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Black Portfolio

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S: Minerals Used in the Invention of the Lightbulb

BC: Cites Photo front cover - http://www.menloparkmuseum.org/thomas-edison-and-menlo-park Page 1 http://www.fi.edu/learn/sci-tech/edison-lightbulb/edison-lightbulb.php?cts=electricity http://inventors.about.com/od/estartinventors/a/Edison_Bio.htm Page 2 http://www.bulbcollector.com/article018.html Page 3 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gluehlampe_01_KMJ.png Page 4 http://www.minerals.net/mineral/copper.aspx Page 5 http://geocotextiles.wordpress.com/catagory.chemicals./copper-chemicals/ Page 6 http://www.mineralzone.com/minerals/nickel.html Page 7 http:// www.mii.org/minerals.photonickel.html Page 8 http://webmineral.com/data/Trona.shtml#.UFttw40iaSo Page 9 http://www.yuprocks.com/tlist/trona2.shtml Page 10 - http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-birefridgence.html Page 11 http://www.africpics.com/home/products/request.quote.php?productD=13022657977 Page 13 http://questgarden.com/86/34/6/090826194337/index.htm Photo front cover - http://www.menloparkmuseum.org/thomas-edison-and-menlo-park

FC: Mrs. Sommers 9/19/12 Sophie Barnes Science Portfolio -Minerals of the light bulb | Thomas Edison, inventor of the light bulb.

1: The light bulb In 1847, a legendary inventor by the name of Thomas Edison was born in Milan, Ohio. Although most of his education was informal at home (www.fi.edu.), Thomas was a bright boy who was very interested in chemistry and electronics. It was not long before people realized that he was gifted on the telegraph so it was natural for him to get a job working as a telegrapher. It was at this point that Edison really started to invent and develop patents (www.inventors.about). Eventually, he built a lab for himself in Menlo Park, NJ and here is where he and his assistants worked on finding a way to make a light bulb. Electric lighting was not a new idea, however, there was not a form of electricity that could be contained, economical, and safe enough to be used in houses (www.inventors.about), In this time, they tried at least three thousand different ways to make a light bulb but none were successful. He went through many, many different materials looking for the right filament. He finally found the correct material using a platinum filament (www.fi.edu). This bulb, however, only stayed lit for a few short hours and he realized he needed a more sufficient filament. He tried many things, including plants and fibers and finally, on January 27, 1880, it was a success with a carbonized cotton filament (www.fi.edu). Over time, he came up with filaments that would last longer and longer. Thomas Edison died in 1931 with 1,093 patents under his name (www.fi.edu).

2: Today's light bulb design is extremely similar to Edison's original design. The materials used are slightly different. Below you will find a breakdown of Edison's materials versus today's materials. Edison's base - Copper stripping Today's base - Porcelain and Brass Edison's filament - Carbonized Cotton Today's filament - Tungsten Edison's filament attachment - Platinum clamps Today's filament - Carbon Paste Edison's lead in wires - Platinum Today's lead in wires - Copper with Nickel-Iron Ore Edison's and today's glass - silica, limestone, trona, and feldspar Data from http://www.bulbcollector.com/article018.htm

4: Copper is a mineral as well as an element. Some characteristics are listed below. Cleavage - none Color- copper red, brown, light pink, red Fracture - jagged non-smooth surfaces Hardness- 2.5 - 3.0 scratched by calcite or fingernail Luster - metallic Streak - rose Magnetism- nonmagnetic Crystal shape - isometric Molecular weight- 63.55gm Specific Gravity - 8.39 - http://www.minerals.net/mineral/copper.aspx properties other then specific gravity -webmineral.com Picture - http://oecotextiles.wordpress.com/category/chemicals/copper-chemicals/

6: The mineral nickel is also an element. Below are the characteristics. Cleavage - none Color- Gray white, silvery white Fracture - jagged and torn surfaces Hardness - 4.5 Fluorite and Apatite Luster - Metallic Streak - Grayish white Magnetism - N/A Crystal Shape- Isometric Molecular Weight - 58.69 gm Specific gravity - 7.8 - 8.2 - http://www.mineralszone.com/minerals/nickel.html Picture - http://www.mii.org/minerals/photonickl.html

8: Unlike the other two minerals, Trona is not an element. Below are the properties of Trona. Cleavage - yes Color - Colorless, Gray white, Grayish, Yellowish, Yellowish white Fracture- Fractures developed in brittle materials characterized by semi-curving surfaces Hardness-2.5 Fingernail Luster-Glassy Streak- White Magnetism- N/A Crystal Shape -Monoclinic Molecular Weight - 226.03 gm Specific Gravity - N/ Properties - http://webmineral.com/data/Trona.shtml#.UFttw40iaSo Picture - http://www.yuprocks.com/tlist/trona2.shtml

10: Double refraction Double refraction is just like a prism but it only separates into two ways instead of the different colors. In order for a mineral to have double refraction, it must be smooth and be somewhat translucent. This is because it must be able to let light in, in order to separate it. The mineral trona would be double refracting but copper and nickel would not because they are solid and opaque all the way through (www.wisegeek.com). http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-birefringence.htm Diagram - http://www.afripics.com/home/products/request-quote.php?ProductID=13022657977

12: As you can see there are many different ways of identifying minerals. However, there were many properties that I was unable to find. I was unable to find the texture, float/sink, and reaction to HCL. There are thousands and thousands of minerals out there and many being discovered daily. Minerals have helped support us in many inventions and without them many things we have today, would not be in existence. Our lives would be very limited in what we could do if we didn't have minerals. Life would not be the same without them. Photo Right- http://questgarden.com/86/34/6/090826194337/index.htm Photo front cover - http://www.menloparkmuseum.org/thomas-edison-and-menlo-park

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