S: A-Z History, Abbott, Adeniran, Flores, Lippincott and Mooney
FC: A to Z history By Dyemond Abbott, Sarah Adeniran, Stephany Flores, Anastasia Lippincott and Emma Mooney
1: Allah | The Arabic word for God is allah. The word is a contraction of the Arabic definite articles "al-" (the) and "ilah" (deity,god). Allah means "the deity god". Muslims believe that allah is the one and only god and that he is the creator of life. To Muslims,"allah" is the same God that Jews and Christians worship. <-- arabic for allah. Sarah A.
2: Baghdad was created by the strongest of the rebel groups to overthrow the Umayyad caliphate, the Abbasids. The location in central Iraq made trade flourish. The caliphs were able to trade gold, goods, and information about the empire. A treasury kept track of money flow and part of the government would control business. To support the government, the Abbasids taxed land, imports and exports, and non-muslims' wealth. | Baghdad | Dyemond Abbott
3: Caliph | A caliph is a successor of Muhammad. Caliphs were elected and disputes over whom the next caliph would be caused a war and the split of the Muslim community. Most of the caliphs did not know Muhammad but the first four did. Because they knew Muhammad, they were considered to the “rightly guided” caliphs. When a caliph was murdered there was a civil war amongst the groups of Muslims. When a family called the Umayyads won and took control a group of people called the Shi’ites broke off into a group called the Shi’ia. The other group, which followed the Umayyads, was called the Sunni. The Sunni were taken over by the Abbasids. The Abbasids improved the government and trade of the empire. The Abbasids were in control for a very long time but lost control of some of the empire and were taken over by the Fatimid caliphate. The Fatimids believed they were descendents of Muhammad from his daughter, Fatima. The caliphs were the rulers of the empire and the religion and they changed the Muslim religion. | Anastasia Lippincott
4: Dome of the rock | The Dome of the Rock is built on the grounds where the old Jewish temple was destroyed by the Romans in A.D. 70. The rock near this structure is the spot where Muslims say Muhammad went up to heaven to learn Allah's will, like the location where the Jews claim Abraham was prepared to sacrifice his son Isaac. The Done of the Rock was completed in 691, and is considered the third most holy place in the Muslim religion. Its intricate design shows how geometrically and architecturally advanced the Islamic people were. | Emma Mooney
5: Elephant | The elephants let trade spread more easily during the Islam Empire. It was easier for people to travel form place to place spreading the Islam religion and trading goods. Elephants are also said to be able to hear and obey go, it is said that the Abbysian army tried to destroy the Ka’aba, and their elephants, refused to attack. | Stephany
6: Fatimah | Fatimah was the Islamic prophet Muhammad's daughter. Muslims regarded her as an exemplar for women. Shi'a Muslims even formed a caliphate called the "fatimid" because they claimed that they were descendents of her. Sarah A.
7: Great Mosque | Gabriel | Cultural blend in the Muslim world can be seen greatest in architecture. The Great Mosque of Damascus is a great example for it was built where a Christian church once was. Byzantine and Muslim ideas most likely were blended as the huge dome and the vaulted ceilings are concerned. In Syrian areas there are Roman features, such as bathtubs that used the Roman ways of heating. The blended style was seen throughout all land occupied by Muslims. | In Muslim belief, the voice of the angel Gabriel told Muhammad that he was a messenger of Allah. When Muhammad asked what he should do Gabriel answered: "Proclaim! In the name of thy Lord and Cherisher, who created man out of a (mere) clot of congested blood. Proclaim! And thy Lord is most bountiful. He who taught (the useof) the pen taught men that which h knew not." | Dyemond Abbott
8: Hajj | Hajj is one of the Five Pillars and it is the pilgrimage taken by the Muslims to the Kaba in Mecca annually to perform religious ceremonies. After the prophet Abraham died the hajj turned into an event full of sin. The people were worshipping idols, sacrificing animals and completely forgot the true meaning of hajj. Then Muhammad came and took all the idols from the Kaba and used what Allah told him and returned all the rituals back to their sacred form. | Anastasia Lippincott
9: Ibn Al-haytham | Emma Mooney | Ibn Al-haytham was a genius mathematician who studied something called optics, or the examination of eyes. He made people aware of how objects are really seen, from object to eye, and not from the eyes to the object, as many believed. His clarification on this led to the development of more advanced lenses for telescopes. | Indian Ocean | The Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea were the two major trading networks that allowed the Muslim Empire to engage in sea trade with the rest of the world.
