by 1900 and 3,511 in 1940. German prisoners of war were housed at a camp built just west of the Hearne city limits in 1942. The camp housed up to 8,000 men, and the first prisoners arrived early in 1943. The facility closed in 1946. By the 1960s Hearne had an airstrip and businesses involved in manufacturing and agricultural industries. In 1991 it had a factory that manufactured steel tanks and cotton gin machinery, a vitreous sanitary ware plant, an oil mill, and a door factory. In addition, the town served as a terminal for the distribution of petroleum products, operated dehydration facilities, and was a regional center for the marketing of cotton and other agricultural products. The population in 1990 was 5,132; in 2000 it was 4,690.--Texas State Historical Association A new heritage tourism attraction officially opened in Hearne. At the Hearne WWII POW Camp, some 5,000 prisoners, many of them from General Rommel's Afrika Korps, were housed between 1942 - 1946. This new attraction features a model of the camp & a replica of one of the barracks, which is being built from original floor plans which will house a new on-site visitors center. A blog at www.camphearne.blogspot.com chronicles Camp Hearne progress. Texas A&M professor, Dr. Michael Waters, has even written a book, Lone Star Stalag: German Prisoners Of War At Camp Hearne, about this camp.In Hearne's turn-of-the-century, arrow-shaped depot, antique furnishings & exhibits containing local, railroad, & depot memorabilia are featured. Bricks from the depot's original walkways, an old circular concrete railroad telephone booth, Hearne's restored interlocker console, the old Hearne Lumber Co. entrance gates, & an impressive new metal fence are just a few components of Hearne's long-awaited historic attraction. Many of the homes and commercial buildings in Hearne's historic district attest to the prosperity of the local area's early plantation owners, railroad builders, merchants, bankers, and others. The Hearne Municipal Airport runway is the longest in central Texas with 7,200 feet of paved infrastructure. Once used as a runway to shoot landings by fighter jets from the Strategic Air Command in San Antonio, the Hearne Airport now hosts Robertson County's Air Weather Observation System (AWOS) which provides pilots and others with local weather conditions.

27: Sarah & Bill Silverman at August 28, 1994 wedding of Stacey Cathleen Silverman to Larry Heit; her father Charles walked her down the aisle

28: William Silverman History

29: William Silverman History

30: William Silverman History

31: Left: Letter from Sarah Silverman to Stacey Cathleen Silverman-Heit March 15, 1979 Above: 1920 US Census with Alec Silverman & Family in Hearne, TX Right: Methodist Church that Bill Silverman attended in Hearne & Misc. Phos

32: Alex and Janie Taub Silverman Children 1. Rebecca Silverman, b. 1902 2. Jake Silverman b. 1904 3. William Silverman b. 1908 4. Morris Silverman b. 1916 | Grodno, Russaia to Brooklyn, NY 3,680 miles Brooklyn, NY to Hearne, Texas 1,641 miles | "They built a large home in Hearne, Texas, not too far from the candy store they opened...Alex made his own ice cream and candies with the help of Celia, his wife."--Sarah Silverman

