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S: The Civil War

BC: Faust, Patricia L. "The Anaconda Plan." Civil War Home. 26 Mar. 2005. Web. 24 Feb. 2011. . Books: Rodriquez, Alicia. “Andersonville (1864-1865) Confederate Military Prison.” David S. Heidler and Jeanne T. Heidler. United States of America: ABC-CLIO Inc, 2000. Time-Life Books, Editors. “Gettysburg.” Alexandria, Virginia: Time-Life Books, 1995. Kiger, Fred W. Civil War A History of the War Between the States. Mexico: Workman Publishing, 1998. Kochmann, Rachel M. Presidents Birthplaces, Homes, and Burial Sites Including Presidential Libraries. Bemidji, Minnesota: Arrow Printing, 2004. Kauffman, Michael W. American Brutus. The United States of America: Random House Trade, 2005.

FC: The Civil War

1: The Compromise of 1850 was a compromise between the North and the South. To appease the North, California became a free state. To appease the South, the fugitive slave act made it legal for slave owners to chase runaways into the North, and illegal to harbor them. The government also offered to pay all of Texas's war debts which secured that it would remain a state.There were also several neutral laws. New Mexico and Utah got to choose to be slave or free by popular vote, and the slave trade was banned in Washington D.C., though slavery wasn't. Both sides were unhappy with what the other got, which resulted in more hatred. | The Compromise of 1850 | Senator Henry Clay (above) created the compromise.

2: Bleeding Kansas | Bleeding Kansas resulted when the Kansas-Nebraska act stated that Kansas and Nebraska would choose to be slave or free by popular sovereignty. Most people in Kansas wanted it to be free. In response, thousands of people from the slave state of Missouri moved to Kansas, tripled the population, and made it a slave state. The former population was outraged, and attempted to form a government separate from the slave one. The two governments began to attack each other, and Kansas broke out into a civil war. | Senator Stephen A. Douglas (above) created the Kansas-Nebraska act that led to Bleeding Kansas.

3: The Dred Scott Case | Dred Scott was a slave. His master was from Missouri, from had lived for several years in the north. He had brought Scott with him. Scott believed that this made him free. He sued for his freedom, and the case eventually made its way to the Supreme Court. Many of the justices, including Chief Justice Roger B. Taney, were slave owners. Taney convinced the judges that blacks had no rights. The Court stated that Scott couldn't sue for his freedom since he was property, not a person. They also declared the Missouri Compromise, which had set the border between slave and free states, was unconstitutional since the government could not outlaw slavery in any state. This severely angered the north. | Chief Justice Roger B. Taney

4: The Election of 1860 | The country completely divided during this presidential election. The democrat party split into the northern democrats, who ran Stephen A. Douglas, and the southern democrats, who ran John C. Breckenridge. The new republican party ran Abraham Lincoln. The National Union party ran John Bell. Bell and Douglas both believed in a compromise between the north and the south. Lincoln favored northern industry and believed that slavery should not be spread into new territories. Breckenridge favored southern agriculture and believed that all territories should allow slavery. The entire south voted for Breckenridge. The border states voted for Bell and Douglas. The north voted for Lincoln, winning him the election. Outraged, the southern states began to secede. | Abraham Lincoln

5: Northern Battle Strategy The Union relied on offensive strikes. Union General Winfield Scott invented the Anaconda Plan. His troops would march in a winding pattern and attack Confederate ports. This would prevent supplies from reaching them, and cripple the Confederacy. Another strategy was the Column. Giant amounts of soldiers would line up and fire. This would significantly damage the enemy. The offensive strategy was very effective and led to victory. | General Winfield Scott

6: Southern Battle Strategy The South fought defensively. Its goal was to force the Union out. General Robert E. Lee did try to main offensive strikes into the Union at Antietam and Gettysburg. Both of these failed, and cost Lee huge amounts of men. This prevented him from continuing to defend the Confederacy. The defensive strategy allowed the Union to slowly move closer. This strategy was nowhere near as effective as the Union's. | Confederate General Robert E. Lee

7: Abraham Lincoln | Abraham Lincoln was President of the United States during the war, and consequently Commander-in-Chief of the army. He believed that the country had to be preserved at any cost. He made many important decisions during the war. He decided to ignore Jefferson Davis's warning, and sent supplies to Fort Sumter. This led to war. He later made several military appointments, constantly firing old generals and hiring new ones. He made the decision to free all the slaves in rebel states. He also decided to initiate the draft, and eventually allowed black regiments to be formed. On April 14, 1865, five days after the bulk of the Confederate Army surrendered, Lincoln was shot by John Wilkes Booth. He died at 7:22 am the next day.

