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Rustic Charm

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S: China's Rainforess

BC: Made by: Aly Groover Emily Combs Marie Depew Jenny Barrett

FC: Rainforest's of China

1: A note from the authors of this journal...... Our team was selected by the U.S. association of researchers. We faced some brutal conditions out in the rainforest's of Southeast Asia, but we were equipped with the proper equipment for this trip. Please do not attempt to go on a trip like this unless certified. This journal is to inform you not to inspire you. Please Enjoy!

2: Hi, I'm Aly Groover and I am the lucky geographer who got to go on this trip to China to study the geography of their rainforest's.

3: On my trip with Emily, Jennifer, and Marie I found out many different things about the geography of rainforest's in Southeast Asia. One of the many things I found out about on my trip was that the climate there is very humid. The average temperature ranges from 75 degrees to 90 degrees Fahrenheit . Another interesting factor I discovered is that the average yearly rainfall is about 79 inches.

4: Rainforest's only cover about 6% of the Earth.Rainforest's in southeast Asia are mainly scattered between India and Burma. They can also be located in the islands of Java and Borneo. Did you know that 25% of rainforest's are in Southeastern Asia and the Pacific Islands.

5: The rainforest biomes in Southeast Asia are (hint, hint) located of course in the southern part of China like southern Yunnan. The longitude of this area is approximately 95 degrees to 105 degrees east.. Then the latitude being 20 degrees north and 16 degrees south. They have a frost-free climate. The climate is also effected by maritime wind flows coming from the Indian Ocean and South China Sea.

6: Cool Facts -Did you know that rainforest's soil is only about 3 to 4 inches deep? -Have rains at 2 inches per hour. -There are four different layers to the rainforest: the emergents, canopy, understory, and the forest floor. -Their soil has rich nutrients also.

7: You may ask.. are there any seasons in the rainforest's of China? Well as a matter fact there actually are! They have two really rainy seasons called monsoon rains. The northeastern monsoon season occurs during the months of October to February. The southwestern monsoon season lasts from April to August.. There are also to inter-monsoon seasons between these listed also.

8: Hi, I am Marie Depew and I am an environmentalist and I am one of the lucky few that got to go to the rainforests in China with three others., Aly, Jennifer, and Emily. This is my research....

9: Small History Forest coverage in China rose from 12.98% in 1986 to 16.55% in 1999, thats a growth of 33%! | Environmental Issue 1.The rainforests now covers less than 6% of the Earth 2.Nearly half the worlds species will be destroyed or severely harmed/threated due to the destruction of the rainforestds. 3.A big issue for ALL of China is there smog problem. 4.Also they are running out of natural resources. If we are not careful the rainforest biome will be gone.... so we must try to preserve as much as possible .

11: How we impact this environment We strongly impact this environment with pollution, destruction, and the way we treat this biome. We do not preserve but a little bit of the forest the rest we cut/burn down and use for farming.

12: We do not know exactly how many living things there are in this biome but we do know that it consist of plants and animals. Did you know that by leaving the rainforest intact that we the people would benefit even more than we would by cutting/burning it down to use it for farming or whatever you would like to use it for? Did you know that the U.S. National Cancer Instantiation has identified over 3,000 plants that are active in curing cancer and 70% of these are found in rainforests.

13: Did you know that we are losing 137 plant, animal, and insect species a day caused by the destruction of the rainfoest? | The Population in a Chinese rainforest is manly only plants and animals. And there is an unknown amount of species.

14: Emily Combs as the Zoologist Hi, I also was one of the lucky ducks who got to travel through the rainforests of China.

15: Ten Animals that Dwell in China's Rainforests 1. Giant Panda The Giant Panda is an endangered species that lives in the forests of China. (including the rainforests) they live in the forests because of their diet. They are herbivores and their diet consists 99 percent of just bamboo. They have been said to also eat eggs, fruit, honey, yams and shrub leaves if not able to have any bamboo. If they are very desperate, they will have fish, if they can find it. Very iconic and on the logos for many wildlife foundations. Has black and white wooly coat, 2nd longest tail of any bear (after sloth bear) unusual bear hands white sharp claws and a “thumb” to help them grip bamboo. Under cuddly appearance there are muscular frame, strong muscles, strong jaw and large molars. 2. Bengal Tiger The Bengal Tigers are also endangered. In 1900, there were only 50,000 left in the world and the number has decreased since then. In 1972, India thought up of a protection program called project tiger. They have an orange ''base color'' and black stripes down its lean slender body. It has white white spots on its mouth, cheeks, stomach, and eyebrows. This tiger is ranked second as the largest tiger behind its cousin the Siberian Tiger. its life span is approx. 15 yrs. and it can weigh up to 575 pounds. The

