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BC: Work Cited "Bleeding Kansas and Bleeding Sumner". Digital History, March 11 2009, (February 20, 2011). “Election of 1860.” US History Pages. (February 16, 2011.) “Fugitive Slave Act.” US History Pages. (February 16, 2011.) “Fugitive Slave Act: 1850.” National Center. (February 16, 2011.) “Gettysburg Address.” (February 22, 2011.) “Jefferson Davis Biography.” (February 19, 2011.) “Jefferson Davis: President of the Confederate States of America.”, (February 19, 2001.) “Robert E. Lee..” n. (February 19, 2011.) “The Compromise of 1850 and the Fugitive Slave Act.” PBS: Judgment Day. (February 16, 2011.) “The Election of 1860.” Top Humanities Websites. (February 16, 2011.) Abraham Lincoln, three-quarter length portrait, seated, facing right; hair parted on Lincoln's right side Berger, Anthony, 1864 Feb. 9, (March 2, 2011) Anonymous. “Jefferson Davis.” (February 19, 2011.) Appomattox Court House, Va. Federal soldiers at the courthouse O'Sullivan, Timothy H., 1865 April. 2, 2011) Battle of Fredericksburg--the Army o.t. Potomac crossing the Rappahannock in the morning of Dec. 13' 1862, under t. comd. of Gen's Burnside, Sumner, Hooker & Franklin Kurz & Allison., 1888. 2, 2011) Belle Boyd between 1855 and 1865 2, 2011) Bleeding Kansas. Judgment Day, 20, 2011). Civil War Medicine. (March 3, 2011) Civil War Soldiers and Sailors System. “History of African Americans in the Civil War.” (February 23, 2011.) Contemporaries of John Brown - John Brown, Jr. 2, 2011) Court House, St. Louis, Mo. 1870 (March 2, 2011) Dr. Mary Edwards Walker, 1832-1919, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing left, wearing man's top hat and coat 1911 (March 2, 2011) Dr. Mary Edwards Walker, full-length portrait, standing, facing left Powers, M. J., 1860-1870 (March 2, 2011) Dr. Mary Walker 191-? (March 2, 2011) Dred Scott 1887. (March 2, 2011) Dred Scott's fight for freedom. Judgment Day, 20, 2011.) “Biography: Robert E. Lee.” lee-20748.html. (February 19, 2011.) “Spies of the Civil War.” 21002.html. (February 22, 2011.) EyeWitness to History. “The First Battle of Bull Run, 1861.” (February 20, 2011.) Frederick Douglass 1968. (March 2, 2011) Frederick Douglass, 1817?-1895 (March 2, 2011) Frederick Douglass. Wikipedia, (February 22, 2011). Gen. Robert E. Lee / photograhed by Brady, N.Y. engraved by J.C. McRae, N.Y. McRae, John C., 1867 2, 2011) Gen. Samuel P. Heintzelman and staff with their families at Robert E. Lee's home, Arlington House, Virginia 1861 (March 2, 2011) General Beauregard's headquarters at first battle of Bull Run Russell, Andrew J., 1861. 2, 2011) Harriet Tubman, full-length portrait, standing with hands on back of a chair Lindsley, H. B. 1860 and 1875 2, 2011) | Heiser, John. “Biography of General Robert E. Lee.” (February 19, 2011.) Jefferson Davis, seated, facing front, during portrait session at Davis' home Beauvoir, near Biloxi, Mississippi Wilson, Edward L. 1885. (March 2, 2011) Keedysville, Md., vicinity. Confederate wounded at Smith's Barn, with Dr. Anson Hurd, 14th Indiana Volunteers, in attendanceGardner, Alexander, 862 September. (March 2, 2011) Marck, John. “Thomas Jonathan ‘Stonewall’ Jackson.” (February 19, 2011.) National Constitution Center. “Abraham Lincoln’s Crossroads.” (February 18, 2011.) Norton, Roger. “Abraham Lincoln’s Assassination.” (February 22, 2011.) Petersburg, Va. Hospital stewards of 2d Division, 9th Corps, in front of tents O'Sullivan, Timothy H. 1864 October (March 2, 2011) Ryan, Joe. “American Civil War: Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, 1863.” (February 20, 2011.) Sartain, William,Ulysses S. Grant / C. Schussele 1866 ; eng. by William Sartain, Phila. 1892 Aug. 15 (March 2, 2011) Sheppard Learning. “Abraham Lincoln and the Civil War.” +by+abraham+lincoln&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us& (February 18, 2011.) Sherman's march to the sea / drawn by F.O.C. Darley. Darley, Felix Octavius Carr, 1883. (March 2, 2011) Stonewall Jackson, full-length portrait, standing, facing slightly left, in uniform Andrews, Eliphalet F. 1930. (March 2, 2011) The American Battlefield Protection Program. “Shiloh.” (February 22, 2011.) The American Battlefield Protection Program. “Wilderness.” (February 22, 2011.) The Anaconda Plan. (February 24, 2011) The battle of Chancellorsville Forbes, Edwin, 1863 April 30. 2, 2011) The battle of Gettysburg / P.F. Rothermel 1870 ; P.F. Rothermel pinx. ; John Sartain sculp. Sartain, John, 2, 2011) The first reading of the Emancipation Proclamation before the cabinet / painted by F.B. Carpenter ; engraved by A.H. Ritchie. Ritchie, Alexander Hay, 1866. 2, 2011) The siege of Petersburg Forbes, Edwin, 1864 June 18. 2, 2011) Ulysses S. Grant. Wikipedia, (February 22, 2011). William Tecumseh. Wikipedia, (February 22, 2011) Women Were There (March 2, 2011) Apple by, Joyce; Brinkley, Alan; Broussard, Albert s. McPherson, James M.; and Ritchie, Danaid A. The American Journey (Columbus, ohio: McGraw Hill, 2009). Confederate flag surrounded by battle scenes McRae, John C. 1867 May 22. (March 11, 2011) Unidentified sailor in Union uniform resting hand on American flag-draped table in front of painted backdrop showing naval scene between 1861 and 1865 (March 11, 2011)

