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Benchester - Page Text Content

S: Study Abroad 2012 Durham England

FC: Binchester Dig Crew 2012

1: Study Abroad 2012 Durham, England

3: Outdoor classroom

8: Well, we're back after our week's break. Lots and lots of new people on site today- from Texas Tech and other US universities, a group from the Fulbright Summer School, lots of local people and handful of Durham students. Overall we had about 75 people in the trenches today. After a useful introduction to the site by David Mason and a site tour we soon had everyone working. Most people were placed in Trench 1,so lots of work took place here. Mainly we had people picking away through the cobbles in the road surface. Others were planning some of the southern parts of the barrack so we can start removing some of the flagstones. Along the south-east rampart we had someone starting to examine one of the small features built into whilst elsewhere we were still trowelling away to define its precise edge. In 'Hilly's Pit' we removed large quantities of the stone lining and started chipping away at the edge behind these stones. Nearby, Ellen and Rosie started looking at the gully next to Hilly's pit and Ellen has picked up what maybe part of the tower wall. Lots of cleaning taking place along the north-eastern rampart - Janet found a nice circular brooch (see image). It needs cleaning and is probably Roman, but I must confess I sneakily hope it might be an Anglo-Saxon disc brooch. Lots more bone, including a nice cow scapula which Cameron identified as having a slot through it, indicating it had been suspended or hung. Over in Trench 2 the work was focused on two areas. First, lots of trowelling at the eastern end of the trench to try and locate the roadside ditch which was such an important feature further west. Pleasingly, towards the end of the day, the diggers started to recognize what looks like some cap-stones for the ditch. There was also lots of stone removal in the central section. Pleasingly, as they took away the cobbles, there was just earth beneath rather than yet more layers of stone. Nicest find from this trench today - a silver Roman coin in excellent condition. | Dig site Day 1 Monday, 2 July, 2012

9: Another great day- lots of people, lots of work. In Trench 1, the small extension to the trench we put in this season which has proved so problematic has now resolved itself into a substantial wall, probably of medieval date. It joins the south-east corner of the now absent medieval building and may be somehow relate, although I doubt it is another structure. Nearby there was work going on dismantling the probably medieval features on top of the barrack block. Along the se side of the embankment there was good work unpicking the drain feature, traces of which may also be starting to emerge on the ne side too in the area where there has been lots of cleaning back. Other activity in this trench includes unpicking features along the outside of the barrack, including an area with very heavy iron staining- perhaps evidence for industrial activity. Also, lots of the inevitable planning In Trench 2, the roadside ditch was becoming increasingly clear, while the central area was completely cleaned and photographed - something to get stuck into tomorrow. Towards the end of the day Jamie moved a group over to the far north-west corner of the trench (near where the inscription was found last year) and got them to start giving it a good clean back to see if anything interesting emerged. Meanwhile, in the bath building, poking around in the base of one of the large internal pits has revealed what look like more flagstones. Once these areas are fully cleared and planned, then we can start unpicking them. It wasn't all excavation work though. One of my Masters students was on site interviewing visitors and workers as part of her research on perceptions of Binchester. This theme was followed up this evening when a number of us (myself, Peter Carne, Michael Shanks, David Mason and David Mien) participated in an oral history project event when we were recorded talking about our involvement with Binchester, and reflecting on our experiences of this project. All organised by Bianca Carpeneti, a former Stanford student, now at Cambridge, who has spent several seasons on the site with us. | Tuesday July 2, 2012 Day 2

10: Another busy day, with no rain! In Trench 1 our mysterious little Roman structure built into the rampart to the north of the medieval building turned into a mysterious little medieval structure when green-glazed pot was found built into its walls. There was also more work on the big new wall in the trench extension, it was tidied up and photographed, and there is another smaller possible wall behind it now. Very confusing- I wish we'd never opened up this bit now! Elsewhere on the south-east rampart we're worrying away at the northern end of the roadside drain which appears to be bifurcating! It's path must take it more or less through the big pit, although we haven't picked it up anywhere obvious. Lots of beavering away along the features either side of the barrack. We've an area of possible path in the south-east corner and more possible pits (inevitably) appearing elsewhere. Nice finds from the northern edge of the trench include an enamelled stud, a brooch and a fragment of worked shale or slate (see images below). In Trench 2 more work on the south-western corner is revealing further flagged surfaces overlain by a burnt deposit. In Building 1 we're finally getting to grips with the oven that the nicely built flue led to whilst in Building 2 we're revisiting the oven. Lots of work in the central sector including quite a lot of the dark material coming off to the north of the post-medieval ditch. In the bath building, our hoped for flagstone base to the large pit failed to develop, but we're removing some of the interior fills. We realised that the surviving wall plaster does not appear on the blocking of the door/window, giving us some kind of phasing. I'm not on site tomorrow, but I will try and incite someone else to provide a blog entry. | Day 3 July 4th Day 3: July 4th