16: Bengal Tiger is nocturnal and a carnivore. Its diet includes boars, wild oxen, monkeys and other animals. It helps with balancing out the population. 3. Chinese Mitten Crab It STRONG claws, (enough to cut a fishing net) grows white hair on their white tipped claws as older juveniles and adults, their shells have four round spines on either side, and their shell color is grayish green to dark brown with two pairs of pale patches. Spends most of life in hard bottom of freshwater but migrates to sea to breed. They are Indigenous to China but has moved species to Europe. It is an Omnivore, eating a large variety of animals and plants. Giant Panda Bengal Tiger Chinese Mitten Crab

17: 4. Macaw Macaws are an endangered species that are found in Central and South America in the canopy. They are the largest of all parrots and there are over 16 species of macaws. They range in size from a little over three feet to a foot. The tails are as long or longer than their body Their wings are long and pointed, they also have sharp hooked beaks that help open and crack nuts, nut pods, and fruit. They are herbivores.Their feet have strong grip allowing them to grasp easily and they have two toes point upward and two point backwards. They do exercise an example of Commensalism with trees because they make their nests in trees.

18: 5)Toucans There are 40 different kinds of toucans. They vary in size from 7 inches to a little over two feet. They also have short, thick necks. One of the most iconic feature of the toucan is its colorful beak. Its beak's color can be black, brown, blue, green, red, yellow, white, or the most common, a combination of these colors. Their bills do help attract mates. The beak also has saw-like ridges to help tear off skin from fruit and squash berries. Inside those big beaks, they have a narrow tongue that helps to make a harsh, raspy wail. Toucans are very noisy birds. Have a narrow feather-like tongue Toucans are found in the canopy layer of the rainforests in Central and South America. Toucans are omnivores, their diet includes fruit, berries, lizards, and small birds. SYMBIOSIS: Mutualism: help disperse seeds from fruits and berries they eat SYMBIOSIS: Commensalism: Make home in holes in trees

19: 6)Sloths There are two main species of sloths, two-toed sloths, and three-toed sloths. These EXTREMELY slow animals are usually about the size of a small dog. Sloths also have short, flat heads and have a hair color of gray brown to gray-greenish. Sometimes they appear green because they move so slowly, camouflaging algae covers them. Since these animals live in trees their whole life, and never come down, they have hooked claws to help with the climbing. They too are found in the canopy layer in Central and South America. These nocturnal animals live up to thirty years. Also they usually spend most of their time hanging upside down from trees. Mothers even give birth to babies upside down. Sloths are herbivores and they eat fruit, leaves, buds, and young twigs. Since they don't move a lot, their metabolism is low, resulting in little eating. Sloths sleep for up to eighteen hours at a time upside down. They sleep all scrunched up camouflaging them as part of the tree, which keeps predators away.

20: 7) Jambu Fruit Dove This shy bird can be found in Indonesia, the western side of Java, Malaysia, and Thailand, and can easily be recognized by their soft cooing. Their plump, small head, for males can vary in colors from crimson to pink and at the end of their short head is a yellow or orange beak. Eyes are located on the SIDE of their head. Eyes are either red or brown A medium sized dove is about nine inches long, it weighs about 1.5 pounds, and its wingspan is three to six inches. Its feathers are really soft, colorful, and come out easily, making it hard for predators to catch them.For males, the upper part of their chin and throat are black, the undersides of them are white, they have a pink patch on their breast area, upper parts are (top) forest green, outer parts of their tail are a darker green than the body, the underside of the tail is a chestnut color, and their feet are red. Females aren't as colorful. They have a purple head, a white to cream belly, a dark brown underside of their tail, and her body is mostly dark green The many shades of green camouflage them into the trees. SYMBIOSIS: Commensalism: they have a nest/shelter in trees. They build nest out of grass, twigs, and roots woven together with branches of the tree. Male provides nesting material and the female builds the nest. Mostly seen alone or in pairs, but travel in flocks when feeding at a fruit tree. They eat fruit right off of trees or those that have fallen by monkeys, fruit is their main diet. So, naturally they are herbivores. Their nostrils are high on their upper bill, (like most doves) so they can put their whole beak in the water at one time and drink by sucking water in. Their official status is threatened, not endangered by loss of habitat.

21: 8) Slender Loris This nocturnal animal can be found in India and Sri Lanka. They can also live in dry, wet, highland, and lowland forests, but they prefer thick thorny environment where they can get away from predators easily and can also catch necessary insects for their diet. They are about the size of chipmunk, they have long, thin limbs, they are about 6-10 inches long, have small tail, have a life-span of 12-15 years, and weighs 10.5-12 pounds . Their heads are dominated by their HUGE eyes. The eyes are surrounded by dark-brown to black circles of fur, while the bridge of the nose is white. They have a small lower jaw. Its coat is light red-brown or gray-brown on its back and dirty white on its chest and belly. The fur on its, hands, forearms, and feet is short. Can stretch long arms through branches without alerting their prey. They have small fingernails and have a shorter second finger than all of the other fingers. They live their whole lives in trees. Come together and share food supply. Live alone, except with mate (and infant). Sleep with up to seven others in hollow tree trunks or in angled branches. Eat insects, but they will also eat slugs, young leaves, flowers, shoots, and occasionally eggs and nestlings, making it an omnivore. Natives believe that every part of the Slender Loris has magical and medicinal powers. Their habitat is being destroyed. Laws against killing Slender Lorises in India but it is hard to enforce because of their nocturnal habits and smallness.