FC: Civil War Scrap Book By:Maya Schattgen and Mary Grace Frazier

1: Ulysses S. Grant was the commanding general of the Union army. Grant had a reputation as being an energetic general. His men did not always see eye to eye with him. In fact, some historians feel that Grant led like a butcher, continuing to march his men into battles that were not winnable. He started his military career fighting in the Mexican American war and spent time closely observing techniques used. This aided Grant as he made multiple strategy decisions during the Civil War. He was able to defeat the Confederate arm in multiple battles, causing Lincoln to appoint him Commanding General. General Lee eventually surrendered to Grant at Appomattox. Following the Civil War, Grant stayed in the army and was chosen to run for the 18th President of the United States. He won this battle also and served as the President from 1869 to 1877. Grant is one of three presidents to have been born and raised in a log cabin. | Ulysses S. Grant

2: Abraham Lincoln was one of the most famous individuals remembered from the Civil War. The election of Lincoln was one of the reasons the South seceded, leading him to become the President of the Union as well as the United States during this time. Lincoln is most famous for the Emancipation Proclamation and the Gettysburg Address, as well as in handling the political aspects of the war. Lincoln also aided in the war by sending supplies to Fort Sumter (which ultimately made Davis attack) and by allowing blacks to serve in the Union army. Lincoln met his untimely death when he was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth at the Ford Theater on April 14, 1865. | Abraham Lincoln

3: William T. Sherman | William Sherman was a Union general. He was known for his useful strategies but he was critiqued for his Total Warfare approach on the Confederacy. He would burn/destroy anything that may be useful or needed by the Confederate Army, including crops, shelter, industrial supply, etc. He was well known for his capture of the city of Atlanta. After the war, he became Commanding General of the Army, commanding the US Army during the Indian Wars.