33: SILVERMAN, ALEX was born in Grodno, State of Grodno, Russia, February 12 1872, the son of a poor Russian Jewish father and mother who suffered many hardships during his boyhood and young manhood. About the only time that he had enough food was while he served on KP duty in the Russian Army during the years of 1893 to 1897. Military service in that country was compulsory for all males with the exception of the oldest male in each family who was exempt from military service and allowed to go to school. Mr. Silverman did not have an opportunity to go to school. Mr. Silverman often told the story of his young life and the hardships suffered in the 'old' country stating that he had practically no clothes and owned his first pair of shoes and pants when he was 13 years old. In 1898, after finishing his military service, he came to the United States and landed at New York. Here he found employment at a meat packing plant. Mr. Silverman's brother, Abe Silverman, had come to the United States a few years before his arrival and had established himself as an itinerant merchant in the Franklin area as many Jewish people of that day had done. In 1901, Mr. Silverman was married to Miss Janie Taub of New York, Mrs. Silverman having also come to the United States in her early girlhood. In 1908 the family consisting of Mr. and Mrs. Silverman and their children Jakie Silverman and Rebecca Silverman who were born in New York, came to Franklin, Texas to make their home where Mr. Silverman was associated with his brother Abe Silverman. Their third child, Willie Silverman was born in Franklin. In 1909 Mr. and Mrs. Silverman moved to Hearne where Mr. Silverman established a confectionery business on Magnolia Street and he continued to operate this business until his retirement in 1932. During his business career and residence in Hearne, Mr. Silverman built up an excellent business and won the respect and admiration of all that knew him. His youngest son, Morris Silverman, was born in Hearne. Mrs. Silverman, who was born in Austria, January 12, 1880, passed away in New York, April 30, 1942. Mr. Silverman died March 9, 1933. --http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~txrober2/biographies/11HOTBS.htm History on Roots Gen: | SILVERMAN, JAKIE, son of Alex Silverman and Janie Taub Silverman, was born in New York City, New York, March 8, 1904. He moved to Franklin, Texas in 1908 and in 1909 moved to Hearne, Texas. He attended the Hearne public schools and was graduated from Hearne High School with the Class of 1921. During his high school days he was a member of the high school football, baseball, and basketball teams. After completing his high school education he attended the University of Texas. In 1923 he worked for the City of Hearne in the utilities department and on September 11, 1924 he began his employment with the H. & T. C. Railroad. He is Chief Clerk at the yard office and during World War I1 he served this railroad as yardmaster in the Hearne yards. As a sideline he wrote life insurance for several years in the late 1930's and early 1940's. He has been employed by the railroad for 34 years. He was married to Adele Smith, daughter of William Arlington Smith and Mary Holland Whiteley Smith, July 19, 1934 at Killeen, Texas. Adele Smith Silverman attended the Gatesville public schools and was graduated from Gatesville High School with the Class of 1924. Upon completing her high school education she attended North Texas State College at Denton, Texas where she received her B. S. Degree. Later she received her M. A. Degree from Sam Houston State Teachers College at Huntsville, Texas. She also attended the University of Texas and Texas A. & M. College during the summer months. In 1927 Adele Smith Silverman moved to Hearne, Texas and became a teacher in the Hearne public schools. She has taught school for 11 years. Jakie Silverman is a member and Past Master of the Golden Rule Masonic Lodge of Hearne; a member of the Scottish Rite Bodies of Austin, Texas; and a member of the Ben Hur Shrine of Austin. Mrs. Silverman is a member and former president of the Hearne Music Club. She also served as vice president, secretary, and treasurer of this organization. She is Chairman of the Parent-Teachers Association Welfare Committee; a former member of the Hearne Shakespeare Club; a member of Grace Methodist Church where she has served as President of the Dorcas Sunday School Class; a member of the Robertson County Teachers Association; and a member of the Texas State Teachers Association. | Alex & Jake Silverman Biographies

34: Research Pathways I joined Ellis Island.org to access Hertz ship & passenger records. I also joined Jewish Genealogy which provided links to Polish Gen. As an example of the confusing political history, in 1900, Pinsk was part of the Russian Empire; in 1930, it was Pinsk, Poland, 138 mi SSW of Minsk. At JRI-poland.org, thousands of records from Poland & Russia are included in a vast data base. Sarah mentions Lublin which is included in these records. First names look very "Polish" or "Yiddish" and likely would have been changed upon emigration to the US. Many Hertzs are scattered throughout this data base in the Lublin area, listed presumably in their various shtetls. "Prior to WWI, Pinsk was in Minsk gubernia (Minsk province) of the Russian Empire. Between the wars, Pinsk was in Poleskie województwa (Polesie province) of Poland. After WWII, Pinsk was in the U.S.S.R. Today, Pinsk is in Belarus." Sarah, age 8, & her mother, age 30, must have taken a combination train and boat to get to Copenhagen to board the ship She doesn't say in her memoirs how they got there--maybe they took a train to the Polish coast & then boat to Copenhagen. US Census Records provide more data for 1920, 1925 and forward--Sarah's brother Arthur was listed as Oscar in the 1925 Brooklyn Census, while Gert was listed as Gussie. There are Alex & Alex Silvermans immigrating from Russia via Liverpool, also, in the 19th & 20th Century at the Ellis Island site. The departure from Russia appears to be Liverpool. The Janie Taub family came from Austria & are listed on Ellis Island records. I found "Puisk" in a geography text on Lithuania rather than Poland but a translation gives it as "Puck" on the NW coast, many miles from Lublin. Princeton [http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Puck,_Poland.html] lists various spellings over the centuries such as: Puck [putsk] (Kashubian: Pck, German: Putzig, Latvian: Pucka) , Putzc, 1277 Pusecz, 1288 Puczse and Putsk, 1289 Pucz so this is a puzzle. I do not have much data on Rebecca's marriage or death or Arthur or Isadore Hertz's so could not complete that part. Sarah kept a Kosher household as I recall & had a Kosher butcher deliver meat daily. Charlie went to Hebrew School as did Alex. | Right: Grandma Gertrude first met Stacey in Flushing, NY at ~ 9 mos & fell in love with her at first sight. She finally came to Ann Arbor in June, 1968. Stacey with Sarah & Bill Silverman in Delray Beach, FL.