11: Today's blog post is from Brad Morrison Our morning mist turned to rain after just a couple hours of work. After calling an early break for tea the team began to clean the ceramic building material we’ve managed to pull up over the last little while. An imprinted stamp was found on what appears to be a roofing tile, which may be helpful in providing a date of its manufacture and later use at Binchester. The rain gradually let up as the day progressed, and small numbers of team members were put back to work in the trenches. In Trench 1, the excavators turned more to intensified mapping of the periphery of the site so as not to create a muddy quagmire with their trowels. A small group continued some work | in making sense of the new trench extension, but we’ll have to let the rain subside before we can get a clearer picture. The small team working in Trench 2 pressed on with pulling back a lot of the dark material in the centre of the site. We’re exposing a lot of cobbles and what might turn out to be a wall running north to south, but again only time will tell if our suspicions are correct. In the north-west section of the trench, Daniel has diligently uncovered a rather interesting small square stone basin. Nearby in the north-central area, Callie hit upon a flagstone while mattocking. It appears as if the stone has a purposefully bevelled edge and may have served any number of uses. Perhaps it was simply molding design incorporated into one of the nearby structures? Altogether, we managed to squeeze out a rather productive day considering the amount of rain dumped on us. The forecast tomorrow looks quite grim, so it may be the case that our expert skill at finds cleaning is put to the test again. With luck we’ll catch dry spells and get on with excavating again. Fingers crossed! | Day 4 Thursday, 5 July 2012

12: Day 6: July 9th, 2012 | {the "group" excavating it would be me alone. I am the only one on that project and no one has ever been with me on it.}

13: After a wet Friday and a busy weekend, including a trip for the US students up to Hadrian’s Wall, it was back to work with a vengeance this morning. The site had largely dried out and we had an excellent turnout (over 70 people out today). After the usual introductory site tours we soon had everyone hard at work. In Trench 1 lots of cobbles were coming off along the roadway to reveal further cobbles. Nonetheless, it is clear real progress is being made; we've a group working removing a layer of stones which lay between two lines of stone that run at right angles from the drainage gully –we're not quite sure of the purpose of these lines. They are clearly not structural; possibly Roman ‘sleeping policemen’? In general, it seems that the lower layers of stone in this area are smaller than those above, a number of more sandy patches have also appeared. Further north, as Hilly’s pit is becoming even more complicated, we are half-sectioning the remaining fills, whilst we plan the rest of it. Along the western side of the barrack we are doing large-scale removal of some of the big dark layers, which are mercifully absent of pits and surfaces. We are also returning to the interior of the barrack; cleaning and picking out stone surfaces. In a number of places where later cut features intrude downward we can see earlier layers including a nice clay surface peaking out from later deposits. In Trench 2 there has also been great progress. Daniel is making great progress on the flue + oven in Building 1, whilst we are also picking away at the oven in Building 2. We are also cracking through the big dark layers between Building 2 and the Bath Building. Most pleasingly, in the area in front (to the south) of the bath building we've found two more walls running between the current building and the road. Not quite clear of the phasing yet; do they indicate a later reconfiguring of the access to the main building? In general, finds are plentiful, including a nice copper alloy ring from Trench 2. Incidentall, at Housesteads I saw a fragment of a slate plaque similar to the one we found the other day here at Binchester. It was described as palette for grinding make up or medicines, which is interesting as it came from the barrack area rather than the vicus.

