BC: The End
FC: To Kill a Mockingbird Harper Lee | Visual Literary Analysis by: Kelly McKay
1: Table of Contents | Setting.........................................2-7 Point of View..........................8-11 Conflict...................................12-13 Characterization...............14-15 Symbols.................................16-17 Themes..................................18-19 Literary Criticism...........20-27 Personal Thoughts.....28-29
2: "Maycomb was a old town, but is was a tired old town when I knew it" (Lee 6). This quote shows that the town is usually pretty quiet and secluded. It also foreshadows that something big is going to happen to make the town not so tired and quiet. | "We live on the main residential street in town (Lee 6). This quote gives the reader an idea of where the characters live and where all of this happens. | "In rainy weather the streets turned to red slop, grass grew on the sidewalks, he courthouse sagged in the square" (Lee 6). This gives very visual descriptions of the town. It really helps the reader visualize the setting of the story. | "There were a few women and children among them, which seemed to display the holiday mood. They waited patiently at the doors behind the white family" (Lee 216). This describes the demeanor of the people who went to the courthouse on the day of the trail. It shows that not much happens in the town and that the people didn't take it seriously. | Setting
3: Understanding the setting is important to understanding the characters and the conflicts that are faced because it helps explain the way the characters behave. The setting of "To Kill a Mockingbird" is in a small southern town which explains why the characters react a certain way to certain things. | The Importance of Setting
4: The Scottsboro boys consisted of nine boys that happened to be at the wrong place at the wrong time. These boys, like other black and white men, were on a freight train looking for work. A fight a broke out between a group of black and white hobos that led to the white hobos being thrown off the train. They reported this to the stationmaster and the nine were then taken to jail. They were accused of assault until two white women wearing mens clothing were found. They then accused the nine boys of gain rapping them so they wouldn't have been prosecuted for having sexual relations with the hobos. These trials lead to a battle between the courts for what ends up lasting some the boys' whole lives. | Scottsboro Boys
5: Emmett Till | Emmett Till was visiting family in Mississippi alone one summer. He was told to not talk to whites as a warning by his mother, which he ignored. One day while Emmett and some of his friends were hanging out, Emmet was bragging about his white girlfriend back at home. His friends, not believing him, dared him to ask out the lady at the candy store. He went in, bought some candy and said "Bye, baby" to the woman. The woman, Carolyn Bryant, later said that he whistled and made other lewd actions towards her. Afterwards, when her husband came home, he was furious to find out that a black boy had made advances on his wife. Roy Bryant and his brother in law, Mose Wright, then went to Emmet's uncles place requesting Emmett. Emmett was found three days later dead and he was so disfigured that the only way he could be identified was by his initialed ring. He mother requested a open casket funeral in hope that his death was not for vain. Roy and Mose were later found not guilty by an all white jury. Many people were outraged by this and this was a early impetus of the African American civil rights movement.
6: The events in Lee's work and the events of Emmet Till and the Scoottsboro boys have quite a few similarities between the three. All three of them show the affects racism has on people and people in small towns at that time. The white people at that time would take any white man/woman's word against a black woman or man. In the Scottsboro boys trials, white women blamed their sexual relations on the innocent boys. Similar to Lee's book where Mayella, a white woman, covered her advances on Tom by saying he raped and assaulted her. In Till's case, the reactions of those whom heard the outcome of the trail showed that people did not agree with this outcome. The same happened in "To Kill a Mockingbird" with the children. In the Scottsboro boys trials and the trial of Tom Robinson, all the those who were accused were actually innocent. Tom was just a nice guy helping a lonely lady and the Scottsboro boys were at the wrong place at the wro | Real World Events that Relate to "To Kill a Mockingbird" Events
8: Point of View
9: The point of view of of To Kill a Mockingbird is first person. An example of this would be when Scout stated "On Saturday Jem and I decided to go exploring with our air air rifles to see if we could find a rabbit or a squirrel" (Lee 112). This shows that Scout is adventurous, curious, and a tomboy. | Harper Lee chose to tell the story from the point of view from a little girl because it gives a since of innocence to the book. By writing from the point of view of a little girl, it gives a perception of the events that are going on in Maycomb. Also because Lee is a female and it is easier for her to write from this perspective versus Jem or Atticus.
10: Atticus POV Court Room Scene | Atticus POV Courtroom Scene Approaching the Jury
11: As I walked into the jury, I went over in my head on how much I need to emphasize that Tom is innocent. Although, I know deep down that these racist people will never let him go away as not guilty, but I can't let that stop me from not trying my best. I would never be able to look Jem and Scout in the eyes again. I pause and start to take out my handkerchief to wipe the sweat that has appeared on my glasses. I usually never sweat, but today is an exceptionally hot day for Maycomb. "One more thing, gentlemen before I quit" I start, as I begin with my finishing words. I realize that this is it. No more opportunities to save this man's life. No more time to try to persuade the people of the jury, the people of Maycomb, that this man is innocent and does not deserve the cruelty that he has received. I must give this my all or my name is not Atticus Finch. I continue to elaborate further with my final statement by saying "Thomas Jefferson once said that all men are created equal," (Lee 273).
