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S: The Thirteen Colonies

FC: The Thirteen Colonies

2: The New England Colonies | The Pilgrims were the first people who came because of religions freedom. They wanted to be able to worship freely. | The New England states included Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Connecticut. The first people who moved to New England were the pilgrims, or separatists. They came to worship the way they want to. These people landed in Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Later, another group, the puritans, also came. They built houses very close together, forming many towns. At town meetings, many issues were discussed such as what roads should be built, or how much the schoolmaster should be paid. The soil there was very rocky, and poor for farming, but the forest and ocean were full of riches. Many people hunted wild turkey and deer, while others fished or built ships. The majority of people living in New England were Puritans. They had very strict laws, but in the 1770's, their tradition declined. However, their customs had left a large impact on New England.

3: The rocky New England soil made it very hard to farm, so many people built ships, and soon, it became a major ship-building center | The Puritans came to New England to have more religious freedom. They established very strict rules that some people objected to though.

4: Important People of the New England Colonies | These are the Native Americans who helped the pilgrims survive the harsh weather. Massasoit was the Chief of the Wampanoag Tribe. Squanto and Samoset knew how to speak a little bit of English. | Squanto | William Bradford was the governor of Plymouth, where the Pilgrims settled. | Samoset | Massasoit

5: Thomas Hooker was the founder of Connecticut. He was a puritan that lived in Massachusetts, but he thought that the government had too much power, so in 1636, he led a group of about 100 Puritans out of Massachusetts, and built a town that they called Hartford. | Roger Williams was the founder of Rhode Island. He was a Puritan that lived in Massachusetts, but unlike Thomas Hooker, he thought the Puritan church had too much power. In 1636, he bought a piece of land from the Native Americans for a settlement. | Anne Hutchinson was one of the many people who fled to Rhode Island from Massachusetts. She was a devout Puritan, and after church, her and her friends would gather together to talk about the minister's teachings. She always questioned the sermon, and that made some Puritan leaders very angry. They thought Anne Hutchinson's opinions were false, so they ordered her to court, and Hutchinson lost.

6: The Middle Colonies | The Middle Colonies included New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware. The soil here was very rich and fertile. The weather was also mild, and there was a long growing season for crops. Many farmers moved here, resulting in a lot of farms. In fact, there was so much food produced in the Middle Colonies that they became known as the "breadbasket colonies." Because of the farms, houses were often built far apart, and counties instead of towns were formed. Besides, the farms, there were also people who became skilled artisans. Soon, the Middle Colonies also became a center for manufacturing and crafts. A lot of people living in the Middle Colonies were Quakers. These religious people believed that all people were equal. The King granted them some land in the Middle Colonies to be able to worship freely. In the 1700's, thousands of German and Scotch-Irish Settlers went to the Middle Colonies. These people didn't have enough room to have their own farms, so most of them moved to the backcountry, which were part of the Appalachian Mountains. | This was a farm in the Middle Colonies. Some farmers would also raise herds of cows and pigs in addition to planting crops.

7: This is the Appalachian Mountains, or the backcountry, where many of the German and Scotch-Irish settlers lived. | This is a picture of an artisan at work in the Middle Colonies. They made many things such as clocks, watches, locks, guns, flints, glass, stoneware, nails, and paper.

8: Important People of the Middle Colonies | William Penn was the founder of Pennsylvania. He was from a wealthy English family, and became a Quaker when he was 22 years old. The King granted him a piece of land, and named it Pennsylvania, meaning Penn's woods. | Peter Stuyvesant was the governor of New Netherland. But when the English King attacked, he had few weapons and little gunpowder, and wasn't able to defend his colony, so he surrendered without a fight.

9: The king of England gave the colony of New Netherland to his brother, the duke of York, and named it New York, in his honor. Later, the Duke of York thought New York was too big to govern, so he gave part of the land to his friends, Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret. | Lord Berkeley | Sir George Carteret | The Duke of York

10: The Southern Colonies | The Southern Colonies included Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. In the south, there was two main ways of life. The first way of life was farming. Lots of farmers had plantations. One the plantations, imported African slaves would work the fields every day. At first, there was more indentured servants that worked for a couple years without pay, but then would get their own land when their work term ended. After, as the demand for more workers increased, so did the amount of slaves. The second way of life was living in the backcountry like in the Middle Colonies.Here, settlers were democratic, and treated each other as equals. They owned smaller farms and also hunted game for food. | The slave trade grew when there were more workers needed in the Southern Colonies. This led to a lot of racism.

11: Many people in the south had large tobacco and rice plantations. On these plantations, many African slaves would work for their masters. | This is the backcountry. Settlers who lived here would hunt in the rich forests for food, and treated each others as equals.

12: Important People of the Southern Colonies | Cecil Calvert | George Calvert | The King granted George Calvert a piece of land to start a colony. The colony was to be named Maryland, and it would allow Catholics to worship freely in America. However, George Calvert died before the colony was formed, so his son, Cecil Calvert took over for him.

13: These were the eight founders of the Carolinas. | James Oglethorpe was the founder of the thirteenth colony, Georgia. His colony was the place where debtors were allow to go and start a new life.

14: Overview | The New England Colonies, the Middle Colonies, and the Southern Colonies all have things in common, but they are also very different from each other as well. People in the south live very differently from people in New England. Down south, many people own large plantations, while people in New England could only hunt and fish for food. All of the colonies have a governor, although they have many different laws. In the Middle Colonies, there was more ethnic and religious tolerances. There was racism in the Southern Colonies between the English and African Slaves. In New England, many towns and villages were built, while in the Middle and Southern Colonies, there were only counties. As you can see, the first thirteen colonies were some similarities, but they are also very unlike one another.

15: Southern Colonies | Middle Colonies | New England Colonies

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