4: Stonewall Jackson was a general under Robert E. Lee for the Confederate Army. He was chosen for the position because he was recognized as a hero from the Mexican War and had training at West Point. Jackson made many important decisions during the war. In the Battle of Chancellorsville, he attacked from the rear while Lee attacked the front, causing an overwhelming victory for the Confederates. At Front Royal, he drove Nathaniel Banks across the Potomac River. He also had a Shenandoah Valley Campaign, where he distracted Union troops, keeping them from reinforcing troops in a different battle. Stonewall received his name from the first battle of Bull Run (his real name was Thomas Jonathan Jackson). During the war he was accidently shot by friendly fire, then had his arm amputated. This led to his death during the war, because he died from injury and pneumonia soon after. | Stonewall Jackson

5: Robert E. Lee | . | Robert E. Lee was the head general of the Confederate Army. He went to college at West Point. He was a loyal to Virginia so he was perfect to lead the Confederates. Robert E. Lee was offered to lead the union forces but he was so loyal to Virginia he turned it down. He because a general of the Virginia forces, then later he was promoted to lead the Army of the Confederate Forces. He called it the “Army of Northern Virginia”. Some other things that he did as the leader of the Confederate Forces was the Seven Days Battle where they forced McClellan to retreat, the Battle of Fredericksburg and the Battle of Chancellorsville when they suffered great losses, including Stonewall Jackson, but the victories were huge to the Confederacy’s confidence and to the war. After the war was over Robert E. Lee branded a traitor by some and a hero by others, Lee never spoke nor shared his writings of the war again, “letting the record of his army speak for itself”. He wasn’t a citizen of the USA until 1975 when President Ford officially pardoned him. President Johnson never received his amnesty oath. It was rumored that it was taken by someone who did not want Lee to be pardoned while he was alive. Lee returned home after the war to help his ailing wife. He later became president of modern-day Washington and Lee University

6: Frederick Douglass was a Statesman and writer, and orator. He was an escaped former slave who spoke of his experiences as being a slave. Well known for his speeches and writing on equality and freedom. During the war, he fought to allow African American to join the Union army. He also fought for equality and freedom for all. After the war he wrote several books about it, and he fought for women’s suffrage, as well as rights for all. | Frederick Douglass

7: During the civil war Jefferson Davis was president of the Confederacy and handled political dealings with Lincoln. As the president of the Confederate states of America he had excellent military education. Other family members were experienced soldiers of varying ranks. He married the daughter of Zachary Taylor, a good general in the Mexican War. He briefly lived as a plantation/cotton farmer. He had experience as both a soldier and a Southern farmer as well as having some military expertise. During the war he attacked the Union when they went to give supplies to Fort Sumter. He supported building a railroad to speed up supplies in the South. He appointed Robert E. Lee as head general when Gustav Smith failed to do his job. After the war he fled to Georgia. He was captured here but released from jail by bail from many influential Northerners like Horace Greeley. He attempted many businesses but not were successful. He died in Mississippi in 1889. | Jefferson Davis

8: Dred Scott | Dredd Scott was a slave that became famous for fighting for his freedom. Born in Virginia in 1800, he was originally owned by a man named Peter Blow. When Blow died, Scott was purchased by Dr. John Emerson and moved to Illinois, which was a free state at the time. They then moved to Wisconsin, where Scott married Harriet Robinson, another slave residing in WI. Her ownership was transferred to Emerson. Originally, Scott did not take advantage of his opportunity to declare his freedom, either because he liked Emerson or because he was not aware he could make such a claim. However, when Emerson died after moving to St. Louis, his wife took the two slaves and tried to send Scott out as an army captain. Scott attempted to buy his freedom for $300 from Mrs. Emerson, but she refused. Scott then went to the courts to try to secure his freedom. His first trial in 1847 ended in defeat when he could not prove that he and his wife were owned by Mrs. Emerson.

