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FC: Ancient River Valley Civilization | World History 4th Bill Dang Mrs. Bartlett

1: 2-3 Mesopotamia 4-5 Indus 6-7 China 8-9 Egypt 10-11 Pictures | Index/Table of Contents

2: The word Mesopotamia derives from the Greek language, meaning “lands between rivers.” The two rivers that support life in Mesopotamia are the Tigris and Euphrates River. Unlike many of the other River Valley Civilization, the Sumerian Village was almost defenseless. The Sumerians believed in many different gods. The two most powerful gods in their eyes were they storm and air gods. The most powerful people were government officials, priests, and soldiers. The second level was made up of merchants, farmers, and craftsmen. At the bottom were the slaves, who often had been captured during battle. Hammurabi’s code is a set of laws that would unify the groups that lived in his empire and make it more civil. | MESOPOTAMIA

3: One of the advancements they made to technology was their ability to control the Tigris and Euphrates River by the use of levees. The Sumerians created a system of writing, known today as cuneiform. The Sumerians were the pioneer of their time, they came up with many inventions like the wheel, sail, and the plow. The Sumerians are remembered to be one of the first group to create a somewhat stable civilization.

4: The Indus Valley Civilization is a subcontinent that is blocked from many other civilizations by mountains like the Himalayas and the Hindu Kush Mountains. The People of Indus also came up with the grid system that we use today in many parts of the United States. The Indus Valley was solely built from stone and bricks and their plumbing/drainage system was the most refined of their time. The Indus priests were to some extent in charge of the government. This is because they were the highest ranked people in their society, Religion played a big role in the Indus peoples lifestyle; however there is so specific evidence to prove what religion they were but scientists believe they were probably Hindus. | I | Indus

5: The writing of the Indus civilization still remains a mystery to us even till this day because scientist are unable to decipher their coding. The upper classes of the Indus civilization consist of the Priests and soldier, the middle classes which were farmers and tradesman, and the lower classes were the servants and menial laborers. The Indus civilization built their major buildings in the middle of the city to protect it from invasion. The main supplies of water that the Indus people used were from the Indus and Ganges River. Monsoons and river floods helped Indus with farming because they produced rich soil.

6: Many natural barriers such as, seas, deserts, and mountain ranges in China somewhat isolated it from other early civilizations. Ancient China relied on two major river systems, the Huang He River (Yellow River) and the Yangtze River. The Yellow River provided fertile soil called loess. Due to mountain ranges and deserts dominating two/thirds of China only about 10% of China is suitable for farming. Roads and Canals were built in China to stimulate agriculture and trade. China geographic position allows it to not depend on outside civilizations but be able to supply their own goods. | China

7: With woodblock printing, the Chinese brought ways of communication that is widespread even today. The Shang dynasty was the first dynasty to leave written records. The China, family was closely linked to religion. They believed spirits of family ancestors had the power to bring blessings and curses. The Chinese development of writing was somewhat related to the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics, each character represents one word. The Shang society was divided between nobles and peasants. Nobles had power and governed many villages.

8: Egypt is mostly desert and bare land; however along the banks of the Nile River blooms a civilization. Yearly flooding provides Egypt, a usually dry place, with fertile black mud (silt). The farmers took advantage of this and prepared wheat and barley during this time of year. Deserts on both sides of the Nile prevented Egyptians’ from interacting with other civilizations; however, it also protected it from invaders. Ancient Egyptians new it was essential to record information down. Hieroglyphics’ were the most famous Egyptian scripts Religion was a key factor in Ancient Egypt; religion was linked to tradition, thats why many things stayed the same throughout time in Egypt. | Egypt

9: The Egyptians developed at calendar to help them keep track of the times between floods and to plan their planting season. The Egyptians thought of their kings as gods and they ruled based on theocracy. The social class was determined by birth circumstances such as class, gender and race, and the bond among certain groups were determined by their jobs. The first ancient Egyptians buried their dead in small pits in the desert, the heat and dryness of the sand quickly dehydrated the body. The most powerful person in ancient Egypt was the pharaoh; he had political and religious control.

10: The picture above is Ancient Chinese characters. | The picture to the left is the yellow river, flowing with loess. | The Picture to the right is a picture of the Indus River.

11: The pictures below are Egyptian heiroglyphics and a map of Mesopotamia. | The pictures above is of a ziggurat and a mummified corpse.

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