FC: Birds By: Sofia Ardis, Menma Uche, Zoe Crisp, and Ishan Kumar
1: Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata SubPhylum Vertebrata Class Birds Order Raptors Flightless birds Water birds Wading birds Seed eaters Insect eaters Nocturnal Birds Songbirds
2: What is a Bird? | Birds are vertebrates with feathers and a four chambered heart and can lays eggs. They are also endothermic, which means they control their own body temperature. They are said to have descended from reptiles because of their scaly feet and legs. | Most birds are adapted to fly. They have hollow bones making them lightweight and large chest muscles that move their wings. Most importantly, they have feathers.
3: Birds eat a variety of things depending on where they live and the type of bird they are. Some eat insects and seeds while others are carnivores. They forage, hunt, and depend on us for food.Birds use their bills to hold and capture food because they do not have teeth. A woodpecker uses their bill for chipping wood while a hawk uses it to tear flesh from their prey. Once the food is consumed, digestion starts. The first organ is the crop which stores the bird's swallowed food. It is connected to the stomach, which is where the food is broken down by chemicals. Finally, the gizzard acts like a set of teeth grinding up the food into a paste. | Food
4: Food Web
5: The Era of Birds | Birds first came along in the Precambrian Time. During this time, there was an era called the Mesozoic Era. The period when birds first appeared is in the Jurassic Period. The name of this bird was called Archaeopteryx. This was about 208 million years ago.
6: People believe feathers evolved from reptiles' scales because they are both made of a hard material like your fingernails. The 2 main types of feathers are contour feathers and down feathers. Contours feathers are large and give the bird's body shape. These feathers help a bird stay balanced and fly. Down feathers trap heat and make sure the bird stays warm. They are right on top the bird's skin and overlap each other so they can trap hot air. While these feathers are smooth and flexible, contour feathers have a hard, stick like structure in the middle of them with barbs parallel to each other projecting out if it. When birds fly, their bards sometimes get pulled apart. To smooth them out, Birds pull the feathers through their bills in a process called preening. | Feathers
7: How do Birds Reproduce? | Have you ever wondered how birds reproduce? Birds reproduce sexually which means that two parents combine sex organs and fertilization occurs. The offspring then inherits traits from parent. The male sex organs are paired testes and the female organs are a left ovary and a oviduct. After the male bird sperm enters the female bird, fertilization begins internally. The egg leaves the female and she then lays it in her nest. Eggs can come in all shapes, sizes, and color. After a couple of weeks, the baby bird finally hatches from the egg.
8: Caring For Young | Since the bird will only hatch if the temperature of the egg is close to the parents', one parent has to sit on it to keep it warm. Once the young hatches, they immediately start begging for food. This is where the parents go out to find food, keep it in their mouths, and regurgitate it back to their young. This is the best way to feed them since they are too weak to barely lift up their heads. The parents of the chicks repeat this routine everyday until the young is strong enough and old enough to fly on its own.
9: Diversity Of Birds | Do you know that there are more then over 10,000 species of birds? Some of those birds names are Cranes, Herons, Mockingbirds, and Woodpeckers. They are also the most diverse land-dwelling vertebrates. Birds not only have an adaption for flight, but they also have an adaption such as shape of legs, claws, and bills so they can live in different environments. For example, long legs can help birds escape predators and catch prey and some bills enable ducks to filter out plants and impurities out of the water.Each one of those 10,000 species of birds have their very own way of living and are all unique in their own way.
10: Behavior By Order | Raptors- They are birds of prey that live solitary lives. Flightless birds- These birds can come together in large groups, but spend most time in smaller groups. Water birds- Can be also called "water fowl". These birds live on the coast and eat fish. An example is a sea gull or pelican. Wading birds- This group has birds like flamingo. These birds group together and fish the fish out of the water with their long beaks. Seed eaters- Mostly live in the trees and eat seeds and plants. They live in forests. Insect eaters- Live in forests and eat inscets. They can live in small groups. Nocturnal Birds- These birds hunt at night and are usually solitary and are birds of prey. Songbirds- These birds flock together and communicate with what we call a "song'.
