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World History 2 Midterm

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World History 2 Midterm - Page Text Content

BC: In creating this mixbook, I used class textbook, notes and powerpoints.

FC: By Frances Doughty | "Learn from yesterday, live for today, hope for tomorrow." | World History

1: Chapter 1: International Law

2: International laws are a body of laws and regulations that are enforced by countries worldwide. International law involves economic, security, criminal, environmental, diplomatic, humanitarian, and human rights laws.

3: International law is practiced by the United States only for the application of its principles on questions of international rights and duties. It does not restrict the United States or any other nation from making laws governing its own territory.

5: When practicing international law, states must resolve their differences by peaceful means and not use any force. Every individual can also demand certain fundamental rights.

7: Chapter 2: Renaissance

8: During the Renaissance, the main philosophy practiced was known as humanism, or the the philosophy that people are rational beings. Humanism and the humanities disciplines included studies in speaking, grammar, poetry, ethics and history.

9: Humanists proposed a more rounded education that placed the emphasis not only on intellectual learning, but also on physical and moral development. | For the most part, humanists became experts in rhetoric, but some broke from tradition and applied classical literature standards to their own language in everyday writing. | For the first time, Greek texts were read in the original language of Western Europe, which opened up new ideas for the humanists.

10: Artists of this time looked back to those before them while incorporating a greater sense of light and color through new mediums. Art during the Renaissance was mostly made for commissions or religious reasons.

11: Famous Italian Renaissance Artists include Masaccio, Donatello, Brunelleschi Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo Buonarroti, Titian, Tintoretto, Bellini, Botticelli, Caravaggio, Ghiberti, Giotto, and Raphael

12: Chapter 3: The Five Major World Religions

13: Religion 1: Christianity | Christianity is the largest world religion with around 2 billion adherents. Christianity is mainly practiced in Europe and North and South America. The sacred text of Christianity is The Bible, which is comprised of the Old Testament and New Testament. Christians believe in a Trinitarian Monotheism, which means they believe in The Holy Trinity, The Father, The Son, and The Holy Spirit.

14: Religion 2: Islam | There are 1.3 billion followers of Islam and is mainly practiced in the Middle East and North Africa. The sacred text of Islam is the Koran They believe the purpose of life is to submit to the will of God and attain paradise after death.

15: Religion 3: Hinduism | Hinduism, means "of the Indus Valley" or simply "Indian." Hindus call their religion sanatama dharma, "eternal religion" or "eternal truth." There are 900 million people who practice Hinduism. The sacred texts of Hinduism are the Vedas, Upanishads, Sutras, and Bhagavad Gita. | Hindus must live the order life according to the dharma. Their purpose in life is to attain liberation (moksa) from the cycle of reincarnation. They believe that after death, if one's karma is unresolved, their soul is born into a new body; if karma is resolved, they attain moksa.

16: Religion 4: Buddhism | Buddhism is taught by the Buddha, or "The Enlightened One." There are 360 million followers of Buddhism. The sacred texts for Buddhism is the Pali Canon (Tripitaka). | There are 3 major divisions of Buddhism: Theravada, Mahayana, and Vajrayana. Their theism may vary, but they all believe that nothing is permanent and there is no self or soul. To them, human existence is nothing more than a combination of five impermanent components. Theravada believes that the purpose of life is to become an arhat, escape the cycle of rebirth, and attain nirvana. Mahayana beieve the purpose of life is to become a boddhisatva then help others attain enlightenment.

17: Religion 5: Judaism | There are 14 million individuals who practice Judaism and is mainly practiced in the United States, Israel, and Europe. The sacred texts of Judaism is the Tanakh with the Talmud. They believe that there is One God and that humans are born good. Jews live to obey the law and atone for sin.

19: The Reformation | Chapter 4

20: English Reformation | The English Reformation was the series of events in 16th-century England by which the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church.

21: Catholic Reformation | The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was the period of Catholic revival as a response to the English Reformation. The Catholic Reformation began with the Council of Trent and ended at the close of the Thirty Years' War. The Counter-Reformation was composed of four major elements: 1. Ecclesiastical or structural reconfiguration 2.Religious orders 3.Spiritual movements 4.Political dimensions

22: The Reformation was caused by many things, and there had been numerous attempts to reform the Roman Church before the 16th century. The main reasons The Reformation marked the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of modern time. The main causes of the Reformation were the ongoing corruption on the part of some clergy and Church leaders and the desire by some to embrace a simpler form of religious worship and a more biblical style of church. Shortly before the Reformation, the printing press was invented, which greatly impacted the spread of Martin Luther's ideas; although this did not cause the Reformation it may be argued that it is what gave the movement real power. | Causes

23: As a result of the Reformation Europe was divided between the Catholic countries of the south and the Protestant countries of the north. Many Protestant denominations developed, and they were organized in a variety of ways. In many parts of Europe, this diversity of religious life created a mood of religious toleration and a respect for the importance of the individual conscience. The Reformation also stimulated many reforms within the Catholic Church. | Effects

24: These two men were the | Martin Luther | With his 95 Theses against the abuses of indulgences, Luther unwittingly sparked religious and political reform in Germany and founded the Lutheran branch of Protestantism. | He spoke out against clerical celibacy, papal abuses, the denying of the scriptures and the communion wine to non-clergy, the cult of the saints, salvation by works, and other Catholic doctrines. Yet Luther retained many traditional and liturgical elements of the church that other reformers rejected.