8: Ulysses Simpson Grant | Grant was the most successful general in the Union Army. During the last two years of the war he was in charge of all Union forces and given the rank of Lieutenant General. Grant had a fierce loyalty to the Union, and wanted to help preserve it. Grant's first major victory was when he defeated a major confederate force at Fort | Donelson. He fought in many other successful battles including the Battle of Shiloh, the Siege of Vicksburg, and the Battle of Petersburg. On April 9, 1865, he accepted the surrender of Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, which led to the end of the Civil War.in 1869, he was elected the eighteenth president of the United States. After two scandal ridden terms, he left office. After bad investments left him broke, Grant began writing his memoirs. In 1885, he was discovered to be terminally ill with throat cancer. He completed his memoirs a few days before his death on July 23, 1885.

9: William Tecumseh Sherman | Sherman was an important Union general during the Civil War. He wanted to preserve the Union. He participated in several successful battles, including Bull Run, Vicksburg, and Chattanooga, but is most famous for his March to the Sea, where he marched his men through Georgia, destroying any town in their path. He captured several important areas including Atlanta and Savannah. In April, 1865, Sherman accepted the surrender of General Joseph Johnston's Army of Tennessee, the last major Confederate Army. After the war, Sherman became the head of the United States Army. He died on February 14, 1891. His old rival, Joseph Johnston, died of pneumonia he caught while attending Sherman's funeral.

10: Frederick Douglass | Frederick Douglas was an escaped slave living in the North. He was a champion of African-American rights, and hoped to see all slaves freed and given equal rights. He had many discussions with President Lincoln regarding this. He became a recruiter for the first Northern Black regiment, the 54th Massachusetts. He also published writings about the rights of all African-Americans, and encouraged them to enlist. After the war, he held several political appointments. In 1872, he became the first African-American to run for vice-president, on a ticket with the first woman to run for president. They lost to President Grant. Douglas died on February 20, 1895.

11: Jefferson Davis | Jefferson Davis was the president of the Confederate States of America, and Commander-in-Chief of the army, during the Civil War. He believed in state's rights and supported the spread of slavery. Davis's most important decision was to carry out his threat to bomb Fort Sumter, which created the Civil War. He made many important military decisions, the most important of which was the choice to evacuate Richmond in 1865. After the war, Davis was arrested. He was held in Fort Monroe for two years before he was bailed out. He lived out the rest of his life in Mississippi. He died on December 6, 1889, and was buried in Richmond.

12: Robert Edward Lee | Lee was the Confederacy's most successful general. He was in charge of the Army of Northern Virginia, and commanded the entire army of the Confederacy during the later parts of the war. He joined the Confederacy because of his loyalty to Virginia, even though he didn't support slavery or secession. He | participated in several important battles, including the Battles of Second Manassas, and Chancellorsville. He was in command during the Confederate loss at Gettysburg, which turned the tide of the war in the Union's favor. He made the decision to leave Richmond to the Union. After losing several more short battles, including the Battle of Petersburg, Lee surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia to General Grant, dooming the Confederacy to defeat. After the war, Lee applied for amnesty, and became President of Washington College. He held that post until his death on October 12, 1870.

13: Thomas (Stonewall) Jackson | Jackson was Lee's best general. He was a loyal Virginian and believer in state's rights. During the First Battle of Bull Run, he and his men held off the Union advance until Confederate reinforcements arrived, earning him the nickname Stonewall Jackson. He participated in several major Confederate victories including The battles of Second Manassas, Sharpsburg, and Fredericksburg. In 1863, he successfully led his forces to victory over the Union during the Battle of Chancellorsville. On May 2nd, soldiers from the 18th North Carolina regiment mistook him for mistook him for Union forces and shot him in the arm. It was amputated. While he was recovering, he developed pneumonia. He died on May 10, 1863.

