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AP Biology Project David Vien

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FC: AP Biology II / Caro | David Vien's Biology Collection

1: Rhizome | A rhizome is the stem of a plant that can be found underground, with nodes and shoots. If a rhizome is cut up, each piece can be used to grow a new plant. Here, a piece of ginger is an example of a rhizome.

2: Basidiomycete | An example of an basidiomycete is a fungus. Basidiomycetes can be mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, or stinkhorns. They reproduce sexually through basidia cells that carry spores, but some can reproduce asexually.

3: Hermaphrodite | A hermaphrodite is an organism with both male and female reproductive organs. Worms are the perfect examples of hermaphrodites--during mating, they line up in opposite directions and exchange sperm, which is made in the seminal vesicles. The sperm is stored in seminal receptacles. Then, the worm secretes a mucus that slides off a clitellum, which is 1/3 of the way down. The sperm from the seminal vesicles is then used to fertilize eggs.

4: Ectotherm | Ectotherms are animals that do not rely on internal sources of heat to maintain their metabolism or control their body temperature. These animals rely on constant sources of external heat such as the sun. Other ectotherms are reptiles and amphibians, such as turtles.

5: Chlorophyta | Chlorophyta is a division of green algae. It stores food as starch in plastids, which are organelles found in plant cells. Green algae is also photosynthetic, aquatic, and eukaryotic.

6: Amniotic Egg | An amniotic egg includes a membrane that has an amniotic sac that the fetus uses. The structure of an amniotic egg typically includes an eggshell, outer and inner membranes, exterior and interior albumen, yellow and white yolk, and and germinal disk. This amniotic egg is adapted for the terrain, with its tough eggshell.

7: Ethylene | Ethylene is a hydrocarbon that's also an important plant hormone. It's used to make fruits ripen. It also makes flowers open and plants shed leaves.

8: Exoskeleton | An exoskeleton is a skeleton that supports an animal's body from the outside. Crustaceans and insects typically have exoskeletons. Here, a crab is an example of a crustacean.

9: Chitin | Chitin is a derivative of glucose that plays an integral role in exoskeletons of crustaceans and insects and the cell walls in fungi. In animals, chitin is combined with other materials to make a harder shell. Here, a lobster is an example of a crustacean.

10: Carbohydrate-Fibrous | Fibrous carbohydrates are carbohydrates that come from green vegetables. These carbohydrates are high in fiber, minerals, vitamins, and other nutrients. Other sources of fibrous carbohydrates are mushrooms, beans, broccoli, and cucumbers. Here, bamboo is an example of a plant that has fibrous carbohydrates.

11: Angiosperm | Angiosperms are plants that flower. They produce seeds that have endosperm in them. They also can make fruits that carry the seeds. This is a picture of an orchid, which produces flowers.

12: Stem-Woody | Plants that have woody stems have wood as their structural tissue, which is made of cellulose and lignin. Woody plants are usually shrubs and trees. Wood is an adaptation that allows plants to grow taller and taller. These plants add layers of wood tissue every year on the vascular cambium, which is found under the bark.

13: Stem-Herbaceous | Herbaceous plants have stems that do not grow like woody plants do. Their stems die down to the soil level. Depending on whether or not they are annual, biennial, or perennial, these plants may die completely, or have parts still alive underground.

14: Diploid Chromosome Number | The diploid chromosome number is 46., with 23 pairs. Nearly all mammals are diploid, with 2 copies of the same chromosome from the mother and the father. Humans are examples of organisms that are diploid. Human gametes have are haploid, while human cells are diploid.

15: Dicot Flower and Leaf | Dicotyledons are plants whose seeds have 2 cotyledons. Cotyledons are a part of the embryo of a plant seed and can become the first leaves of a seedling. The flower petals usually occur in multiples of 4 or five, vascular bundles in the stem are usually circular, and the leaf veins are network-like in appearance.