9: In 1850, the courts ruled that Scott and his family were free, but the Missouri Supreme Court reversed the decision in 1852. Scott later took a different approach, indicating that Mrs. Emerson and her brother lived in different states than he did. The Supreme Court then had to decide whether Scott was a citizen, and they decided he was not a citizen because he was black. | Scott never became a citizen, and was later purchased by Peter Blow’s sons, who gave him freedom. Scott died 9 months later. The Dred Scott story divided the states even more, as the federal government decided that slaves were a piece of property and that stopping it would take property away, which would be unconstitutional. This decision was applauded by the South and caused uproar in the North, which eventually helped fuel the Civil War.

10: The Election of 1860 took place between Abraham Lincoln (Republican), Stephen Douglas (Northern Democrat), John Bell (Constitutional Union Party), and John C. Breckinridge. The election showed that a national political system would not work, as Lincoln and Douglas represented the North and Bell and Breckinridge represented the South. The candidates had very different views – Lincoln neither wanted to eliminate or expand slavery, and Breckinridge and Bell wanted argued to uphold more Southern rights. This election ultimately led to Breckinridge running against Lincoln, setting up a situation of the South vs. the North. Though Lincoln was not even on some of the ballots in the south, a splitting of the votes occurred, and Lincoln won over 50% of the Electoral votes. The result of this election caused SC, TX, LA, MS, AL, FI,GA to secede because they viewed all Northerners and Republicans as anti-slavery activists. | Election of 1860

11: Lincoln was assassinated on April 14, 1865 around 10:15 pm in Ford’s Theatre in Washington D.C. Lincoln had come to the theater to celebrate Lee’s surrender with his wife. Abraham Lincoln, his wife, and his friends Clara Harris and Major Henry Rathbone went to Ford’s Theatre to see Our American Cousin, a comedy. At about 10:15, John Wilkes Booth entered the stage box, shot Lincoln in the head, struggled with Rathbone and stabbed him in the arm all the way to the bone. Booth then leapt 11 feet to the stage below, broke his shin, and yelled “Sic Semper Tyrannis” (as always to tyrants), then escaped through the back door and away on his horse. Everyone in the country was shocked and bewildered about the death. | Assassination of Lincoln

12: The knowledge of the doctors during the civil war was slim and a lot of soldiers died of infection. Twice as many people died by getting sick than by being shot. Some of the most feared diseases were dysentery, measles, small pox, pneumonia and malaria. Many of the doctors were untrained to treat men injured in the fields. Treatment in the fields was unclean and often deadly. There were no antibiotics or practices to keep equipment clean. A sanitary commission was set up to help educate the army on how to slow down or stop the spread of many of the diseases. Amputation was a common cure for someone that had been shot in an arm or leg. The amputation was not necessarily the cleanest way to treat this wound, often the doctor moved from one wounded soldier to the next, never cleaning his hands or the instruments used. There was also not a large water supply, so keeping the men hydrated as well as clean was not a top priority. | Medical Advancement

13: There was not enough shelter for the wounded, so as they waited for medical care which was not always quick as the wounded were more in number than those treating them, they waited outside, exposed to the sun and the wind as well as the cold and the rain. This could do nothing to help the moral of those injured.

14: After the Compromise of 1850, peace was momentarily present in the States. This period is known as the “calm before the storm”. However, quickly afterward, conflict erupted again with trouble in Kansas. Originally, there was a popular vote to decide if Kansas would be pro or antislavery. Many pro and anti slavery supporters migrated to Kansas in order to sway the vote, and two legislatures formed, splitting the state in half. After this split, many conflicts and problems broke out. For example, when 800 proslavery supporters tried to arrest the antislavery government in Kansas, one person died in the conflict. Another incident occurred when Brooks, who was proslavery, beat Sumner (an antislavery advocate) with a cane. This infuriated antislavery supporters, who retaliated by attacking the proslavery supporters. Additionally, John Brown, a man that believed God chose him to end slavery, led people along the Pattawatomie Creek, killing five people that supported slavery. Other incidents that occurred include proslavery advocates stealing cattle and ransacking farms. | Bleeding Kansas | John Brown

15: In 1865, William Sherman and several Union soldiers marched from Atlanta, Georgia to the Atlantic Ocean with one mission in mind: to destroy everything that would be useful for the South. Slaves, soldiers, and Sherman all fought as Sherman and his soldiers killed livestock and burned down cities. As they marched toward the Sea, they destroyed anything that was in their way in an attempt to bring down the South. | Sherman’s March to the Sea