14: This was the first major battle of the Civil War. Union forces under the command of General Irvin McDowell met Confederate forces under the command of General P. G. T. Beauregard in Manassas, Va. on July 21, 1861. Both sides expected an easy victory. The Union hoped this victory would scare the Confederacy into rejoining with the United States. The Confederacy hoped this victory would scare away the Union. After a bitter battle, the Union had the advantage. The Confederacy was retreating. General Thomas Jackson and his men managed to hold off the Union army until Confederate reinforcements under the command of General Joseph H. Johnston arrived. The Union was forced to retreat. There were 4,700 casualties. The Union had twice as many as the Confederacy. General McDowell was replaced by General George B. McClellan. General Jackson was given the name of Stonewall. The war that was supposed to end quickly lasted another four years. | The First Battle of Bull Run

15: The Battle of Shiloh | The Battle of Shiloh was one of the bloodiest battles in the Civil War. Confederate forces under the command of General Albert Johnston attempted a surprise attack against Union forces under the command of General Grant at Shiloh Church, in Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee on April 6, 1862. Both sides wanted control of the area in order to hold vital railway systems in Corinth, Tennessee. If the Union held these, they could force the Confederate's out of Tennessee. Johnston wanted to force the Union out first. The Union managed to hold their position and General Johnston was killed during the battle. The next day, P. G. T. Beauregard took command of the Confederate forces. He attacked again, unaware that Grant had received reinforcements from General Don Carlos Buell. The Confederacy was forced to retreat. There were 23,746 casualties. The Union gained its staging point for control of Corinth. The Confederacy was soon forced out of Tennessee.

16: The Battle of Antietam | The Battle of Antietam was the bloodiest single day in American History. General Lee led his Confederate forces into the north in a strike against the Union. Lee hoped this would scare the Union and gain the Confederacy foreign support. Union forces under General George B. McClellan attacked Lee near Antietam Creek, in Sharpsburg, Maryland on September 17, 1862. Lee held McClellan off for twelve hours before retreating during the night. The battle was a draw.Though McClellan managed to chase Lee away, he did not pursue him. This decision helped prolong the war. There were 23,000 casualties. McClellan was replaced by General Ambrose E. Burnside. | General George B. McClellan

17: The Battle of Fredericksburg | The Battle of Fredericksburg was a Confederate victory. Union General Ambrose E. Burnside, was trying to lead his troops to Richmond to capture the Confederate Capital. General Lee blocked his path at Fredericksburg. Burnside began bombarding the town on December 11, 1862. On the 13th, after a long struggle to cross the Rappahannock River, Burnside attacked Lee. Lee fought back. Confederate General James Longstreet's men were hidden behind a four foot stone wall. No matter how many many men Burnside sent to attack, they never reached the wall. Burnside and his men left on December 15, 1862. There were 5,309 Confederate casualties and 12,653 Union casualties. Lee had prevented the assault on Richmond. Burnside was replaced by General Joseph Hooker. | General Ambrose E. Burnside

18: The Emancipation Proclamation | On January 1, 1863, Abraham Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation. It declared that all slaves living in the rebel states were now free. It changed the war from being about preservation to change, and the end of slavery. Lincoln had hoped that this would frighten the south. He also wanted to have African-American support, and prevent the Confederacy from receiving foreign support. Most foreign countries were against slavery, and would not involve themselves with the Confederacy if they were fighting to keep it. It didn't completely end slavery since some Union states still allowed it. The proclamation affected only Confederate slaves, which were about 3.1 million of the 4 million slaves in America. Lincoln got the desired affect, though the Confederacy still carried on the war and refused to free it slaves.

19: The Battle of Chancellorsville | The Battle of Chancellorsville was one of the last major Confederate victories. Union forces commanded by General Joseph Hooker met Confederate forces commanded by General Lee in the wilderness of Chancellorsville, Virginia on April 30, 1863. Hooker was attempting another assault on Richmond, which Lee was trying to prevent. Lee decided to split his army up, with him leading half against Hooker, and Stonewall Jackson taking the other half. On May 2nd, Jackson surprise attacked the Union force. During the battle, Jackson was shot by his own men. On May 6, 1863, Hooker was forced to retreat. Though Lee lost, the Confederate's had many more casualties than the Union. Among them was Stonewall Jackson, who died on May 10th. Hooker was replaced by General George Meade. | General Joseph Hooker

20: The Battle of Gettysburg | The Battle of Gettysburg was the bloodiest battle in American History. General Lee led his Confederate forces into the North in a strike against the Union to show the power of the Confederate army. He wanted to get to Harrisburg so that he could prevent supplies from reaching Washington. Union General George Meade had to stop him. The two armies accidentally met at a small town called Gettysburg, Pennsylvania on July 1,1863. The fought fiercely against each other for three days in many different locations. On July 3rd, Lee ordered a massive charge against the Union emplacements at Cemetery Ridge. The Union destroyed it. The next day, July 4, 1863, Lee retreated. There were 53,000 casualties. Lee was never able to rebuild his shattered army. The Battle of Gettysburg was the turning point on the Civil War. | General George Meade

