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FC: The Thirteen Colonies By:Ethan Lang

1: The first people to arrive in the New England colonies were the Puritans. The Puritans were a group of people who let England because they wanted to reform the Church of England by introducing simpler ways of life. They believed England had fallen on "evil and declining times". The Puritans decided to leave England in 1629 to journey to North America. This voyage was led by John Winthrop and a small party of people. John Winthrop was the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Life in the Massachusetts Bay Colony was not easy. Settlers did not know how to grow crops at first until the Native Americans showed the colonists how to grow a variety of crops such as corn, pumpkins, squash, and beans. | John Winthrop | The New England Coloinies

2: The Native Americans and the Puritans eventually got into a war. The more settlers that arrived in the New England colonies, the more land they took from the Native Americans. As a result fighting broke out between the two groups. When the fighting finally stopped the colonists realized they were united by tightly knitted towns and villages. This allowed the colonists to have easy access to town meetings to discuss issues and laws. | Native American Chief Metacom

3: The Middle Colonies | There was a colony that was named New Amsterdam that was owned by the Dutch. The Dutch set up this colony along the Hudson River. There was a lot of trade with the Indians that turned into a thriving trade port. As the trade grew so did the rivalry between the Dutch and the British. In August,1664 the British invaded New Amsterdam. After the British took over King Charles II gave New Netherlands to his brother, the Duke of York. The Duke of York renamed the colony New York.The Duke of York then decided that the colony was too big to govern so he separated the colony. The Duke gave the land to his friends Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret.They called the land New Jersey The | The Middle Colonies

4: The colony of Pennsylvania was founded by William Penn. William came from a wealthy English family and was a personal friend of King Charles II. When William turned 22 he surprised all of his family and friends by joining the Quakers the most despised group in England. King Charles II was in debt to William's father but he died before King Charles could pay off his debt. Instead he gave William land in America. William name this land Pennsylvania which meant "Penn's Woods". Life in the Middle Colonies was good. There area was good for farming and people were treated fairly including the Native Americans. The Middle Colonies also had a thriving economy because they grew cash crops. | William Penn

5: The Southern Colonies | In 1632, Sir George Calvert convinced King Charles to grant him land fir a colony in the Americas. Calvert was a Catholic man who wanted to build a colony where Catholics could practice their religion freely. The Carolinas were founded when a group of eight English nobles received land from King Charles II and split it into north and south. Georgia was founded when James Oglethorpe wanted to make a colony where debtors could make a fresh start | James Oglethorpe founder of Georgia

6: Two ways of life that developed in the Southern Colonies were Tidewater Plantations and The Backcountry. Tidewater Plantations were plantations where African slaves worked to farm crops like cotton, tobacco, and rice. Tidewater Plantations had longer growing seasons than the other colonies which allowed them to grow more crops. The Backcountry was west of the Tidewater Plantations and life was very different. Here there was rolling hills and thick forests that was called the backcountry. The Backcountry was more democratic than Tidewater Plantations and people who lived there grew a lot of crops themselves. This is why slave trade grew in the 1700s. It was because of the high demand of workers on Tidewater plantations. Colonists passed laws called slave codes that treated the slaves not as humans but a property. | Cotton Plantation

7: Overview | England wanted to regulate trade in the colonies. They believed their colonies should benefit the home country. This belief was called mercantilism. According to this theory a nation became strong by keeping strict control over its trade. Colonial governments all had legislature. The colonial governments also had an English Bill of Rights which protected people's rights. English colonists in the Americas enjoyed more freedoms than the English themselves. However, the rights did not extend to all colonists. Not all people who lived in the colonies had equal rights. Some of these people include women, Africans, and Native Americans. There were also different social classes in the colonies too. There were gentry who were at the top of the social class, there was the middle class or working class, and there were indentured servants who were the lowest social class.

8: The Great Awakening affect the colonies a lot. The Great Awakening aroused bitter debate. People who supported The Great Awakening often broke away from their old churches. The colonies educated their children in many different ways. There were public school, which were supported by taxes. There were tutors, or private teachers. There were apprentices, who worked for a master to learn a trade or a craft. There were dame schools, or private schools run by women in their homes. Colonists were affected by the spread of new ideas. It encouraged an idea called Enlightenment. Benjamin Franklin was an example of an enlightener. He built up a successful printing business. His most famous publication was Poor Richard's Almanac. | Benjamin Franklin | Public School

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