16: The 54th Massachusetts, started in 1863, is probably the most famous black regiment. They attacked Fort Wagner in South Carolina with courage, loyalty, determination, and sacrifice, even though the attack ultimately failed and over 300 men died. | African Americans played a big role in the Civil War, though many had a rough time. Many African Americans were recruited for the Union due to the lack of soldiers, which caused some Confederates to target ammunition toward African Americans in battle. In Even within the Union, although African Americans made up about 10% of the Union army, some Northerners gave African Americans a rough time because they did not believe that blacks should have the same rights as them. In spite of the discrimination against them, African Americans fought long and hard, and as General Blunt of the Union stated: The question that negroes will fight is settled; besides they make better solders in every respect than any troops I have ever had under my command." | Elements of the Era (Roles of African Americans and Spies of the Civil War)

17: During the Civil War neither the North nor the South had high tech spy operations in effect. This changed the outcome of many battles in the last few years of the war. Both men and women and even women who disguised themselves as men and later spied as women served in the role of spy. Some of the more famous spies include Timothy Webster, Rose O’Neal Greenhow, Belle Boyd, Loretta Valezquez, and Harriet Tubman to name just a few. Webster, a Union spy, who was arrested and charged as a Confederate spy, escaped after earning the trust of the Confederates He was allowed to freely roam amongst the Confederates, but was later discovered by Union soldiers and eventually hanged in Richmond. Belle Boyd and Rose O’Neil Greenhow both spied for the Confederates as women, while Loretta Janetta Valzques dressed as a man to join the army, then decided that she could be more helpful to the Union as a women spy. | Spies | Harriet Tubman, although more known for her role in the Underground Railroad, was perhaps one of the most very successful spies for the Union.

18: Women served in many ways on both the Union and the Confederate sides of the Civil War. Many women served as nurses, doctors, suders (women that sold supplies to soldiers in the field), vivandieres (women that sold food and supplies to solders) and most importantly as spies. Many women followed their brothers and their fathers into war by pretending to be a boy. There are many stories of women putting their life on the line as they passed messages from one side to the other. One of the most interesting is the story of the Moon sisters, Lottie and Ginnie, who both worked as spies even involving their mother in their travels. In one story Ginnie ate the most important piece of paper before it was found by the Union solders. In another story, Dr. Mary Walker served as a physician being awarded a medal of honor. Her medal was rescinded and not restored to her until President Carter was in office. Both white women and colored women served in the Civil War. Nursing was the most common place to find women, thousands of women held this role. If the women were disguised you might find one anywhere, it is thought that 400 women served in some role other than as a nurse during this time. Historians think that over 80 women were injured or killed in the Civil War. As in any important historical time women were an important part of the Civil War, but we may never know how important as many served disguised as men, never reveling their true identity. Maybe Sherman was a woman! | Role of Women in the Civil War

19: Strategies of the North During the Civil War | The North had several key strategies during the Civil War. All were planned by Winfield Scott, the hero of the war with Mexico. The strategies included the Union blockading Southern ports, which would stop supplies from reaching the Confederacy and block the exportation of cotton, one of the main sources of income for the South. Another Union strategy was the Anaconda Plan, where the Union would gain control of the Mississippi River and split the South in two. They wanted the South to slowly run out of supplies. Additionally, the Union planned to capture Richmond, VA, which was the Confederate capital and ultimately ended the war.