10: Jerusalem | Jerusalem was a city of great importance to the Islam Empire. It holds three major religions, Christianity, Islam and Judaism. In Arabic, it is known as Al-Quds or Baitul-Maqdis ("The Noble, Sacred Place"). Jerusalem was a symbol of contention between Arabs and Jews. Jerusalem was the first places where Muslims could pray in the mosque of Al-Aqsa. It was here, where angel Gabriel talked to Muhammad. | Stephany
11: Ka' aba | The Ka'aba is the most sacred site in Islam located in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. It is a cube-shaped building made of granite. There is also a mosque built around it. Muslims all around the world face the Ka'aba during prayers---no matter where they are located. Sarah A.
12: Leaders | The Prophet Muhammad was essentially the founder of Islam. Without him there might not have been the Islamic religion. After Muhammad died his close friend Abu-Bakr was elected as his successor and was the first caliph. He and his three successors - Umar, Uthman, and Ali - were the four rightly guided caliph ( they followed the Qur'an to rule). Uthman was assassinated in 656. Muhammad’s cousin, Ali, was the natural successor but his rule was opposed by muawiya, governor of Syria and Ali was assassinated taking with him electing the next caliph. The Umayyad family took over after him and in 750 they were overthrown and the Abbasids took control. | Dyemond Abbott
13: Muhammad | Muhammad was a prophet who, when meditating outside of Mecca, was spoken to by the angel Gabriel. The angel told him to be Allah's messenger. He taught people that polytheism was wrong and taught that Allah was the only true god. He began preaching in Mecca but when some of his people were attacked because of his ideas he went to the town of Yathrib, later called Medina. His movement from Mecca to Yathrib was then called Hijrah and in Yathrib he gathered many more people and became a military leader because of his popularity as a religious leader. He then invaded Mecca and fixed the corruption of the ancient worship place Ka'aba Muhammad's teachings were gathered together after his death and written down in the book called the Qur'an. | Anastasia Lippincott
14: Nomads | Emma Mooney | The Arab nomads were called the Bedouin clans. Their ideals of loyalty and bravery along with warrior skills became the structure for the Islamic way of life. By the early 600s, the nomads had either chosen to settle in an oasis or a market tow.n. Those who stayed in a market town became locations for local and long distance trading goods.
15: Oasis | Oases are places where water can be found allowing trees and crops to grow. Oases contributed to the expansion of Islam. Tows in Arabia were usually rose around oases. People from the neighboring countries went to the oases towns because of crops. Because there were so many people, Islam religion was able to spread in more abundance. | Stephany
16: Pillars (5) | The five pillars of Islam are five duties that all Muslims must perform.. These duties include Faith, Prayer, Alms, Fasting, and Pilgrimage. Faith: to be a Muslim one must believe that Allah is the only god and that Muhammad is the messenger of him. Prayer: Muslims must face toward Mecca and pray five times a day. Alms: Muslims must give alms (money for the poor). This is done through a special religious tax. Fasting: During Ramadan, an Islamic holy month, Muslims are required to fast (not eat), from dawn to sunset. This is shows that their spiritual needs are greater than the physical ones. Pilgrimage: To ensure that ever one is equal before allah, Muslims must wear identical garments. This is known as the hajj, or pilgrimage. | Sarah A.
17: Qur'an | Dyemond Abbott | The Holy book of the Muslims was the revelation of the Prophet collected into a book. Muhammad recited the relevation of Gabriel and soon after his death it was suggested that they put them together. It is written in Arabic amd Muslims believe the Arabic version the only true word of Allah. Only Arabic could be used to worship. Wherever Muslims carried the Qur’an, Arabic became the language of worshipers and scholars thus uniting conquered peoples.
