FC: Chapter 1: Professionalism By: Ashley Carter & Amy Blevins
1: Like any fine art, great cookery requires taste and creativity, an appreciation of beauty and a mastery of technique. Like the sciences, successful cookery demands knowledge and an understanding of basic principles. And like any successful leader, today's professional chefs must exercise sound judgment and be committed to achieving excellence in their endeavors.
2: Cooking- the transfer of energy from a heat's source to a food; this energy alters food's molecule structure, changing its texture, flavor, aroma and appearance. Cookery-the art, practice or work of cooking. professional cooking-a system of cooking based on knowledge of appreciation for ingredients and procedures.
3: Grande cuisine- the rich, intricate and elaborate cuisine of the 18th and 19th century French aristocracy and upper class. Based on the rational identification, development and adoption of strict culinary principles. Restaurateur- a person who owns or operates an establishment serving food, such as a restaurant. Classic cuisine- a late 19th and early 20th century refinement and simplification of French grande cuisine.Relies on the through exploration of culinary principles and techniques.
4: Nouvelle cuisine- French for new cooking ; a mid-20th-century movement away from many classic cuisine principles and toward a lighter cuisine based on natural flavors, shortened cooking times and innovative combinations | New American Cuisine- a late-20th century movement that began in California but has spread across the United States; it stresses the use of fresh, locally grown, seasonal produce and high-quality ingredients simply prepared in a fashion that preserves and emphasizes natural flavors.
5: Fusion Cuisine: the blending or use of ingredients and/or preparation methods from various ethnic, regional or national cuisines in the same dish; also known as transnational cuisine. | Global Cuisine: foods(often commercially produced items) or preparation methods that have become ubiquitous throughout the world; for example, curries and French-fried potatoes. | National cuisine: the characteristic cuisine of a nation.
6: Regional Cuisine: a set of recipes based on local ingredients, traditions, and practices; within a larger geographical, political, cultural or social unit, regional cuisines are often variations of one another that blend together to create a national cuisine. | Ethnic Cuisine: the cuisine of a group of people having a common cultural heritage, as opposed to the cuisine of a group of people bound together by geography or political factors.
7: Brigade: a system of staffing a kitchen so that each worker is assigned a set of specific tasks; these tasks are often related by cooking method, equipment or the types of foods being produced. | Executive chef- coordinates kitchen activities and directs the kitchen staff's training and work efforts. | Sous-chef: assists executive chef. Participates in, supervises and coordinates the preparation of menu items.
8: Line cooks: are responsible for preparing menu items according to recipe specifications. | Pastry chef: is responsible for developing recipes for and preparing desserts, pastries, frozen desserts and breads.
9: Marie-Antoin Careme (1783-1833) Known as the cook of kings and the king of cooks. He was an acknowledged master of French Grande Cuisine. -Abandoned on the streets of Paris as a child, he then worked his way from cook's helper in a working class restaurant to become one of the most prestigious chefs of anytime.
10: Auguste Escoffier (1846-1935) he exhibited his culinary skills in the dining rooms of the finest hotels in Europe. he did much to enhance the grande cuisine that arguably reached its perfection under Careme. He reduced Careme's elaborate system of classifying sauces into the five families of sauces still recognizedtoday.
11: The 5 mother sauces Bechamel-the classic white sauce, it is often referred to as a cream sauce because of its appearance and is probably used most frequently in all types of dishes. Made by stirring milk into a butter-flour roux, the thickness of the sauce depends on the proportion of flour and butter to milk. Veloute-éis a stock-based white sauce. It can be made from chicken, veal or fish stock. Enrichments such as egg yolks or cream are sometimes also added. Espagnole- or brown sauce, is traditionally made of a rich meat stock, a mirepoix of browned vegetables (most often a mixture of diced onion, carrots and celery), a nicely browned roux, herbs and sometimes tomato paste.
12: Hollandaise and Mayonnaise -are two sauces that are made with an emulsion of egg yolks and fat. Hollandaise is made with butter, egg yolks and lemon juice, usually in a double boiler to prevent overheating, and served warm. It is generally used to embellish vegetables, fish and egg dishes, such as the classic Eggs Benedict. Mayonnaise is a thick, creamy dressing that's an emulsion of vegetable oil, egg yolks, lemon juice or vinegar and seasonings. It is widely used as a spread, a dressing and as a sauce. It's also used as the base for such mixtures as Tartar Sauce, Thousand Island Dressing, Aoli, and Remoulade. Vinagrette- is a sauce made of a simple blend of oil, vinegar, salt and pepper (usually 3 parts oil to 1 part vinegar). More elaborate variations can include any combination of spices, herbs, shallots, onions, mustard, etc. It is generally used to dress salad greens and other cold vegetable, meat or fish dishes.
13: Bechamel | Vinagrette | Veloute | Hollandaise
14: Gaston Lenotre ( 1920- ) Many consider Lenotre the father of modern French pastry, and his impact is worldwide. By the early 1980's he had 18 stores in japan as well as outposts in Germany, Switzerland and England. Today, whether you go to Rio de Janeiro, Disney World in Florida, Lebanon or Las Vegas, you will find Lenotre's name on the marquee.
16: The dining room | Like the back of the house the dining room is also organized in a brigade system.
17: Dining room manager-trains all service personal, oversees wine selections and works with chef to develop the menu. Wine steward- responsible for the wine service, including purchasing wines, assisting guests in selecting wines and serving the wines.
18: Headwaiter-who is responsible for service throughout the dining room or a section of it. Captains- who are responsible for explaining the menu to guests and taking their orders.
19: Front waiters- who are responsible for assuring that the tables are set properly for each course,foods are delivered properly to the proper tables. Back waiters-Who are responsible for clearing plates, refelling water glasses and other general work.