35: "Your great-grandfather...worked in the 'Ghetto' as thousands of immigrants, both Jews and Christian did. At around the same time, your great-grandmother...also arrived from Galicia, an area of Poland, and she and her mother, father, brothers settled in the Ghetto of New York City called the 'East Side.' Your grandfather's mother, called Celia (your dad's name Charlie is an English male derivation of her name)." --Sarah Silverman | "Charles Peter was born in July 1942. Alex, July 1945. Lynn March 1952. The rest is still history being lived. Oh yes, most important, Stacey Cathleen Silverman, April 28, 1967."--Sarah Silverman

36: Stacey & Sarah ~1973 | Stacey ~1974 in Cooperstown, NY, Lake Ostapek Studio She followed her grandfather BIll's footsteps at U of Texas-Austin.

37: Yiddish is the jargon language of Ashkenazy Jews. It was the every day language spoken by most European Jews before the Holocaust and the establishment of Israel. The core of Yiddish is Middle High medieval German, written with the Hebrew alphabet. The term "Yiddish" did not become the most frequently used designation until the 18th century and it was often called "mameh Loshen" ("mother tongue") as opposed to Hebrew, which was "Loshon koydesh" - "holy tongue." Yiddish was the vernacular language of most Jews in Eastern and Central Europe before World War II. Today, it is spoken by descendants of those Jews living in the United States, Israel, and other parts of the world. The basic grammar and vocabulary of Yiddish, which is written in the Hebrew alphabet, is Germanic. Yiddish, however, is not a dialect of German. It evolved into an independent language through long isolation. Yiddish words often have meanings that are different from similar words in German and different words have often evolved in Gerrman. In Yiddish we ask "Reds-te yiddish?"(Do you speak Yiddish?) In German: "Sprechen-sie Deutsch?" Yiddish probably always incorporated significant borrowings from Hebrew and later took on borrowed words from other languages. The word "Yiddish" comes from the German word for "Jewish." Yiddish may have evolved from a jargon called "Laaz" (from the Hevrew contraction meaning "gentile language"). Yiddish probably began to take shape by the 10th century as Jews from France and Italy migrated to the German Rhine Valley. In the later Middle Ages, Yiddish acquired a written version and later when Jews settled in Eastern Europe, Slavic words were incorporated into evolving dialects of Yiddish. Because of the long isolation of Eastern European Jews, local dialects developed as well. Yiddish once spanned a dialect continuum from Western Yiddish to three major groups within Eastern Yiddish, witch we will call Litvish (Lithuanian Yiddish), Poylish (Polish Yiddish) and Ookrainish, spoken in the Ukraine and other pats of the Tsarist Pale of Settlement. Yiddish as spoken in mandatory Palestine and Israle is probably a fusion of the above dialects, with the addition os modern Hebrew borrow words and some Arabic. The Yiddish of Orthodox Jews may have specialty words connected with various customs and rituals:--http://www.zionism-israel.com/dic/Yiddish.htm | Reds-te yiddish? | "After some time, my father and his brothers established a furniture store in Brooklyn and were doing very well. My father, Isadore, was a very handsome 6'2", very popular, good natured young man, not quite 30 years of age. That was 1914. In Europe, the 1st World War had broken out. There was no communication from Poland; we lived at that time in a small Jewish town, called a shtetl, Puisk."--Sarah Silverman | Yiddish Theater Playbill in Brooklyn

