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FC: By: Meghana V., Aisha K., Amela P., & Soujanya G. | Chick Genes | Project | 7th period
1: Once upon a time, a mother laid three eggs...
2: She laid two Aracauna chicks and one Phoenix chick. The Aracauna chicks hatched in blue eggs, while the Phoenix chicks hatched in cream colored eggs.
4: All the other chicks made fun of Rumpdolph. | Their names were Cupid, Dasher and Rumpdolph. | Rumpdolph is homozygous recessive for having a tail.
5: Cupid and Dasher are rumpless because they carry the autosomal dominant trait. | This made him different from all the other chicks.
6: Why is Rumpdolph different?
8: The basic components of DNA include a phosphate base, deoxyribose sugar, and a nucleic acid base. The information for specifying the traits of an organism is coded by the nucleotides. | 3.
9: The chicks are different due to the Genetic Code and Independent Assortment. This results in cell differentiation, which is the process in which cells that are simple become more complicated. | 1.
10: The Genetic Code is how our bodies are made up. The Genetic Code makes up all organisms; it determines the characteristics that we obtain. The genetic code is made up of four nitrogenous bases: Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, and Guanine. | 4.
11: Regulations of genes differ in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In prokaryotes, regulatory proteins are specific to one gene. In eukaryotes, cell differences are determined by expression of different sets of genes. | 5.
12: Araucana | KEY R=rumpless r= not rumpless B= gray beak b= orange beak
13: These are the different Punnett squares representing the potential genotypes of Rumpdolph. | Phoenix
14: The crossing between Phoenix and Araucana
16: Rumpdolph says: All I want for Christmas is to fit in! | Genes are activated and deactivated in response to their environments and nutrition is part of that environment. Genes that are suited for a certain environment will be turned on and if they are not, they will be turned off. | 2.
17: The information for specifying the traits of an organism is coded by the nucleotides. Changes in DNA can results in mutations, which vary in how they effect the organism. | 6.
18: During meiosis, the cell starts off as a diploid cell. After it divides into two, each cell has one copy of each chromosome, making them haploid cells. A haploid from each parent cell, sperm and ova, will then fuse through fertilization to form a whole new organism. Without sexual reproduction, cells would be identical to the parent cell. Meiosis results in genetic diversity. | 8.
21: Transcription and translation are all a part of protein synthesis, the process of making proteins. In transcription, mRNA is created. In translation, a ribosome reads RNA and uses the sequence to create a protein by combining multiple amino acids.
23: Organic molecules are explained as molecules with carbon in them and are associated with organisms. These molecules are called monomers which come together to make polymers. There are four biomolecules which are carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nuclei acid. There are two types on nucleic acids which are RNA and DNA. DNA tells the genetic coding for every little thing, and has all the biological information for the organism. | 10.
24: Several techniques can be used to get DNA fingerprinting data, and the researchers choose the techniques based on the organism being studied. All DNA fingerprinting methods study patterns that have something to do with genetic markers. RFLP analysis has been used by researchers to identify genes linked to single-gene diseases. This method is able to tell the differences in DNA fragment lengths due to the presence or absence of a special enzyme, or because of an insertion or deletion that happens between 2 enzyme sites. | 11.
25: Genome modifications is a type of genetic modification in which DNA is inserted, replaced, or removed from a genome. Genetic engineering is done by physically removing a gene from one organism and putting it into another. The difference between genetic modification and traditional breeding is genetic modification manually moves genes from one organism to another while traditional breeding moves genes through mating the organisms to get offspring with a certain special combination of traits. | 11.
26: Chicken genetic engineering is when DNA is added to the chicken to either add or even get rid certain traits. Unfortunately, chickens are being modified all around the world to have preferable traits so they will produce healthier offspring and more nutritional eggs. As a result of chicken farmers feeding the chickens with special pills, steroids, and GMOs, the chickens have started to grow larger in a faster amount of time. A significant reason why chickens are being modified is for the chickens to not be able to transmit bird flu to other organisms around the chickens. | 11.
28: Based on our research and evidence apparent in our Punnett squares, we have reached the conclusion that the mommy of the chicks is Aracauna. It is a greater probability that the mother is of the Aracauna breed.
29: Sources of Error Human error that could have occurred is that the lack of observation of various features on the chicks. In addition, because the chicks were not fully developed yet it has hard to distinguish some traits. (tufts)