21: The Gettysburg Address | On November 19, 1863, Abraham Lincoln attended the dedication of a cemetery in Gettysburg to all the soldiers that had died. He gave a short speech called the Gettysburg Address, in which he spoke about what was important about America. Lincoln had not held high hopes for his speech. Early on, most of the country felt it was one of his worst speeches. Later on, they realized that it was one of the greatest speeches in history. It helped to unite the country in a common goal of restoring the United States of America.

22: The Battle of the Wilderness | The Battle of the Wilderness was a bloody example of intense guerrilla warfare. General Lee's Confederate forces attacked Union forces under the command of Generals Grant and Meade in the wilderness of Spotsylvania Virginia on May 5, 1864. The two armies had been looking for each other. If one of them surrendered, the Civil War would be over. Grant refused to be defeated, though he suffered heavy casualties. After a two day battle, Lee was forced to retreat. There were 26,000 casualties. Lee lived to fight again. Grant lost so many men that he was nicknamed "The Butcher."

23: Sherman's March to the Sea | Sherman's March to the Sea was the largest offensive strike of the Civil War. On November 16, General Sherman led his forces out of Atlanta, Georgia (which he had previously conquered) on a route to Savannah, Georgia. He and his men marched 285 miles. The Confederates were unable to muster any significant force to stop him. They marched into towns and plundered them. They took anything valuable and usually caused significant damage. They would sometimes destroy the entire town. On December 10, 1864, Sherman's forces reached Savannah. The Confederate's retreated in fear, and on December 22, 1864, Sherman sent Lincoln a telegraph saying "I beg to present to you, as a Christmas gift, the city of Savannah." Sherman March to the Sea had caused 100 million dollars in damage, and placed fear into the entire Confederacy.

24: The Fall of Richmond | After several defeats, General Lee realized he could no longer protect Richmond. On April 2, 1865, he warned Jefferson Davis that Richmond would have to be evacuated. The entire Confederate government evacuated that day to Danville, Virginia. The army was left in charge. They were tasked with destroying supplies before the Union arrived. To avoid the destruction caused by drunk Union soldiers, all whiskey was dumped. The people drank it and became a frenzied mob. When soldiers began burning food, the people, who had been starving for some time, rioted. They took the food, and in the commotion, a fire was started. Soon Richmond was ablaze. The arsenal caught fire and the ammunition ignited, terrifying the people. The ironclads were set on fire to keep them out of Union hands. Their ammunition ignited, causing further terror. When the Union forces commanded by General Godfrey Wietzel arrived on April 3rd, they found a ruined city ablaze. Union soldiers put out the fire. Lincoln then arrived to tour the city. Lee had hoped that abandoning Richmond would give him more freedom. Instead, he was utterly defeated a few days later. | General Godfrey Wietzel

25: Lee Surrenders | After several defeats over the next week, Lee formally surrendered to Grant in Appomattox Courthouse on April 9, 1865. He surrendered in the parlor of Wilmer McLean's house. McLean used to live in Manassas. He moved to Appomattox to escape the war after General Beauregard had used McLean's home as his headquarters during the First Battle of Bull Run. Grant treated Lee with full respect and offered generous terms . The only rule for the Confederate soldiers was that they no longer fight and agree to be on parole. Lee officially surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia at 3:00 pm. Both men knew that this would mean the end of the Civil War, and victory for the United States.

26: The Lincoln Assassination | On April 14, 1865, five days after Lee surrendered, famous actor John Wilkes Booth launched a massive conspiracy against the United States in the hope that the south could rise again. He would kill President Lincoln and General Grant. Meanwhile, other conspirators would kill vice-president Andrew Johnson and secretary of state William Seward. That evening, Lincoln attended the Play "Our American Cousin" at Ford's Theater in Washington. Grant had decided not to join him, weakening Booth's plan. At 10:00 pm, Booth entered the President's Box, and shot him point blank range in the back of the head. Lincoln was instantly unconscious. His guest, Major Henry Rathbone, attempted to stop Booth, and was stabbed in the arm. Booth jumped to the stage, injured his leg, and yelled "Sic semper tyrannis." He then fled the scene. Lincoln was carried across the street to Peterson Boarding House where he died at 7:22 am the next morning. Seward and Johnson both survived. Booth was caught on April 25, and shot during the arrest. He died the next morning. The other conspirators were executed. The north, angry about the death of its leader, treated the south far worse than Lincoln had planned. Instead of helping, Booth hurt the south.