13: One of the conflicts in this story is the trial of Tom Robinson. This type of conflict is Man versus Society. This is a external conflict. This involved the character Tom. Before this happened his was friendly, nice, and a family man. After this conflict, he was nervous sad and was eventually murdered. | Another conflict in the story is between Atticus and Bob Ewell. This a Man versus Man type of conflict and is external. This conflict included Atticus Finch and Bob Ewell. Atticus was a calm and reasonable man before this conflict. Bob was an angry guy before the conflict started. After the conflict, Bob was even more angry and vengeful. Atticus lost some of his reason and calm demeanor and became more worried for his children and himself as time went on. | There is a conflict between Aunt Alexandra and Scout. This type of conflict is a character versus character. This is external. This included Aunt Alexandria and Scout Finch. Before the conflict Scout was a tomboy that would refuse to act like a lady and wear dresses. Afterwards, she still was a tomboy but wasn't as reluctant to wear dresses if she had to. After the conflict, Aunt Alexandria warmed up to the idea of Scout wearing overalls and even handed her a pair of her overalls to wear.
14: Characterization | Dynamic and Static Characters
15: Mrs. Alexandra In the beginning of the book, she was a stickler for how girls and women should dress and behave Mrs. Alexandra would push her views on young, tomboyish Scout. However as the story plays on, she starts to lighten up on Scout's tomboyish ways and even hands her a pair of Scout's overalls that she loathed at the beginning of the book. Jem Finch At the beginning of the stroy, Jem was a playful, young boy. He would play with his sister Scout often. Then a third of the way | through the book, Jem starts to change and mature. Jem starts to pull away from Scout and Dill. He begins to have more adults thoughts and behaves more and more like an adult. Bob Ewell Throughout the whole book Ewell's character stays the same He is a angry drunk guy that seeks attention at the beginning of the book and continues to stay the same throughout the book. Calcupirna Calcupirna's character is motherly Jem and Scout and that doesn't change throughout the book. | Dynamic Characters | Static Characters
16: Symbols | The significance of the title "To Kill a Mockingbird" is that has a direct relation to the theme of the book, which is innocence is destroyed by evil. This is exemplified through the symbol of the mockingbird. Some characters of the book resemble mockingbirds because they were injured or destroyed by evil. A few of these characters are Boo Radley, Tom Robinson, and Scout Finch.
17: Mockingbirds | Boo Radley Boo is considered a mockingbird because he resembles good in the book that has lost his innocence because of his father. Tom Robinson Tom is considered to be a mockingbird because his innocence. He was innocent of the charge he was given. He didn't deserve the cruelty he had received from the racist people in Maycomb. Scout Finch Scout is considered to be mockingbird because of the child like sweetness and innocence that she posses. This shows that she gives nothing but goodness to world.. Also, like the mockingbird, it would be a sin to kill her.
18: Themes | One theme that appears in the novel is that you should not judge a book by its cover. This is shown by the myths of Boo Radley. One of those statements is "Boo drove the scissors into his parent's leg, pulled them out, wiped them om his pants, and resumed his activities" (Lee 13). This shows that since no one new the real Boo Radley they made accusations of him and therefore everyone, but the kids, usually feared him. This can be applied to the real world in many different situations like meeting new people and picking a new book to read. Another theme would be that there is a coexistence of good and evil in life. A quote that shows this theme is "Jem: his hands were white form gripping the balcony rail, and his shoulders jerked as if each"guilty"was a separate stab between them" (Lee 282). This shows Jem's innocence being shattered as the ruling of Tom Robinson is being foretold. His faith in law and justice has been damaged because of this and he will not be the same. This theme can be applied to the real world by just looking at the government today. The good and bad battle it out everyday and the bad and more greedier ones seem to win.
19: Lastly, another theme that appears in the novel is moral education is important. This is shown when Atticus tells Jem and Scout that it is important to respect their Aunt Alexandra even if he doesn't agree with what she is saying (Lee 181-12).This proves the theme by showing how Atticus is teaching and telling Jem and Scout how important it is to behave morally. This theme can be applied in the real world by looking at other people such as those who have good and bad manners. Those who have good manners are more respected as to those that have bad manners are not respected.