14: Many apologies for the lack of post yesterday -events conspired against me. Today we have a contribution from Brad again "Despite raining through much of the evening, the site remained in decent enough condition to continue working this morning. Peter treated the group to a tour devoted to Trench 1 that allowed everybody to take a step back and see how things are coming along. As the morning progressed, Roman era wall stones belonging to the barrack block in Trench 1 were identified along their southern extensions. Though we were sure the structure’s foundation would run further south and out of our excavation cut, it was nice to finally find Roman stone beneath the rougher hewn stone iterations of later period walls. Rosie has continued to work on the drain running north-south and parallel to the eastern rampart of the fort. It will be very interesting to see how it progresses as it meets the north-eastern corner of the trench! Matt has identified a third potential line running at a right angle from the drainage ditch mentioned by Prof. Petts in his post on Day Nineteen. In Trench 2, Laura resumed work defining features of an oven flue located on the north-western edge of the trench. In its present state it runs two courses high and has been cleaned of its clay sediment. Also within the north-western quadrant, possible wall stones have been identified adjacent to large paving stones lying at a right angle from Dere Street. Is the area finally revealing to us some of its secrets? Within the bath building (Building 3) excavation of the interior wall has been progressing wonderfully. We are beginning to uncover nice segments of wall plaster, some of which maintains a reddish colour. It’s always fantastic to find good pieces of plaster in Britain, so we’re hopeful of more to come! Rain clouds rolled into the area during the afternoon and put an end to what might have been a very productive day. With luck the weather gods will take pity on our poor souls and not muddy the place up too much over night." | Wednesday, 11 July 2012 Day 8

15: This morning started a bit brighter than most, in fact a lot brighter than the entire time since we've been here in Binchester. Although the sun was out the ground had not yet felt it and the mud was just as deep as if a torrential downpour had just occurred. The day started with new assignments being given to some seeing as a few of our previous areas were too wet to dig. For some the day was spent cleaning cobbles, and taking many a bucket to their designated spoil heap. | Day 9

16: For others like Jessica Galea, one of our illustrious Fulbright scholars, happened upon a fantastic find in the center of Trench 2, a very well preserved denari. She also found a bullhorn, which was unfortunately not in working condition (hold for laughter). Indeed Trench 2 was today's trench in the spotlight with much “madness” as Jamie put it in reference to trench 2’s enigmatic north-eastern quadrant where last year's pits were being uncovered. | This “madness” that Jamie was referring to was about the lower layers excavated today and their predictable unpredictability. Trench 2 was also in the middle of being cleaned up for further excavation. In the eastern corner of the trench volunteers and students were committing detailed troweling. In Trench 1 much of the previous work was continued with and the southern end of Trench 1 was being exposed further revealing jagged flat slabs and cobbles in closer and closer proximity.

17: Finally in the center of Trench 1 Melissa and her husband Tim, two of our Texas Tech Students were exposing mass amounts of animal bone and a fantastic example of roman glass from the second century. This aqua glass perhaps belonged to the handle of a large rectangular vessel. Today was incredible; it was full of good finds and even better spirits and was a day that has made a mark on all our minds for being a good break from our English summer | Day 9 Cont.

18: Day 10 Friday, 13 July 2012

19: Relatively few people on site, although we continued to make good progress. In Trench 1, the last two days have seen real movement on the intervallum road. The camber is really very apparent and we now have three of the lateral drains which cross the road. Between the road and the barrack we can see several very distinct areas of stone surface indicated by much larger flags than the surrounding cobbles. The south end of the barrack is looking good, with stretches of proper coursed walling appearing beneath the rougher stretches of wall above. We've also really cleared out part of the interior- it is now looking very much like that part of the southern area of the barrack may have been re-used as a smaller structure of probable medieval date (contemporary with the other medieval building)- it uses the east wall of the barrack but has a rough western wall that lies within the footprint of the main barrack structure. Elsewhere lots more work on unpicking the pits and their associated working areas. Some nice finds including the nice but very unusual animal tooth (cow or horse) that appears to have been reworked into the shape of a bird's head. I've never seen anything like it- anyone have any parallels? Meanwhile in Trench 2 the western end is starting to resolve itself with clearer evidence for another oven and other layers/surfaces starting to be clarified. Also, more tinkering in Building 2, with clay layers being removed from the interior floor. The main building here is also looking very good. We found a almost intact pot (very rough hand-made grey ware) lying upside down at the base of the pit (probably deliberately placed) very close to a circular copper alloy object which had corroded onto a lump of iron. Meanwhile off site there was lots of project work going on behind the scenes and we've made real progress in our plans to recreate a simple Roman kiln in the Botanical Gardens in Durham. We're off to Segedunum and the Great North Museum on Sunday but (weather permitting) will be back on Monday.