27: The Role of Women While the men were away at war, the women took on their duties. Many, such as Clara Barton, became battlefield nurses. Others disguised themselves as men and enlisted in the army. A few also became spies. The most famous of these were Rose Greenhow, a confederate spy in Washington, and Elizabeth Van Lew, a Union spy in Richmond. | far left Clara Barton left Rose Greenhow

28: The Role of African-Americans African-Americans saw the Civil War as a chance for freedom. Many of them became soldiers. The first were the Louisiana Native Guards, formed on September 27, 1862. It was formed when the Union conquered the area that these men lived in. The most famous regiment was the 5th Massachusetts, which was decimated during the doomed attack at Fort Wagner. This happened to many Black Regiments. Black soldiers were often placed on the front lines or sent on doomed missions. They were also given less pay and worse conditions.Because of these things, 38% of all black soldiers that fought for the Union died. Until the last month of the war, African-Americans couldn't serve in the army.

29: Spies Both sides used many spies. Many of them were women. They would travel around unsuspected and gather information. There were also many men spies. Canada was generally a gathering point for Confederate spies. They weren't within the laws of the Union, and they could sneak down south and gather information. The border states such as Virginia and Maryland were full of spies. This was because there were often large amounts of union and confederate supporters in these states. The two largest spots were Washington and Richmond. There close proximity allowed very easy access between them. | John Surratt, a Confederate spy in Virginia and Washinton

30: War Prisons During the Civil War, neither side was prepared for the amount of prisoners they would have. War prison's were hastily constructed and had very poor conditions. Many prisoners died in these structures. Another common practice was prison ships. The prisoners would be kept on ships in the sea. The high demand for | prisons also caused many buildings to be transformed. Washington's Old Capitol Prison was once a debating area for congressman. The most infamous prison was Andersonville Prison. Used between February 1864 and May 1865, this Confederate prison held 45,613 prisoners during that year. Of these prisoners, 13,000 died. The poor food, lack of buildings,and poor sanitary conditions caused many of these deaths. Another problem was the lack of guards. The largest amount of prisoners it held at once was 33,000. There were only enough guards to prevent escape, not maintain order aong these large numbers. Many prisoners were killed in fights and riots. Dead bodies were simply thrown in pits, adding to the unsanitary conditions. In May, 1865, all the prisoners were released. The Commander of the Interior of the prison was one of the only Confederate's to be executed after the war. | Andersonville Prison

31: Pickett's Charge During the Battle of Gettysburg, General Lee ordered a massive charge against the Union fortifications on Cemetery Ridge. 12,500 Confederates under the command of Generals Longstreet, Picket charged the Union lines. Union cannons tore the charge to pieces. Only one 200 man brigade, led by Lewis Armistead, manage to reach the Union lines. Union General Winfield Scott Hancock was wounded, and his men were being beaten back. Union reinforcements arrived and defeated the Confederates. Armistead was killed, and his entire brigade was killed or captured. There were 10,000 Confederate casualties. | The charge was named after General Pickett (above) who lost the most men during it.

32: Primary Sources Purdy, J. E. "Clara Barton, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing front." 1904. . (March 10, 2011). "Mrs. Rose Greenhow." 1855-1865. . (March 10, 2011). "Surratt, John A." 1870-1880. . (March 10, 2011). "Andersonville Prison, Ga., August 17, 1864--Southwest view of stockade showing the dead-line." 1864. . (March 10, 2011). "Maj. Gen. George E. Pickett." 1861-1865. . (March 10, 2011).

33: Brady, Matthew. "Portrait of Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside, officer of the Federal Army." 1860-1865. . (March 10, 2011). Ritchie, Alexander Hay. "The first reading of the Emancipation Proclamation before the cabinet / painted by F.B. Carpenter ; engraved by A.H. Ritchie." 1866. . (March 10, 2011). Photographer of Matthew Brady. "Battle-field of Chancellorsville Skulls and bones of unburied soldiers on south side of Plank Road in 1865." 1865. . (March 10, 2011). Brady, Matthew. "Portrait of Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker, officer of the Federal Army." 1860-1865. . (March 10, 2011).