20: Literary Criticism | Feminist School of Criticism | The feminist school of criticism is concerned with the political, social, economic, and the oppression of women in a work. This work tries to point out that certain cultures are male dominated. | The stereotype of the Southern Belle is a women with good grace and manners. They are supposed to be the cultivation of beauty and be flirtatious. Southern Belles were expected to marry respectable young men and become ladies of the society dedicated to the family and the community. | Actions that support that Aunt Alexandra is a Southern Belle is her feel of importance of how woman should dress and where they should be in society. Statements by the characters that show the good side of a Southern Belle were | Activity #3
21: the ones that were stated towards the other women in the group with them. They were exceptionally kind to each other. Statements that showed the negative characteristics of the Southern Belle is when the ladies started talking of others of a different race. For example, when Mrs. Merriweather stated, ""No child. That darky's wife. Tom's wife, Tom-" (Lee 310). This shows that even though they are Southern Belles and are supposed to be involved with the community, they don't have much regard for others outside of there race or class. Miss Maudie plays the comforter of Scout in this scene. Atticus does act differently around the group than he does with Aunt Alexandra and Miss Maudie because they're differently rules to follow when talking with a group versus talking personally with someone. This presents women in a negative light. Scout sees Miss Maudie as a nice lady. Aunt Alexandra and Miss Stephanie as a little pushy. She views Miss Merriweather as the most devout lady in Maycomb. The actions of the characters help her develop her impressions. Aunt Alexandra tends to be more open and less proper in private, even though she does try to force it on others in the house. The ladies basically stated through their behavior that women are only there to look pretty, fragile, and do useless things. Based on the characters, it can believed that Lee was a tomboy as a child. Also, that characters such as Aunt Alexandra were based off people that were close to her as a child.
22: Historicism School of Literary Criticism | The New HIstoricism School of Literary Criticism is where the authors focuses on the historical input of the book. It is used to have a more omniscient view of the work.
23: Activity #1 ”Maycomb County had recently been told that it had nothing to fear but fear itself” (Lee 6). This is an allusion to Franklin D. Roosevelt's First Inaugural Address. Roosevelt was a well like president during the depression that served for four terms. This shows that the U.S. was going through some hard times. "When Alabama succeeded from the Union" (Lee 21). This is allusion the civil war, which was a four year war between the north and south of the U.S. This quote explains why the teachers statement of where she came from mattered so much. "If she found a nut grass in her yard it was like the Second Battle of the Marne"(Lee 56). The Second Battle of Marne was one of the major battles in World War 1. This exemplifies how much force Miss Maudie would take and how serious she took certain things such as nut grass in her yard. "He wore a General Hood type of beard which was inordinately vain" (Lee 101). This is an allucion to General Hood, whom was a confederate during the civil war that was none for his bravery nd aggressiveness. This quote is used to sedcrbed this character by comparing him to a person of importance.
24: New Historicism Continued | These allusions influence the way the reader perceives the context of the book by giving the reader a connection with it by relating the events in the book to real world events outside of what is being read.
25: "The Missouri Compromise is was licked us" (Lee 101).This allusion is to the Missouri Compromise which was a agreement by Congress in 18202 regarding slavery in western territory.This quote goes on to further describe the character known as Cousin Ike. Also, to further elaborate the time period of the story and the peoples thoughts on the current events. "Adolf Hitler has been after the Jews and he's puttin' 'em in prisons" (Lee 327). This quote alludes to Adolf Hitler, whom systematically killed an estimated six million Jews and other minorities. This has an significance to the book because it help explains Scouts anger at the people in the town of Maycomb.
26: Psychoanalytical School of Literary Criticism | The psychoanalytical school of literary criticism is the view on literature that the authors deepest desires can be shown through the book. This theory is made by Freud. Freud believed that our desires change form id, superego, and ego as we grow up into adulthood. | Atticus Atticus is an example of ego because he is usually the medium for Scout when she gets angry or in certain situations. He thinks more logically and tries to do things that meet the needs of both the id and the superego. Aunt Alexandra She is an example of superego because she is more focused on what society thinks of her and how women should behave.
27: Jem Finch He is an example of ego. He, like Atticus, think logically and reasonably on what actions they should take in certain situations. Dill Dill exemplifies id because he mostly does what he wants to do when he wants to. For example, him running away from how was a childish desire that he fulfilled without thinking of the consequences. Boo Radley Boo also functions as the id of the story. He puts what he wants in front of more important things. He locks himself in his house so he won't have to deal with the people on the outside, not thinking reasonably or logically. Calpurnia She functions as the superego as well. She does what is expected from her from society. She doesn't really do anything much more than what is expected. Miss Maudie She functions as a superego. Her goal is to be as close to what society wants to be as possible.
28: Personal Opinion | I thought that the book had some good themes and literary elements to it. However, this is not the type of book I would read again or recommend to an abundant amount of people. Based off the reactions of others about how great this book was, I was more or less disappointed.