20: Dig Day 11 Monday, 16 July 2012 | Back to work after a busy weekend that took in trips to Segedunum and the Great North Museum. Lots of people on site (although a certain Jamie Armstrong was notable by his absence) and lots of work done. In Trench 1, new work commencing in the barrack - a crack team of trowellers managed to reveal a nice new area of flagstone flooring to the south of (and presumably earlier than) the central pit- they also uncovered a nice square cut feature that appeared to cut through a possible internal cross wall. In general there was an increasing amount of planning and other recording going on in the southern half of the trench, although some people were still scraping away at surfaces. On the northern edge of the trench, the cobbled surface appeared to be cut by a row of post-holes that ran parallel with the embankment - no clear date though. In Trench 2, at the western end there was a probably new stone capped drain running close to the oven/flue arrangement uncovered last week. In Building 2, initial exploration of the floor surface seemed to suggest that the flue from the oven carried substantially outside the eastern wall of the structure. Nearby, there was more removal of the dark layers, incidentally revealing more of the possible 'plinth' which appeared to be associated with a line of rubble that might resolve itself into a wall.

21: It is starting to appear the wall of this area has a pair of small niches opposite each other- this needs to be confirmed though. The removal of the internal fill is also showing the extent of wall plaster- although we've tried to keep this largely covered up at the moment to protect it. At this stage we aren't clear if there are any discernible patterns or decoration on the plaster. Tomorrow, Jamie returns to put the trench back into order! | Inside the main building, there was lots of removal of soil in the western room- there appears to be a long stone at the base of the blocked entrance- a possible lintel perhaps. I also saw a nice piece of worked stone in the wall (possible window head) that I'd not noticed before. In the large pit in the eastern room Steven found a nice group of coins that have been corroded together.

22: Day 12 Tuesday, 17 July 2012 | Wonderful weather today (although it's chucking it down as I write this). Lots of people on site today so we made good progress. In Trench 1, we got some photos done of the pits at the very southern end of the barrack and have started unpicking the stonework inside it. Just to the east, in the new extension, we're still slowly cracking through it and have now reached the Roman road surface - it is possible to see that like the remaining wall of the medieval building, the revetment and associated features are clearly separated from the road surface by a distinct layer of dark soil.

23: . Lots more unpicking done along the course of the road- pleasingly, a tiny stretch of walling running parallel to the barrack was found. This lines up precisely with a random stretch of wall we found last year. Intriguingly this wall line more or less marks the boundary between the area of large cobbles/stones which forms a distinct feature running alongside and adjacent to the barrack, and the smaller stones forming the intra-vallum road. Still not clear how they relate to the barrack though- is it an earlier structure? Inside the barrack, we've started dismantling the flagstones that surrounded and partially formed the nice pit in the central section of the building. This is revealing a possible clay surface beneath it. In Trench 2, lots of planning going on- meanwhile work continues in the western section around the flue and other indistinct features, also starting to dismantle the flue in Building 1. The large dark open area between Building 1 and the bath- building is still going down- there is a possible spine of rubble running due east from the worked stone plinth, although it's probably not structural. Otherwise, business as usual. Nicest find of the day- fragment of worked stone (possibly from an altar?) - pictured- found by Jonathan- however, frustratingly, it came from the area of the spoil heap :-(

24: I wasn't on site so this is from Daniel Powziak (thanks Daniel!) "In Trench 1 we have a number of interesting finds, ranging from Jonathan's medieval discovery of a possible Saxon chest fitting to a pair of metal objects, likely spear heads from some pila, a team effort from Matt, Tanner, and Will. Also found in the trench was a 6-sided die, likely from the Roman period, unearthed by Sam. The rest of the gang in Trench 1 continued their diligent efforts, as some of our brave excavators began removing the flooring of the central block building, discovering the previous stratum to be of the medieval period. Meanwhile in Trench 2, with planning well underway through much of the center of the trench, there | Day 13 Wednesday, 18 July 2012

