BC: The End
FC: Ancient World History | By Brittany, Sarah, Felicia
1: Table of Contents | Nomadic Revolution Israelites Ancient Mesopotamia Phoenicians Ancient Egypt Ancient India Ancient China Ancient Greece Ancient Rome
2: Neolithic Revolution | The transition of humans from nomadic hunters to farmers began around 8,000 BC | Civilization emerged with the development of cities, religion, social structure, and art. | Domesticating animals and plants was introduced | Early cities began in river valleys and fertile plains
3: Systematic Agriculture, or the keeping of animals and growing of food on a regular basis, was the biggest change the Neolithic Revolution brought. Farming spread from to all areas of the world and more permanent villages were established as an effect
4: Israelites | Lasting influence was their religion- known today as Judaism | King David established control over land eventually called Israel and made Jerusalem the capital | Assyrians overran them in 722 BC
5: Phoenicians | Lived in Palestine along the Mediterranean Sea | Created an international trade empire and an alphabet that was later used by the Greeks | Great international sea traders
6: Ancient Mesopotamia | Mesopotamia, one of the world's first civilizations, was located in modern-day Iraq between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
7: Mesopotamians were polytheistic, and built ziggaruts to honor their gods | Cuneiform was development by the Sumerians in 3,000 BC | Code of Hammurabi were a set of laws that governed the people strictly
8: ANCIENT EGYPT | Ancient Egyptians wrote in hieroglyphics | Egypt was largely centered around the Nile River and depended on the yearly inundation (flooding) to irrigate their crops | Egyptians mummified the dead bodies as part of their polytheistic belief
9: Elaborate pyramids were built to house the bodies of the dead pharaohs for their afterlife | Pharaohs ruled with absolute power over the people with the help of a vizier (land steward) | Old Kingdom- King Menes united Upper and Lower Egypt in 3100 BC to form the first dynasty Middle Kingdom- period of stability and expansion New Kingdom- pharaohs drove out Hyksos and established a new dynasty
10: Ancient Egypt, cont. | Hatshepsut was one of the first women to become pharaoh. She is well known for increasing trade and building a big temple | Akhenaten introduced the worship of one god, Aten, during his rule. It was undone by his Tutankhamen. | The New Kingdom eventually collapsed in 1070 BC. It was ruled then by various empires until 1st Century BC, when pharaoh Cleopatra VII attempted to restore Egypt with the help of Rome. She was unsuccessful.
11: ANCIENT INDIA | India developed in the fertile Indus Valley | Sanskrit was used as early as 1,000 BC | Hinduism was the first primary religion. They believed in an ultimate reality, or god, the Brahman | Siddhartha Gautama developed Buddhism, which believed in nirvana, Four Noble Truths, and the eight-fold Path
12: Ancient India, cont. | Social class was divided into four varnas, or groups. The Brahmins (priestly class), Kshatriyas (warriors), Vaisyas (commoners), and Sudras (peasants). | Asoka, one of India's greatest rulers, set up hospitals for the poor people and animals and expanded commerce and trade.
13: Vedas were religious chants and stories | Bhagavad Gita was a famous section of the book of Mahabharata about the god Krishna and a lesson about moral rightness of actions | India was known for its rich and varied literature
14: ANCIENT CHINA | Priests communicated with gods during the Shang Dynasty with oracle bones | Confucianism: the belief in Confucius' ideas Daoism: Based on the teachings of Laozi Legalism: proposed that humans were evil by nature
15: Han Dynasty- was one of the greatest dynasties.The Han rulers continued the Qin system of choosing government officials based on merit, not birth | Shang Dynasty- Ruled by an aristocracy. Best known for bronze casting Zhou Dynasty- rulers claimed power because of the Mandate of Heaven. Also believed in Filial Piety | Qin Dynasty- constructed the Great Wall to protect against Gobi and adopted Legalism
16: Ancient Greece | Ancient Greeks worshiped many Gods and Goddesses. Some cities were dedicated to this Gods and Goddesses. Their religion was polytheistic. | The Greeks believed that the Gods had created everything. They were the source of everything on Earth and were to be respected. | In ancient Greece there was a powerful city state called Athens. Their city was dedicated to Athena. They valued mathematics and literature education. | Sparta was a city state. Valued military education. It felt threatened by Athens, thus starting a war between the two. The Spartans fought bravely, but lost.
17: Battle of Marathon was the Greeks versus the Persians. The Greeks cornered the Persians and won the battle. The battle gets its name from the story of a man who ran back to Athens, and in his last breath said "we won". | Greeks lost the battles of Thermopylae, Athens, and Hellespont. But Athens was successful in the battles of Salamis, Plataea, and Marathon. | Alexander the Great set out to defeat the Persians and create the largest empire in the world. He first took control of the coasts and then moved his way around the major cities. Then set after the Persian emperor, Xerxes. Xerxes was killed by his brother in hopes Alexander would stop the blood shed, but Alexander killed his brother and Persian nobles.
18: Ancient Greece, cont | Early Greek Philosophers focused on the development of critical or rational thought about the universe. Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle were among the most well-known philosophers
19: Ancient Rome | Rome was split into two main classes: plebians (small farmers, craftsmen, merchants) and patricians (wealthy rulers) | Located on the plain of Latium, heavily influenced by the Etruscans. They controlled from 650-509 BC
20: 1st Punic War was fought in 264 BC against Carthage over the land of Sicily 2nd Punic War started when Hannibal crossed the Alps with an army of 46,000 men and 37 elephants | The first Triumvirate consisted of Crassus, Pompey, and Julius Caesar. Caesar became sole dictator in 45 BC | Ancient Rome, cont
21: Under Augustus, gladiator fighting became popular | The combination of Christianity, non-Italian prominence, lead poisoning, plague, and troubled political system lead to the fall of Rome | Augustus became the first emperor of Rome in 27 BC. He created a new political system