18: al-Razi | Al-Razi was a Persian physician. He made a lot of medical progress and wrote books based on findings of previous physicians and his own personal studies. Al-Razi believed he was more experienced than physicians that came before him and wrote about proving their theories wrong. He was thought to be the best physician of his time. | Anastasia Lippincott
19: Sunna | People who worship Muhammad believe that his main goal when he was on Earth was to receive the words in the Qur'an and show the Muslims how to practice the sacred actions in their everyday lives. The Sunna is the perfect way of life to Islamic people, and the Sunna is the examples Muhammed demonstarted for the Muslims on how to apply the words of the Qur'an in life. | Emma Mooney | saak (check) | To encourage trade, Muslims set up banks throughout the empire. Banks offered letters of credit to merchants, so they could buy now and pay later called saaks (pronounced checks).
20: Tolerance | The Islam Empire had tolerance with religion. They were not allowed to force people to convert to Islam. The only thing they did not permit, was that Non-Muslim people spread their own religion. No religion could be spread unless it was Islam, but people could be Christian and Jewish. | Stephany
21: Umayyads | The Umayyads were a family that came into power after the assasination of Ali.
22: Veiled | Dyemond Abbott | Muslim women in Ancient Arabia were given more rights than Muslim women of today. Overtime Muslim women were forced to live isolating lives. Whenever they go out in public they have to be veiled.
23: house ofWisdom | The House of Wisdom was a library, academy, and translation center opened in the 800s in Baghdad so that the scholars could advance in science and philosophy. They used previous ideas from many different places and then created their own ideas. After the fall of the Roman Empire, Europe did not advance much. Then the Muslim scholars gathered information and saved the information that had already been learned and began to learn even more. The House of Wisdom is where these scholars studied and stored their information. The House of Wisdom was destroyed in 1258. | Anastasia Lippincott
24: eXtended knowledge | Emma Mooney | Muslim attitude showed a deep curiosity about the surrounding world and a quest for truth.The prophet himself believed in the power of knowledge. He believed that being knowledgeable allowed one to acquire valuable results, like power to tell right from wrong, opens the path to heaven, a companion for lonely times, a guide to happiness, sustinance in misery, armor against enemies and an ornament amongst friends.
25: Yathrib | Muhammad moved to Yathrib because he was asked to accompany a group of followers. He did this to spread the message of Islam to Yathrib. Eight years of war between Muhammad and Meccan forces followed, ending with the Muslim victory and conquest of Mecca. Then, Muhammad led the pilgrimage known as the Hajj. On returning to Medina he fell ill and died after a few days. | Stephany
26: Zoroastrianism | Anastasia Lippincott | Zoroastrianism was the first monotheistic religion and was founded by Zarathustra in what historians believe to be around the sixth century BCE. Every other religion before then was polytheistic and the basics of Zoroastrianism may have been influential of the monotheistic religions that followed. When the Muslims were conquering lands they allowed the people to practice their own religion. Christianity and Zoroastrianism were the two main religions. The Muslims were not allowed to force people to convert to Islam but levied heavier taxes on non-Islamic people and so many people converted to Muslim. When the Muslims conquered Persia, where a lot of the people who practiced Zoroastrianism lived the religion became very scarce and present-day only about 10,000 people practice Zoroastrianism.
27: Now I know my ABCs next time won't you sing with me?
28: Abbasid dinar Baghdad Caliph Dome of the Rock Elephants Fatima Great Mosque Gabriel Hajj Ibn Al-haytham Indian Sea Jerusalem Ka'aba Leaders Muhammad | word | category | facts relating to trade cities of importance Muhammad architectural contributions facts relating to trade Muhammad architectural contributions Muhammad 5 pillars Muslims who made contributions facts relating to trade cities of importance cities of importance Muslims who made contributions Muslims who made contributions
29: Nomadic Oasis Pillars Qur'an Razi Sunna Saak Tolerance Umayyads Veiled house of Wisdom eXtended knowledge Yathrib Zoroastrianism | word | category | facts relating to trade expansion of Islam 5 pillars expansion of Islam Muslims who made contributions Muhammad innovations/inventions Muhammad Muslims who made contributions Muslim culture expansion of Islam innovations/inventions cities of importance expansion of Islam