11: Prey and Predator | Birds are both the hunter and the hunted. For small birds, they are hunted by snakes, foxes, and larger birds. To escape for predators, the way oxygen flows through their body helps them fly faster and for longer. They have 4 heart chambers and air sacks to help them ether catch their food or escape.Their nervous system allows them to maneuver and allow them to react quickly. In conclusion birds are adapted for hunting and being the hunted.
12: Birds are able to live in a variety of biomes around the world because they are endothermic. Some birds live in the icy, cold tundras while others live in the warm and moist Rain Forests. Other live in Marine Biomes, deserts, grasslands, deciduous forests, Boreal forests, and Freshwater biomes. | Biomes by Class
13: Body Temperature | Since birds can control their body temperature, it allows them to live in a variety of environments. Birds maintain their body temperature by eating a lot of food because they obtain energy from it. A big quantity of this energy is used for flying. Their average body temperature is about 105 degrees Fahrenheit. The rate of their metabolism burns hotter than any other animal. A bird usually eats about a quarter of what it weighs every day. When people tell you that you eat like a bird it actually means you eat a lot.
14: Birds play an important role for us. They provide us with many things. Birds and their eggs provide us with food. While their feathers stuff our pillows and clothing. As well as birds play an important role in our environment. Birds like humming birds carry pollen from one flower to another, which allows some flowers to reproduce. Birds that eat seed carry the seeds to new location and when the seed exits the bird they might start to grow in the location in which they're put. | Why are Birds Important???
15: Birds are winged creatures. They fly up in the air, sights that amaze us, but how do they fly up so high? Well air is a mixture of gas molecules that exerts pressure on the thing that it is around. An example would be blowing paper with air pressure. Like paper, a wing is surrounded by air molecules that exert pressure on the surface of the wing. The bottom surface of a wing-doesn't matter what wing-is more plain than the top. So the difference in air pressure above and underneath a bird's wing makes a upward force which causes the wing to rise. The force that goes upward is called lift. | How Does Air Move over the WIngs?
16: Bird fly off the ground so they need a way of getting off the ground. So the bird needs to use its legs to jump off the ground while moving forwards since the lift depends on air moving over its wings. So at the same time the bird forces off the ground and quickly pulls its wings down. In the air birds can fly in many different ways. Sometimes birds fly with mixes of soaring and gliding. When hawks or other predatory birds might find a prey they start to circle around it before going in for the strike. Migrating birds will fly pretty slow and steady so they don't waste energy. They'll go for about 30 to 70 kilometers an hour. | Birds In Flight!!!
17: When people think of birds they think of flying. Well did you ever consider running birds or swimming birds. Well it's true that a birds life isn't only in the sky but other places as well. There are many different types of birds-like raptors, flightless birds, water birds, wading birds, seed eaters, insect eaters, nocturnal birds or songbirds. Each of these birds have different characteristics. For example raptors were from the dinosaur period and were carnivores. The flightless bird would be a penguin or ostrich-penguins live in Artic regions while ostrich's are the fastest running birds. Wading birds move and hunt on water while having long legs. Water birds can stand or move on water like ducks. Seed and insect eaters eat seed and insects. Nocturnal birds like owls sleep at morning and hunt at night. Finally birds like humming birds are songbirds, they can move their wings so fast you can't even see it move. So some birds fly, swim or run but they all have on thing in common, they are birds. | Characteristics By Order
18: Genus Species | Cyanocitta cristata- Blue Jay | The Blue Jay is native to North America and lives in central and eastern United States. The Blue Jay gets its name because it is mostly blue with white breasts. It mainly feeds on nuts and seeds(such as acorns), soft fruit, and small arthropods. Its a very recognized bird because it is a mascot for lots of countries and sports teams.
19: Genus Loxia- Crossbill The crossbill is a finch with a bill that crosses when it closes it. Crossbills live in coniferous forests and in the mountains. They depend on seed cones, which are their main food. They travel to many different areas every year to find the cones of a conifer tree. They use their bills to rip out the scales of the cones to reach the seeds. They will breed at any time of they year even during cold winters when they have found enough seed cones to feed themselves and their young.