38: Yiddish-Phrases from the Old Country | There is no universally accepted transliteration or spelling; the standard YIVO version is based on the Eastern European Klal Yiddish dialect, while many Yiddish words found in English came from Southern Yiddish dialects. In the 1930s, Yiddish was spoken by more than 10 million people, but by 1945, 75% of them were gone. Today, Yiddish is the language of over 100 newspapers, magazines, radio broadcasts, and websites. Great-grandma and Grandma Silverman spoke Yiddish often. baleboste A good homemaker, a woman who’s in charge of her home and will make sure you remember it. bissel Or bisl – a little bit. bubbe Or bobe. It means Grandmother, and bobeshi is the more affectionate form. Bubele is a similarly affectionate word, though it isn’t in Yiddish dictionaries. bupkes Not a word for polite company. Bubkes or bobkes may be related to the Polish word for “beans”, but it really means “goat droppings” or “horse droppings.” It’s often used by American Jews for “trivial, worthless, useless, a ridiculously small amount” – less than nothing, so to speak. “After all the work I did, I got bupkes!” chutzpah Or khutspe. Nerve, extreme arrogance, brazen presumption. In English, chutzpah often connotes courage or confidence, but among Yiddish speakers, it is not a compliment. feh! An expression of disgust or disapproval, representative of the sound of spitting. glitch Or glitsh. Literally “slip,” “skate,” or “nosedive,” which was the origin of the common American usage as “a minor problem or error.” gornisht More polite than bupkes, and also implies a strong sense of nothing; used in phrases such as “gornisht helfn” (beyond help). goy A non-Jew, a Gentile. As in Hebrew, one Gentile is a goy, many Gentiles are goyim, the non-Jewish world in general is “the goyim.” Goyish is the adjective form. Putting mayonnaise on a pastrami sandwich is goyish. Putting mayonnaise on a pastrami sandwich on white bread is even more goyish. kibbitz In Yiddish, it’s spelled kibets, and it’s related to the Hebrew “kibbutz” or “collective.” But it can also mean verbal joking, which after all is a collective activity. It didn’t originally mean giving unwanted advice about someone else’s game – that’s an American innovation. klutz Or better yet, klots. Literally means “a block of wood,” so it’s often used for a dense, clumsy or awkward person. See schlemiel. kosher Something that’s acceptable to Orthodox Jews, especially food. Other Jews may also “eat kosher” on some level but are not required to. Food that Orthodox Jews don’t eat – pork, shellfish, etc. – is called traif. An observant Jew might add, “Both pork and shellfish are doubtlessly very tasty. I simply am restricted from eating it.” In English, when you hear something that seems suspicious or shady, you might say, “That doesn’t sound kosher.” kvetsh In popular English, kvetch means “complain, whine or fret,” but in Yiddish, kvetsh literally means “to press or squeeze,” like a wrong-sized shoe. Reminds you of certain chronic complainers, doesn’t it? But it’s also used on Yiddish web pages for “click” (Click Here). maven Pronounced meyven. An expert, often used sarcastically. Mazel Tov Or mazltof. Literally “good luck,” (well, literally, “good constellation”) but it’s a congratulation for what just happened, not a hopeful wish for what might happen in the future. When someone gets married or has a child or graduates from college, this is what you say to them. It can also be used sarcastically to mean “it’s about time,” as in “It’s about time you finished school and stopped sponging off your parents.”mentsh An honorable, decent person, an authentic person, a person who helps you when you need help. Can be a man, woman or child. mishegas Insanity or craziness. A meshugener is a crazy man. If you want to insult someone, you can ask them, ”Does it hurt to be crazy?” mishpocheh Or mishpokhe or mishpucha. It means “family,” as in “Relax, you’re mishpocheh. I’ll sell it to you at wholesale.” nosh Or nash. To nibble; a light snack, but you won’t be light if you don’t stop noshing. Can also describe plagarism, though not always in a bad sense; you know, picking up little pieces for yourself.