22: 9) Spider Monkey Spider Monkeys get their name because when they hang from a tree from all four limbs, plus their tail, they have the resemblance to a spider. Spider Monkeys are fairly large in size. Their fur can be black, brown, red, golden, or tan. Adult monkeys can grow up to two feet tall not including their powerful tail, that is viewed as an extra limb. They spend most of their time in the canopy and live in Mexico and South America. They have the amazing ability to swing from branch to branch at high speedsAre herbivores, they eat fruit, seeds, and plants.They only have four fingers, and no thumb. Are endangered and heavily hunted and in danger of becoming extinct.

23: 10)Poison Arrow Frog Poison Arrow Frogs are very social frogs found in Central and North America. On their body, they have bright colors in order to show that they are poisonous to other animals and to warn them not to come near. Their colors can be blue, red or yellow, all of them very bright. Its poison is one of the most powerful in the world and can cause paralysis or death.One millionth of an ounce of its poison can kill a dog. An amount of poison, smaller than grain of salt can kill a human. One frog carries enough poison to kill one hundred people. It gets its name because native hunters used to put its poison on the tip of their arrows to kill their prey. One frog is the size of a man's thumbnail (less than an inch). They eat small insects, ants, spiders, crustaceans, and tiny water animals, which makes them carnivores.

25: j | Hey this is Jenny being the botanist of the Rainforest in Southeastern China. The Southeast Asia rainforest is one of the oldest rainforest on the earth, dating back to the Pleistocene Epoch 70 million years ago. It has a biological richness and diversity unequaled by that of the Amazon or African rainforests. mile long chain of about 20,000 islands strung between Asia and Australia.

26: It covers an area of 1,112,000 square miles, almost twice the size of Alaska. The area lies from latitude 20 north and 16 south, and longitude 95 to 105 east. The average daily temperature varies from 70F to 90F. Humidity is always high. Millions of years ago, as the rest of the world went through cooling and warming periods; the climate of the Southeast Asian region remained more or less the same.

27: This was due mainly because of its location on the equator and being surrounded by water. Because the climate on the equator doesn't change much and the surrounding oceans provide plenty of moisture in the form of rain, the region was able to have consistent forests over very long periods of time. As sea levels rose and fell through warming and icing cycles, small pockets of forests survived as forest refugia", or reservoirs of wildlife from which various species could reestablish themselves.

30: 1.) Bengal bamboo: a panda eats this plant, it likes temp. Between 40 and 100 degrees Fahrenheit. 2.) Durian: humans and other animals eat this fruit on this tree, 3. ) Tualang: is a tree is a majestic emergent tree of the Southeast Asia rainforests best know for the disk shaped honeycombs which hang from its horizontal branches. Towering above the canopy the tualang can reach 250 feet, or the 30 stories in height.

31: 4.) Bamboo: plant of the grass family, chiefly of warm or tropical regions, where it is sometimes an extremely important component of the vegetation. It is most abundant in the monsoon area of E Asia. Bamboos are the the largest grasses, sometimes reaching 100 ft (30 m). 5.) Ascocentrum ampullaceum: This pretty and small species grows on trees and the flower's shape gave it the name "bird tongue orchid". It is not the common Ascocentrum ampullaceum found in Thailand 6.) Jambu: it’s a fruit that people and animal eat; Jambu is a small tree or large shrub which grows on the average of 10 to 20 feet in height

32: 7.Broadleaf Evergreen Tree: In botany, an evergreen plant is a plant that has leaves in all seasons. This contrasts with deciduous plants, which completely lose their foliage during winter and is the domain plant in the Southern Chain rainforest. 8. Curare: grows as a large liana, or vine, found in the canopy of the South American rainforest. The vine may get as thick as 4 inches in diameter at its base. It has large alternate, heart-shaped leaves which may be 4-8 inches long and almost as wide, with a 2-6 inches long petiole. The leaves are smooth on top with a hairy white bottom, and deeply indented veins radiating from the leaf base.9.Figs: ting bats, feed on the sweet fruit of the fig tree.

33: 9.) Figs: Is one of the most important plant species of a rainforest ecosystem. There are close to 1,000 different species of Ficus, which can be found in every major rainforest, tropical continent and islands around the world. Hundreds of animals like pigeons, parrots, hornbills, toucans, monkeys, gibbons, and fruit-eating bats, feed on the sweet fruit of the fig tree. 10.) Mangroves: are woody, specialized types of trees of the tropics that can live on the edge, where rainforests meet oceans. Found on sheltered coastlines and river deltas, they grow in brackish wetlands between land and sea where other plants can't grow.

34: WE hope that you enjoyed our presentation . =)

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