16: Adaptation of an Animal | Feathers are an adaptation of the integumentary system and can be found on birds. Feathers were first found on dinosaurs, and their evolutionary stages can be broken down to time periods during which they were composed of single filaments, multiple filaments, and when they became pennaceous (the shape we recognize today). Today, the feather helps to keep birds warm, take flight, stay waterproof, and communicate.

17: Deuterostome | Deuterostomes are animals whose embryonic development creates an anus from the blastopore. In protostomes the blastopore usually becomes the mouth. All chordates(animals with a notochord and other defining elements like pharyngeal slits/hollow dorsal nerve cord).

18: Arthropod | Arthropods are invertebrates, have a segmented body, an exoskeleton, and jointed appendages. Typical arthropods are crustaceans, spiders, and insects. They all have open circulatory systems and compound eyes. They almost all lay eggs and have nerve cords that run ventral to the body, forming ganglia in each part of the segments.

19: Phloem | In plants with vascular tissue, the phloem is the part of the tissue that transports organic nutrients like sucrose. During photosynthesis, the phloem participates in a process called translocation that moves soluble organic material to parts of the plant that needs it. In woody plants, the phloem is the deepest layer of the bark, right before the xylem.

20: Lichen | Lichens are organisms that are usually made of a symbiotic relationship between an organism that can perform photosynthesis like green algae and a fungus. They can live in extreme conditions, like the arctic and desert. They are also long-lived and can form on rocks, trees, and soil.

21: Eukaryote | A eukaryote is an organism composed of cells with complex structures like Golgi apparatuses and chloroplasts. The most important feature that distinguishes eukaryotes from prokaryotes is that eukaryotic cells have nuclei, which are contained within nuclear envelopes. Examples of eukaryotes are insects, animals, fungi, and plants. Eukaryotes can also be unicellular.

22: Actin | Actin is a protein found in all eukaryotes. It is a type of microfilament, and plays an important role in the cellular processes of cell motility, cytokinesis, cell division, muscle contraction, cell signaling, and organelle/vesicle movement.

23: Tendril of a Plant | A tendril of a plant is a specialized stem or leaf that's used for support, attachment, or invasion. These tendrils are formed from modified leaves and shoots and are responsive to chemicals in the air. They are able to photosynthesize.

24: Heartwood | Heartwood is a part of wood that has become immune to decay through spontaneous chemical processes. It usually is at the center of the tree, and the heartwood is actually dead. It typically is darker than the wood that's still alive.

25: Keratin | Keratin is an important structural material in human skin, hair, and nails. Keratin is actually a bunch of fibrous structural proteins that form monomers, which combine to form intermediate filaments.

26: Epithelial Tissue | Epithelial tissue is tissue that lines the surfaces of the body's structures, as well as its cavities and glands. Its functions include protection, feeling sensations, absorption, and secretion. Human skin is an example of epithelial tissue.

27: Insect | Insects are arthropods with a head, thorax, and abdomen, 6 jointed legs, compound eyes, one pair of antennae, and an exoskeleton made of chitin. They hatch from eggs and constitute over 90% of all animal life on Earth. These insects were caught outside my house by fly paper.

28: r-strategist | r-strategists are organisms that reproduce quickly. Traits that are common to these animals are high fertility, small bodies, early maturity, and the ability to produce a large number of offspring at once. These animals thrive in unstable environments, where they must reproduce quickly to survive.

29: Fruit-Fleshy with Seed | Fruits that are fleshy with seeds are typically sweet and edible when eaten raw. This is a picture of an orange tree that I found when I trespassed into a neighbor's yard.

30: Xerophyte | Xerophytes are organisms that have adapted to survive in dry environments. Agave, which is pictures here, is an example of a xerophytic organism. It has thick, fleshy stems that can store water and leaves that are coated in a waxy leaf coloring to prevent water loss.

31: Cambium | The cambium is a tissue layer in a plant that produces undifferentiated cells for growth. There are three types of cambium: cork cambium, unifacial cambium, and vascular cambium. The cork cambium contributes to growth that replaces the epidermis , or top layer of cells in plants. The unifacial cambium makes undifferentiated cells that develop into xylem. The vascular cambium creates cells that become the secondary xylem/phloem.