20: The Battle of Gettysburg took place in July 1863 in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. General Lee wanted to win a battle in the North. He wanted to prove he could also win in the North. On the first day, the Confederates had the upper hand and were more prepared, and the Union troops were forced to retreat to recuperate. On the second day, the Union had reinforcements and both sides spent the morning preparing for action. The Confederates had the hills around the Union, but were spread more thinly. The Union also had a few hills. It was a close battle, but the Union had the greater victory by a small amount. On the third/last day, both sides again spent the morning preparing. Around one o’clock, rebels marched across the field, stepping over fallen soldiers from both sides, having gaps blown into their lines by union artillery. Some made it across the field, and the two sides fought until Union reinforcements pushed the remaining Confederates back. This was called Pickett’s charge. The North had won and the South never fully recovered from this loss. | Battle of Gettysburg

21: The Battle of Bull Run | The Battle of Bull Run took place in July of 1861 in Manassas, Virginia. During this battle, General Irvin McDowell intended to attack the Confederates at the junction of a railroad in Manassas and open up a way to get to Richmond. What actually happened was that the Union General McDowell attacked Confederate troops. The Union troops charged across a stream, pushed Confederates into a defensive position on a hill. The battle see-sawed all day, between a Confederate victory and a Union one. Eventually, with some reinforcements and the legendary Rebel Yell, the Confederates charged, and the Union troops fled and retreated, even leaving back some equipment. A Union soldier held prisoner once told the Confederates that after the Rebel Yell, they thought the Confederates numbered more than three times their actual size. It was a decisive Confederate victory.

22: The emancipation proclamation took place on January 1, 1863. The entire United States was affected by this. In this address, Lincoln said that all slaves could be freed as long as they were in the Confederate states. This was the turning point of the war. At the start of the war, Lincoln was focused on maintaining the Union but this proclamation indicated his focus had changed. | The Emanicpation Procoamation

23: The Battle of Petersburg took place between 1864 and 1865 in Petersburg, Virginia. During this battle, Grant went to Petersburg and started his battle. He wanted to take over the railroad center because it was vital to the Confederate movement and supplies. In the end, he wanted to take over Richmond to eliminate it from the Confederacy. The Confederates did not win but they held out for nine months. Finally on April 2, 1865 the confederate line broke. | The Battle of Petersburg

24: The Battle of Fredericksburg took place on December 13, 1862 in Fredericksburg, Virginia. After the battle of Antietam, the Union victory encouraged them to fight. They planned to take the capital of Virginia. But they failed because Lee made trenches in the town of Fredericksburg and was victorious. So the Union general, Burnside resigned and General Hooker took over. | Battle of Fredericksburg

25: The battle of Chancellorsville happened in May 1863. It took place in Chancellorsville, Virginia. Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson wanted to come up with a strategy to defeat the Union troops. They thought they could repeat General Hooker’s strategy by surrounding the Union forces and “sandwiching” them. They successfully did this and Hooker withdrew his men. However, Jackson was shot and later died from an amputation wound. | Battle of Chancellorsville

26: In 1865, Ulysses S. Grant was ready to end the war and wanted Robert E. Lee and the Confederates to surrender, but Lee refused. Finally, on April 9, 1865, Lee was forced to surrender when Grant and the Union surrounded Lee when they were on a train at Appomattox courthouse, Virginia. After the surrender, Grant supplied Lee and his soldiers with food and a safe passage home, and allowed the Confederates to keep their firearms and horses. | Appomattox Courthouse

27: Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 | The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 started as the Compromise in 1850. This required all citizens to view blacks as escaped slaves, and required them to assist in the capture and return of escaped slaves. Even free slaves were captured and taken, as the masters pretended they had “escaped”. Slaves now had to escape to Mexico or Canada for sanctuary, as bounty hunters were hired to capture them and no slaves received trial by jury. This Act was a huge success for the South and slavery, and a disaster for African Americans and abolitionists. The Act also caused a lot of people to take definite stands on pro or anti slavery, made the Underground Railroad more active, and showed the nation how controversial and huge the issue of slavery had become.

29: The South wanted to keep their slaves. They felt strongly that they needed slaves to survive. They felt so strong that they were willing to give up some of the freedoms the United States was founded on. When Lincoln was elected many southern states seceded from the Union, forming their states. Lincoln fought to keep the U.S. as one. The southern states were strong in farming, but week in number men and money and industrialization. They started their battle behind and when they finally realized this, they surrendered and we became united again. | Strategies of the South During the Civil War

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