S: HOW-TO GUIDE: ABSOLUTISM AND ENLIGHTENED MONARCHY
FC: The How-To Guide on... | ABSOLUTISM & ENLIGHTENED MONARCHY | You too can be the
1: Absolutism and Enlightened Monarchy | Absolutism is a theory that all power should be given to one ruler. Enlightened Monarchy is a theory that allows a little more freedom of religion. The difference between the two is the amount of freedoms each have. Enlightened Monarchy has a little more freedom than Absolutism does.
2: HowTo Rule | Louis the 14th was a good example of a Successful ruler. He gained the favor the people and incorporated Mercantilism | *Reasonable Taxation *Knowledgeable in Military matters *Rule not by fear but with respect *Incorporate more than just nobles and politicians into government *Use Mercantilism
3: How NOT to Rule | Oliver Cromwell was a good example of how NOT to rule. He conquered the commonwealth of England through force and violence. | *Unjust ruling *Heavy taxes *Rule by bloodshed and terror *Buying heavily from other countries *Give too much power to lower-ranking officials
4: Louis XIV Louis XIV was one of the most successful kings in the history of France. Along with the king of France, he was also known as Louis the Great or the Sun King. He was the longest reigning king. He reigned for 72 years. Along with ruling the Kingdom of France, he was also the king of Navarre. Louis was born September 5, 1638. In 1643, while recognizing his death was imminent, Louis XIII prepared for his son’s future minority rule. King Louis started his reign in 1661 with the death of his chief minister Cardinal Mazarin. He created a centralized state governed from the capital. He looked to eliminate the remains of Feudalism that persisted in parts of France. He also consolidated a system of absolute monarchical rule in France that lasted through the French Revolution. During the rule of King Louis XIV, France was the most powerful European nation. They also had fought in three major wars and two minor conflicts. By the early 1680s, King Louis XIV had successfully increased the influence the crown had on the domestic citizens. This is what created the absolute monarchy in France. Louis supported Gallicanism, which limited the the amount of authority the papal had in France. Louis increased control over the French aristocracy by attaching nobles to the courts.
5: In 1660, King Louis married Maria Theresa of Spain. Together, they had six children. Out of their six children, only one survived to adulthood; Louis. In 1683, Maria Theresa died. According to Louis she had caused him unease on no other occasion. After the death of Maria Theresa, King Louis secretly married Madame de Maintenon on October 10, 1683. After his 72 year reign, King Louis died of Gangrene on September 1, 1715. He died four days before his 77th birthday. King Louis XIV of France will always be known as the most successful and longest reigning king in French history.
6: Frederick William II of Prussia was born in Berlin and assumed the throne at age fourteen. He had two wives and a mistress, the last of which was able to heavily influence him. He had many children with all of them.He soon gained the favor of the people by reforming the tax system and bringing in new trade. While a popular rising ruler, his curiosity was his downfall. He got involved with some questionable societies and eventually joined | the Rosicrucian's. As a result of this, his reign became heavily influenced by Johann Christoph van Wollner. Wollner sought for individual enlightenment and was also a Freemason. This decision would prove a major mistake for Frederick. Frederick William II eventually appointed Wollner as his councilor of finance. Wollner would convince Frederick to outlaw any religious text besides their own and he openly went against the church authority. Frederick William II was also very unconcerned with war matters and all of his military campaigns proved unsuccesful. He cared too much for arts and political nicities to give serious thought to any military campaigns. His only notable action was allying with France during their revolution but his own armies dissolved when he did not have enough funds to support them.When he died he left Prussia bankrupt and in chaos due to his failure trying to lead the country. _
7: Overall verdict: Unsuccessful Ruler | Greatest Strength: Popular with subjects Greatest Weakness: Easily manipulated | Rating: 2 out of 5 | His reign left Prussia struggling to maintain a stable government structure and not fall apart. While he was popular during the beginning, his people had grown disgusted with him. They even referred to him as "The Fat Bastard". His death was a happy one for the people of Prussia. -
8: Oliver Cromwell was born in Huntingdon in 1599. He came from a well-off family and grew up religious. In his years of adulthood he was allegedly involved in radical religions branching off from puritanism. It is unspecified if these influences led to his period of depression. In 1631 he sold his respective property and moved to a farm in St. Ives. He continued to inherit money and jobs from his family and moved his way up through the life of a citizen. Cromwell had been | a member of parliament for a few years before Charles 1 dissolved the parliament. Eleven years later a new parliament was formed and he returned again and wrote several influential pieces of legislature. Although he had little military experience, in 1642 he worked with the parliament in stopping illegal shipping, as well as a few small battles. He worked his way up to the rank of Colonel. Through smart military knowledge and skill he rose to lieutenant general and began to win several major battles for England. Meanwhile, political turmoil in the government gave him the opportunity to recruit his own army and challenge the king. They easily defeated the kings army. Subsequently over the next few years he fought for more reforms in the government and Charles the 1 was etried and executed. After this, England was declared a republic, known as the commonwealth of