39: nu A general word that calls for a reply. It can mean, “So?” “Huh?” “Well?” “What’s up?” or “Hello?” oy vey Exclamation of dismay, grief, or exasperation. The phrase “oy vey iz mir” means “Oh, woe is me.” “Oy gevalt!” is like oy vey, but expresses fear, shock or amazement. When you realize you’re about to be hit by a car, this expression would be appropriate. plotz Or plats. Literally, to explode, as in aggravation. “Well, don’t plotz!” is similar to “Don’t have a stroke!” or “Don’t have a cow!” Also used in expressions such as, “Oy, am I tired; I just ran the four-minute mile. I could just plotz.” That is, collapse. shalom It means “deep peace,” and isn’t that a more meaningful greeting than “Hi, how are ya?” shlep To drag, traditionally something you don’t really need; to carry unwillingly. When people “shlep around,” they are dragging themselves, perhaps slouchingly. On vacation, when I’m the one who ends up carrying the heavy suitcase I begged my wife to leave at home, I shlep it. shlemiel A clumsy, inept person, similar to a klutz (also a Yiddish word). The kind of person who always spills his soup. schlock Cheap, shoddy, or inferior, as in, “I don’t know why I bought this schlocky souvenir.” shlimazel Someone with constant bad luck. When the shlemiel spills his soup, he probably spills it on the shlimazel. Fans of the TV sitcom “Laverne and Shirley” remember these two words from the Yiddish-American hopscotch chant that opened each show. shmendrik A jerk, a stupid person, popularized in The Last Unicorn and Welcome Back Kotter. shmaltzy Excessively sentimental, gushing, flattering, over-the-top, corny. This word describes some of Hollywood’s most famous films. From shmaltz, which means chicken fat or grease. shmooze Chat, make small talk, converse about nothing in particular. But at Hollywood parties, guests often schmooze with people they want to impress. schmuck Often used as an insulting word for a self-made fool, but you shouldn’t use it in polite company at all, since it refers to male anatomy. spiel A long, involved sales pitch, as in, “I had to listen to his whole spiel before I found out what he really wanted.” From the German word for play. shikse A non-Jewish woman, all too often used derogatorily. It has the connotation of “young and beautiful,” so referring to a man’s Gentile wife or girlfriend as a shiksa implies that his primary attraction was her good looks. She is possibly blonde. A shagetz or sheygets means a non-Jewish boy, and has the connotation of a someone who is unruly, even violent. shmutz Or shmuts. Dirt – a little dirt, not serious grime. If a little boy has shmutz on his face, and he likely will, his mother will quickly wipe it off. It can also mean dirty language. It’s not nice to talk shmutz about shmutz. A current derivation, “schmitzig,” means a “thigamabob” or a “doodad,” but has nothing to do with filth. shtick Something you’re known for doing, an entertainer’s routine, an actor’s bit, stage business; a gimmick often done to draw attention to yourself. tchatchke Or tshatshke. Knick-knack, little toy, collectible or giftware. It also appears in sentences such as, “My brother divorced his wife for some little tchatchke.” You can figure that one out. tsuris Or tsores. Serious troubles, not minor annoyances. Plagues of lice, gnats, flies, locusts, hail, death now, those were tsuris. tuches Rear end, bottom, backside, buttocks. In proper Yiddish, it’s spelled tuchis or tuches or tokhis, and was the origin of the American slang word tush. yente Female busybody or gossip. At one time, high-class parents gave this name to their girls (after all, it has the same root as “gentle”), but it gained the Yiddish meaning of “she-devil”. The matchmaker in “Fiddler on the Roof” was named Yente (and she certainly was a yente though maybe not very high-class), so many people mistakenly think that yente means matchmaker. yiddisher kop Smart person. Literally means “Jewish head.” I don’t want to know what goyisher kop means. --from: http://www.dailywritingtips.com/the-yiddish-handbook-40-words-you-should-know/

40: Sarah & Bill had a 4-year courtship. Bill had played football in high school in Hearne, Texas & was a much sought after bachelor. Sarah was a beauty in her own right & won the prize: marriage to Bill. Rt: Silvermans in FL, Charlie & Alex, Lynn & Alex 2010.

42: "Children are a wonderful gift. They have an extraordinary capacity to see into the heart of things and to expose sham and humbug for what they are." DESMOND TUTU

43: Bill & Sarah Silverman married in Oct. 18, 1938 in New York. They were married 62 years. | Jewish Museum of Milwaukee | Life in Delray Beach, Florida

45: Left: Hebrew Rest Cemetery Hearne, TX 1983 Right: Alex & Jane Silverman headstores, Adele Silverman and headstone

46: The Old World is a New World in Atlanta. Great- & great-great-grandchildren of Russia & Poland, Ellis Island & Texas stand on the shoulders of all those ancestors who have gone before them to new life in America. Larry, Stacey, Rachel, Jeremy, Leah, and Sophie Heit make footprints in the sand in the shadows of steps others took & the promise of all things bright & beautiful.

47: SILVERMAN TREE | Stacey & Larry Heit Wedding 8-28-1994 Sarah Silverman in Pink Bridesmaid Hat

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Linda Woodward
  • By: Linda W.
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About This Mixbook

  • Title: Passages from Poland & Russia: Silverman Family
  • Letters and photos of Silverman family of Poland and Russia origins 19th C
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  • Published: almost 6 years ago