32: Radial Symmetry | An organism has radial symmetry if it can be cut up like a pie into matching pieces. In plants this is particularly common, and is called being actinomorphic. This occurs when their stamen, petals, and sepals grow with equal spacing around the center of the plant.

33: Cellulose | Cellulose is a polysaccharide that plays an important structural role in green plants' cell walls. In plants cellulose is used to make the secondary cell wall more rigid and waterproof. This makes the plant able to withstand physical strain like the wind blowing and being bent.

34: Gymnosperm | Gymnosperms are plants that produce "naked" seeds, meaning that they grow on scales or leaves. The seeds can also form cones, as commonly seen in pine trees. The center of this male cycas revoluta (sago cycad) tree develops a cone in the very center.

35: Lignin | Lignin is an important chemical compound that is found in the secondary cell walls in plants and a few algae species. In trees, lignin is used as a biopolymer to strengthen the xylem cells, in effect making the wood stronger.

36: Autotroph | Autotrophs are organisms that can produce their own fats, carbohydrates, and proteins from basic resources such as water, oxygen, and sunlight. They are typically producers and are generally plants and algae. There are many autotrophs, such as lithotrophs, chemotrophs, and phototrophs. Lithotrophs use inorganic compounds in chemical reactions for biosynthesis, chemotrophs use electron donors from inorganic sources for energy, and phototrophs use sunlight to make organic compounds.

37: Pollen | Pollen is a fine, rough grain-like substance that is used by plants to transport the male gametes. The pollen's outer coating protects the sperm cells during the movement from stamen--pistil or male cone-->female cone. Upon landing on the appropriate counterpart, the pollen germinates and makes a pollen tube to move the sperm to the ovule.

38: Frond | Fronds are large, divided leaves. They typically have a petiole called a stipe, which is the long stalk that supports the blades in this picture. The stipe eventualy becomes the rachis, or main axis of the frond. Frond blades can be either pinnate, simple, or pinnatifid. This sago cycad has pinnate leaves.

39: Conifer Leaf | Most coniferous trees (cedars, cypresses, pines, firs, junipers, redwoods, spruces, yews) have leaves that are long, and needlelike. Some conifers also have flat, triangular-like leaves. This red cedar tree's leaves, which are long and scaly, are examples of coniferous leaves.

40: Cuticle Layer of Plant | The cuticle layer of a plant is the waxy covering on the epidermis of leaves. The layer serves as a permeable barrier for water and other molecules and keeps out unwanted dirt, microorganisms, and unclean water. It also resists bacteria, viruses, and the spores/filaments from fungi.

41: k-strategist | k-strateigsts are animals that thrive in stable environments. They typically have large bodies, greater longevity than r-strategists, and lesser numbers of offspring which need parental care.

42: Meristem | The meristem is the tissue of a plant where growth takes place. Meristematic cells are usually undifferentiated cells that can develop into plant organs that keep it growing. Pictured here is the shoot apical meristem, which creates organs like leaves and flowers. There is also the root apical meristem, which controls growth in the root cap and the inside of the root.

43: Deciduous Leaf | Deciduous trees are trees that lose their leaves when the seasons change. This typically happens during winter and is important for the conservation of water. Losing leaves also eliminates the consumption of resources needed to maintain and repair damaged leaves. Pictured here is the leaf of an oak tree, which is deciduous.

44: Pollinator 1

45: Pollinator 2 | A pollinator is an organism that assists in the transport of pollen from the male anther to the female stigma. This results in fertilization. Pictured here is a bee, which are perfectly adapted to their role as pollinators. Their bodies are fuzzy, which allows pollen to cling to them, they carry pollen to and from flowers as they collect nectar, and they have structures called scopa on their bodies which carry pollen. This picture is far away because I was too scared to risk being stung. :(

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