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S: River Valley Civilizations by: Kaitlynn Rose

BC: Kaitlynn Rose River Valley Civilizations Project! 2-7-11

FC: Mesopotamia | Egypt | Indus | China | River Valley Civilizations' | By: Kaitlynn Rose

1: Table of Contents | 1-4 6-7 8-9 10-13

2: Mesopotamia | ***** | * Mesopotamia invented the wheel, plow, irrigation systems and the sailboat. * Priests would read the livers of chickens or lambs to see what the gods wanted for sacrifices * Priests controlled the irrigation systems and also had more power than the king and queen * Mesopotamia was the very first civilization

3: * Mesopotamia was made up of individual City-states controlled by different powers. They would eventually attack each other and end up under 1 ruler. The people would retaliate and go back to being city-states. This process was repeated many times. * Mesopotamia used cuneiform as their way of writting

4: * Mesopotamia had three levels of society. At the top were the most powerful government officials, priests, and soldiers. The society's second level was made up of merchants, teachers, laborers, farmers, and craftsmen. At the bottom of the social scale were the slaves, who often had been captured during battle. *Mesopotamia is a Greek word meaning 'between the rivers'. The rivers are the Tigris and Euphrates which flow through modern Iraq. The Euphrates also flows through much of Syria. *Mesopotamians' are polytheistic, which means they believe in more than one god.

5: *At the beginning of the eighteenth century, the ruler of Babylon was one Hammurabi (1792-1750). In short order he conquered and unified the whole of Mesopotamia, and Babylon became its greatest city.

6: China | Ice cream was invented in China around 2000BC when the Chinese packed a soft milk and rice mixture in the snow. Total Land Area of China is 9,596,960 Sq. Kms. It is the fourth largest Country in the World Two great rivers run through China Proper: the Yellow River in the north, and the Yangtze (or Yangzi ) River to the south. In fact, most of China Proper belongs to the drainage-basins of these two rivers

7: In China, family is central. Ancestors bring blessings or curses. China saw their cultures as center of civilized world. China has the Himalaya mountains to the North China also has the Gobi desert to the North. China was the first place to have a written language. China also had wooden buildings.

8: Indus | Indus is between Indus and Ganges River. These rivers flood and create silt which is a dark rich soil. Planned cities are always put on a grid system. The Himalaya's are to the North of Indus. Indus is known as a subcontinent

9: Indus had a written language. Indus also created a sewage and plumbing system The first city to develop in Indus was Harappa. Social classes started with Gods and goddesses The social classes organized into the priests, then a warrior class, and finally a farming class

10: Egypt The Nile is the longest river in the world, stretching north for approximately 4,000 miles from East Africa to the Mediterranean The Nile flows from the mountains in the south to the Mediterranean in the north The Ancient Egyptians changed from copper tools to bronze tools because bronze tools were better to work with

11: By 200 BC they changed from bronze tools to iron tools. With these tools, the Ancient Egyptians built great monuments and palaces Egyptians developed a water clock, sundial, pyramids and the tools to build them, and a time system. The social classes in ancient Egypt: The nobility, the intelligentsia, labour, the outcast the military and priesthood, social stability Ancient Egyptian Government was dominated by a single man, the Pharaoh. The people believed that the king was more than a man, however, but that he was a god. This gave him absolute control over the affairs of the Empire and its people Ancient Egypt was also a theocracy, controlled by the clergy. The Pharaohs advisors and ministers were almost always priests, who were considered the only ones worthy and able to carry out the god-kings commands.

12: The Cat was a symbol of Fertility and sexuality, which is why later Ancient Egyptians painted their eye to mimick those of cats. The Ancient Egyptians were the first to invent paper, using papyrus. Egyptian hieroglyphs were a formal writing system used by the ancient Egyptians that contained a combination of logographic and alphabetic elements. Egyptians used cursive hieroglyphs for religious literature on papyrus and wood.

13: The actual process of mummification took 70 days, where all organs were removed save the heart, the body was packed with spices and herbs, packed in a natural salts that grew along the coast in Egypt for 35 days. When this time was up the salt would have dried the body out completely. The mummifiers would return and wrap the body up with cloth with prayers written on them. They stuck the cloth on with resin. Ancient Egypt was also a theocracy, controlled by the clergy. The Pharaohs advisors and ministers were almost always priests, who were considered the only ones worthy and able to carry out the god-kings commands.

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