25: Yet another day without rain! Lots of work got done which was very pleasing. In Trench 1, the last vestiges of the medieval building was removed- although most of it went earlier, we've finally disappeared the remaining back wall. However, as we have been finding green glaze pot beneath the flagstones in the southern part of the barrack, it appears we might be making up for this loss by finding evidence for further medieval activity nearby. We are currently facing the possibility that a lot of what we thought was late-/sub-Roman may be of later date. We are really going to have to pull our fingers out and sort out some C14 dates this autumn. It is certainly clear the remains are very confusing- this was highlighted splendidly today when in dismantling an area of certain medieval wall, Jonathan found what appears to be a fairly carefully placed bottom half of a Roman pot, beneath which was more green glazed pottery The big question is, does this impact on the date of the cattle bones and pits? I still feel they must be late Roman or early med as they as so similar to the butchery activity in Phase 9 of the excavations on the commander's house. | Dig Day 14 Thursday, 19 July 2012

26: Meanwhile, we've been seeing some very interesting developments. Firstly, we now have a second series of post holes running parallel with those found earlier this week but closer to the edge of our trench. There are a number of possibilities- these could be part of a freestanding timber building, but I think they are more likely to part of a lean-to structure constructed against the wall and rampart. Even more surprising is the discovery of another stretch of wall. Earlier this season we found what we thought was a stretch of gully similar to that running along the south-east rampart. However, rather than being a gully, it has turned out to be the top of a wall that survives to the depth of at least five courses and appears to be seated on a cobble/gravel surface. This wall runs only about 30-40cm to the north of the gable end of the barrack. It is clear from this and the slight stretches of wall running parallel and to the east of the barrack that there are significant elements of other structures that still remain to be discovered. Nice finds from this trench today include another possible spearhead, a bone gaming piece from next to where yesterday's die came from(!) and a beautiful jet hairpin. Things are less busy in Trench 2 at the moment, with a lot of planning slowing things down. Nonetheless, Steven and Martha did some impressive stone moving and removed the large flagstones that lined the base of the large pit in the far north-east corner of the trench. This will allow us to start removing the underlying deposits. In the adjacent room, we've removed the red burnt layer. There was also more work in the central sector and on the Building 1 flue (where we had a well preserved coin). Other nice finds included a bone hairpin and a possible fragment of bone that was in the process of being worked. | Day 14 cont.

27: Day 15 Friday, 20 July 2012 | I was off site most of the day as I had a meeting up at the Roman fort of Whitley Castle (Epiacum), high in the North Pennies, near Alston. However, I did get to spend an hour or so at Binchester this afternoon. In Trench 1, a slight technical issue, when we uncovered the modern water pipe, but we soon had it cordoned off. Otherwise, in the barrack, there was more unpicking of the big pit at the southern end. Yesterday, the base of a small oven or kiln was revealed, but this may be of medieval date (inevitably). In the meantime we did some good work along the western edge of the barrack, at one point we've found a possible edge to a large pit (or even ditch?!). This produced a nice intaglio carved from what looks like red jasper (well done Jonathan). When it's cleaned up we'll get a nice photo.

28: At the northern end of the barrack, we saw more work on the new wall, we're starting to have a look at it in several places along its length, and also explore how it relates to the possible westerly extension of the gable end wall. In Trench 2, more planning and recording. Although in the eastern end of the building, Steven and Martha have made great progress following their epic stone moving yesterday. They've exposed the western niche and have identified another possible wall in the base of the pit. Just to the north, we've also got more stone-line pit appearing. Nicest find from Trench 2 today, a silver denarius (but from the spoil heap...) | Day 15 cont. Friday, 20 July 2012

30: Today's blog post is from Julia Hurley Today’s lovely (though windy!) weather allowed us to make considerable progress on the site. We began the morning with a tour of Trench 2, during which Peter told us about some new interpretations of some of the larger areas in the trench, particularly the area between the bath house and Dere Street. Several stones with post holes indicate that a later wooden structure was built onto the front of the building, which provides a possible explanation for the gap of several meters between the baths and the road. After our tour, work commenced in the trenches. Extensive planning and leveling was carried out in the west section of Trench 2. Elizabeth and Carol worked to reveal cobbles in the central room of the bath house, which led Jamie to draw an interesting connection to similar cobbles that Katie and I discovered on the north edge of the trench. | Day 17 Tuesday, 24 July 2012

31: Perhaps they date from the same period? Excitingly, Jamie also believes that there may be another building coming up in the middle of Trench 2. With any luck, we’ll find out before the end of the week. There were several interesting finds in Trench 2, including an amazingly well-preserved set of tweezers found by Lisa. Over in Trench 1, although Matt reports that there are “still no swords” to be found, there were several interesting finds. The team excavated the top of a Roman glass bottle, in addition to a well-preserved pot. 6 coins were also found in Trench 1 today, but unfortunately they were from the spoil heap! The Trench 1 team also made good headway on revealing the Roman intervallum road. In the southwest corner of the trench, a new cobbled surface has been uncovered. The absence of cobbles in the middle suggests that there may have been a drain associated with this surface. All in all, it was a very productive day for the team at Binchester.