9: England. To counter radical revolutions and opposition in Ireland and Scotland he began to organize invasions into those countries. Cromwell’s brutal tactics in Ireland began to soil his reputation. After these two controversial campaigns he returned his attention to politics and was eventually appointed Lord Protector of England in 1653. He pushed the government for more and more radical and even spiritual reforms the government, completely overthrowing all preceding government from Charles 1st. He died in 1658 of malaria and a failing kidney. - | Overall verdict: Unsuccessful Ruler | Greatest Strength: Military Genius Greatest Weakness: Cared little for subjects | Rating: 2 out of 5
10: She unified the Hagsburg monarchy and had a very successful family. Her father, son and husband were Holy Roman Emperors and her daughter was Marie-Antoinette and Leopold II. She conquered and took many countries and had almost a life of ruling which caused her to be a 5 star ruler on the scale. Maria fought for a place that was engorged with minerals, helping the taking of New France, The Battle of Kolin. She cared about the people she ruled and believed that it would help her. She also has the longest formal title I’ve ever seen, she was the Archduchess but the formal entire title she earned was 129 words long (in my Absolute Monarch chart). In 1771, Maria Theresa issued the Robot Patent. She died on November 29, 1780 at 56. | Maria Theresa was born on May 13, 1717 in Vienna. She is the daughter of Charles VI, the Holy Roman Emperor and Elizabeth of Brunswick-Wolfenbttel. The Pragmatic Sanction caused her to get into politics. In 1736 she married Francis Stephen of Lorraine and they had 16 children and 10 lived. On Oct. 20, 1740, Charles VI died and she had to take up the position of her father. Frederick II of Prussia took over Silesia, an important province. Charles Albert of Bavaria joined him and became Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. After he died, her husband Francis I became the Emperor. She reformed education and financial matters and encouraged commerce and agriculture. She also reorganized the military. All the conflict with Prussia started the Seven Years War and the Bavarian Succession. Francis died and her son Joseph II became the Holy Roman Emperor.
11: Charles I was born on November 19, 1600. He is the son of James I and Anne of Denmark. He married Henrietta Maria, the daughter of King Henry IV. He felt that he only had to answer to God. As a Protestant, he went through fights with others over religion. He married a Roman Catholic woman and his people feared he would help them and he got a secret marriage treaty. They had 9 children and one died as a teenager. He started being a ruler at the age of 25. Not only did he rule over England but also Scotland and Ireland, all at the same time. | He wanted to be an absolute monarch so he disbanded Parliament and attempted to raise taxes to fund anything they needed or he wanted. This ended up giving him a bad reputation among other things and the people of England rebelled and tried to overthrow him. They had a civil war between the Cavaliers (the Kings army) and the Roundheads (the Parliamentary and civilian army). Charles I lost the Civil war which lead to his death. Charles I was executed for treason in 1649.He was revered as a Tyrant King to his people. The only thing that says, maybe he was a good man in some way, shape or form is that he is a saint in the Church of England.
12: Maria Theresa of Austria | Rating: 4 out of 5 | Greatest Strength: General experience and right decisions. Greatest Weakness: Could have been Emperor if male. Overall verdict: Successful Ruler
13: Charles I of England | Rating: 2 out of 5 | Greatest Strength: Determination Greatest Weakness:Disbanded Parliament Overall verdict:Unsuccessful Ruler
14: Ivan was the son of Vasili lll and his second wife, Elana.When Ivan was just three years old his father died from a boil and inflammation on his leg which developed into blood poisoning. Ivan was proclaimed the Grand prince of Moscow at his father's request. At first his mother Elena Glinskaya acted as a regent, but she died of what many believe to be assassination by poison[ when Ivan was only eight years old. According to his own letters, Ivan along with his younger brother Yuri often felt neglected and offended by the mighty boyars from the Shucki and Belsky families. Ivan was crowned with monomakh cap at the Cathedral of the Dormition at age 16 on 16 January 1547. He was the first person to be crowned as "Tsar of All the Russia’s", hence, claiming the ancestry of Kievan. Prior to that, rulers of Muscovy were crowned as Grand Princes, although Ivan the great , his grandfather, styled himself "tsar" in his correspondence. Foreign policy In 1547 Hans Schlitte, the agent of Ivan, recruited craftsmen in Germany for work in Russia, but all these craftsmen were arrested in Lubeck at the request of Poland. Ivan established very close ties with The kingdom of england. This means that these country traded often and had similar battle startagies.While the queen (Elizabeth)n focused on commerce, Ivan was more interested in a military alliance. During his troubled relations with the boyars, the tsar even asked her for a guarantee to be granted asylum in England should his rule be jeopardised.