25: voice of the Reformation | John Calvin | Calvin criticized Luther's view because it involves a localization of Christ's presence. | Calvin affirmed the presence of the living Christ in the sacrament of the Lord's Supper by the action of the Holy Spirit Calvin passionately sought for the restoration of the Church Catholic of the Apostles and the Fathers, and he sought to realize this in the unity of the Church of Europe, other than that one which held allegiance to Rome.

26: Henry VIII was known for his role in the separation of the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church. Henry's reformation of the English church involved more complex motives and methods than his desire for a new wife and an heir. Henry instituted a number of statutes that dealt with the relationship between the king and the pope and the structure of the Church of England. Henry also suppressed monasteries and pilgrimage shrines in his attempt to reform the church. The king was always the dominant force in the making of religious policy; his policy, which he pursued skilfully and consistently, is best characterized as a search for the middle way. | King Henry VIII

27: Elizabeth was the daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. Elizabeth's personal religious convictions have been much debated by scholars. Elizabeth's 44 years reign is known as the Elizabethan era. She provided stability for the kingdom and helped forge a sense of national identity. | Elizabeth I

28: Chapter 5: The Importance of the Printing Press

29: The printing press was the most important invention in the advance of science, technology and scholarship. | The immediate effect of the printing press was to multiply the output and cut the costs of books. This made information available to more places. Libraries could now store greater quantities of information at much lower cost. Printing also facilitated the dissemination and preservation of knowledge in standardized form In simple terms, printing spread new ideas quickly and with greater impact.

31: Chapter 6: Exploration

32: Motives for Exploration | Trade was controlled by Venetian and Muslim traders. European countries wanted to avoid the Italians and Muslims. Other Europeans wanted to bypass them to get to the silk, spices, and other luxury items in Asia. With Europe Christianized, they wanted to spread the Gospel to the rest of the world. There were other motives including: riches and money, glory, and God.

33: There were advances in ship construction there were new navigation aids, and a new compass. Maps were still crude and inaccurate. By this time, most people knew the earth was round - they just didn't know that the Americas existed.

34: The Columbian Exchange was a dramatically widespread exchange of animals, plants, culture, human populations (including slaves), communicable disease, and ideas between the Eastern and Western hemispheres. The Columbian Exchange greatly affected almost every society on Earth. For example, diseases that Europeans had were given to Americans, who had no immunity, thus depopulating many cultures. The contact between the two areas circulated a wide variety of new crops and livestock which supported increases in population in both hemispheres. | The Columbian Exchange

35: Triangular Trade | The Triangular Trade is a route to receive slaves. It got it's name from the three routes that formed a triangle. The first route carried fish, lumber, and other goods from New England to the West Indies. In the West Indies they picked up sugar and molasses, which was used to make rum. From the West Indies merchants carried the rum, along with guns, gunpowder, and tools to West Africa. Here, they traded these items for slaves, they carried the slaves to the West Indies where they were sold. Traders would take the profits and buy more molasses.

36: The Ottoman Empire was a Turkish empire which lasted from 27 July 1299 to 29 October 1923. The Ottoman Empire was one of the largest and longest lasting empires in history. Under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the empire became the most powerful state in the world, controlling much of southeast Europe, western Asia, and North Africa. | The Ottoman Empire

37: The Ottoman Empire | . | Chapter 7: The Explorers

38: Bartolomeu Dias (1457 – 1500) Bartolomeu Dias embarked on a voyage of exploration around Africa to the Indies that resulted in the discovery of Brazil. Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) During his famous voyage from Spain, Columbus landed on an island they called Guanahani, but later renamed it San Salvador. In the end, Columbus thought he had made it to Asia, but ultimately found North America.

39: Francisco Pizarro (1478-1541) He "discovered" the Incan empire and conquered it brutally and quickly, stealing immense hoards of gold, silver, and other treasures. Jacques Cartier- (1491-1557) His major accomplishment was the discovery of the ST. Lawrence River. He also discovered Mount Real (Mount Royal) which is present day Montreal, Canada.

40: Chapter 8: Absolutism

41: Characteristics of Absolutism | Absolutism is a political system and theory of government in which the king is all-powerful and possesses a monopoly on the use of force and the administration of justice. Usually, the king has a large standing army with which to enforce his will. The power of any other groups or traditional institutions is suppressed, especially the power of the nobility as a class.

42: Characteristics of Constitutionalism Constitutionalism is defined as government in which power is distributed and limited by a system of laws that must be obeyed by the rulers. England has a unmodified constitution, or a constitution in which no single, formal document delineates the powers of a government, and the limits thereof. A variety of developments in England, led to a well-developed polity with multiple governmental and private institutions that counter the power of the state.

43: Louis XIV | He was a Bourbon monarch who ruled as King of France and Navarre. He was the longest-reigning monarch in European history.]

44: Chapter 10: The Scientific Revolution

45: The Importance | The science of the middle ages was significant in establishing a base for modern science. This period saw a fundamental transformation in scientific ideas across mathematics, physics, astronomy, and biology, in institutions supporting scientific investigation, and in the more widely held picture of the universe. The scientific revolution led to the establishment of several modern sciences.

46: Copernicus discovered the mathematically yet unproven heliocentric solar system. Issac Newton developed theory of matter and the law of gravitation. Johannes Kepler invented log books that he used as a tool for calculating planetary positions, eyeglasses for near and far sighted persons, the convex eyepiece, and the quintile and biquintile (astronomy) aspects.

47: Galileo invented a telescope, a geometric compass, and a scientific instrument with two arms that can be used for making calculations and geometric measurements. Galileo also is credited with inventing a microscope with two lenses at either end of a hollow tube. William Harvey discovered the true nature of circulation of blood and the function of the heart as a pump.

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