32: And thanks to Sam Beger for today's entry The Northern English drought continued its streak today: 6 days without rain on site. We felt like ants through a magnified glass as the sun beamed down on the arid trenches, but being the professionals that we are, we carried on. It seems that the tanning pit hypothesis may have been correct for today as our pasty complexions began to generate pigment. Despite the compact soil, numerous artifacts were uncovered today. Jonathan earned a new nickname of "Jonathan Trowel Hands" due to his systematic and almost machine-like ability to find artifacts. Today he found an amazing golden bead (the only gold object this year) as well as a spearhead. Other finds in trench 1 were Will's clay game counter, and Brad's blue glass bead. Over in trench 2, Madison found a portion of a jet ring and Lauren found a small coin. Some new and exciting things that were discovered today included the removal of some behemoth stones. Tim and Melissa flipped over some flat stones in their area hoping to see some inscriptions on the back. Although there were no signs of any epigraphs, the removal of the stones allows for the area beneath them to be excavated. Over in Daniel's part of his trench, another group of large stones was removed and hurled into the rock pile. Also in trench 2, Katie and Madison managed to uncover a beautiful extension of a pathway, giving us some new valuable information about the vicus. Overall today was full of great weather and fun. There was a lot of recording on the Total Station for both small finds and surveying continued in both trenches. Becca's final thoughts on the day were summed up as, "Today has been awesome." Only 3 days left and our goal is to continue efforts to remove all medieval deposits and structures by the end of the season. The challenge strikes a remarkable resemblance to the TV show "Time Team". Will we make it? Stay tuned! | Day 18 Tuesday, 24 July 2012

33: So two days worth of work to catch up on. In Trench 1, the most significant development is the realisation of the implications of our uncovering of most of the northern gable wall of the barrack. We can see clearly how the current top of the wall is a rough rebuild roughly along the line of the earlier wall. Crucially, we can now see how in this latest rebuild, the gable-end door was at the western end of the wall, but this replaced an earlier door in the eastern end of the wall, which has its lower lintel a good 50cm below the latest version. This is a really solid reminder of the extent to which the internal floor levels of the barrack must have progressively risen since its initial construction and how much the barrack has been remodelled. This is made even more clear by the westward extension of this earlier gable wall. This probably implies that the earliest phase of the barrack block was twice as wide as the building we can see at the moment. At some point before the later gable end wall was built this western half appears to have fallen entirely out of use leaving just the eastern half to continue as a standing building. Given that this eastern half itself was clearly extensively reworked over time, we are beginning to see a real time depth to this constantly changing building. | Day 19 Thursday, 26 July 2012

34: Chronology is hazy, but it seems pretty clear that the western half had fallen out of use by the time the butchery/pit phase occurred. This phase was followed by a thorough reworking of the southern portion of the extant structure in the 13th/14th century, when elements of the barrack survived to such an extent that they could be incorporated, at least partially, into later buildings. Elsewhere in this trench, we've been finishing off the cobbles to the east of the barracks and the final elements of the medieval revetment feature. Hacking away at the embankment near the southern oven/kiln has revealed an extensive spread of charcoal which has clearly been raked out of the stoke-hole of this feature. This will give us potentially good burnt plant preservation and something for C14 dating. Finds today included a very large fe obj of indeterminate type and the top of cow skull with a distinct nail hole (not modern) in it. In Trench 2, we keep on going down within the interior of the bath building- a large charcoal-rich layer has been reached in the easternmost room. Otherwise, there is lots of planning going on, as well as attempts to get a look at the central area of the trench and to unpick the complicated western most section, where I must admit, I remain to be convinced about the presence of the building. Tomorrow is our last day!

76: Journey | ...for a Lifetime

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  • Title: Benchester
  • Tanner's England Archeology Dig
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