34: Forbes, Edwin. "Battle of Antietam, aryland--Burnside's division carrying the bridge over the Antietam Creek, and storming the Rebel position, after a desperate conflict of four hours, Wednesday, September 17 / from a sketch by our special artist, Mr. Edwin Forbes." 1862. . (March 10, 2011). Brady, Matthew. "Gen'l Geo. B. McClellan ." 1861. . (March 10, 2011).

35: "Savannah, Ga., vicinity. Sherman's troops removing ammunition from Fort McAllister in wheelbarrows." December, 1864. . (March 10, 2011). Waud, Alfred R. "Colonel Burnsides brigade at Bull Run, First and Second Rhode Island, and Seventy-First New York Regiments, with their Artillery, Attacking the Rebel Batteries at Bull Run. Sketched on the spot by A. Waud." July 21, 1861. . (March 10, 2011). Bufford, J. H. "The Battle of Shiloh, or Pittsburg Landing, April 6th & 7th, 1862 / J.H. Bufford's lith., Boston." 1862. . (March 10, 2011).

36: "Stonewall Jackson." 1871. . (March 9, 2011). "Washington D.C. President Lincoln's box at Ford's Theater." April 1865. . (March 10, 2011). Gardner, Alexander. "[John Wilkes Booth]/ Alex. Gardner, photographer to the Army of the Potomac." 1865. . (March 10, 2011). O'Sullivan, Timothy H. "Appomattox Court House, Va. McLean house." April 1865. . (March 10, 2011). O'Sullivan, Timothy H. "Battle-field of Gettysburg--Dead Confederate sharpshooter at foot of Little Round Top [i.e., Devil's Den]." July, 1863. . (March 10, 2011).

37: "[George Gordon Meade, Major General, United States Army, three-quarter length portrait, facing left] / Henszey & Co." 1864. . (March 10, 2011). "Lincoln's Gettysburg Address, Gettysburg." November 19, 1863. . (March 10, 2011). Currier & Ives. "The fall of Richmond Va. on the night of April 2nd." . (March 10, 2011). "Gen. Godfrey Weitzel, U.S.A." 1860-1865. . (March 10, 2011).

38: Brady, Matthew. "Winfield Scott, head-and-shoulders portrait, head three quarters to the right, eyes front, in civilian dress." 1851-1860. . (March 8, 2011). Berger, Anthony. "Abraham Lincoln, three-quarter length portrait, seated, facing right; hair parted on Lincoln's right side." February 9, 1864. . (March 8, 2011). Vannerson, Julian. "Portrait of Gen. Robert E. Lee, officer of the Confederate Army." March 1864. . (March 9, 2011).

39: "General Ulysses S. Grant at his headquarters in Cold Harbor, Virginia." June 11 0r 12, 1864. . (March 9, 2011). Brady, Matthew. "Portrait of Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman, officer of the Federal Army." 1860-1865. . (March 9, 2011). "Frederick Douglass, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing right." 1850-1860. . (March 9, 2011). Brady, Matthew. "Jefferson Davis, three-quarter length portrait, facing right." 1858-1860. . (March 9, 2011).

40: Brady, Matthew. "Henry Clay, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing front." 1850-1852. . (February 25, 2011). "Stephen A. Douglas." 1855-1865. . (February 25, 2011). "Roger B. Taney." 1855-1865. . (February 25, 2011). Marsh, William. "Abraham Lincoln, candidate for U.S. president, half-length portrait, looking left." 1860. . (March 8, 2011).

41: Secondary Sources “The Battle of Chancellorsville.” http://www.nps.gov/frsp/chist.htm (February 21, 2011). “The Battle of Fredericksburg.” http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/civilwar/p/fredericksburg.htm (February 21, 2011). “The Battle of Gettysburg.” http://www.historyplace.com/civilwar/battle.htm (February 21, 2011). “The Battle of Gettysburg.” http://www.gettysbg.com/battle.shtml. (February 24, 2011). “Frederick Douglas Timeline.” http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/doughtml/tl4.html. (February 21, 2011). “Manassass, First.” http://www.nps.gov/hps/abpp/battles/va005.htm. (February 21, 2011). “Battle of Shiloh.” http://www.nps.gov/shil/historyculture/shiloh-history.htm. (February 21, 2011) “The Fall of Richmond, Virgina. http://www.civilwar.org/education/history/warfare-and-logistics/warfare/richmond.html. (February 21, 2011) Swift, Eben. "Civil War Strategy and Tactics." Son of the South. Web. 23 Feb. 2011. .

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