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S: The 6 Kingdoms

BC: http://userpages.monmouth.com/~skifast/worksheets/6%20Kingdoms.pdf

FC: The 6 Kingdoms! | By: S.C.A.M.

1: Who is S.C.A.M? | That would be us!

2: Plantae | ~Major characteristics: What distinguishes kingdom plantae from all the other kingdoms, is that the cells of kingdom plantae have cell walls made of cellulose that are used to support the plant. This cell wall is not a semi-permeable membrane and the cell cannot transport material and nutrients in and out of the cell walls. For this function there is the large central vacuole that stores water and chemicals for use inside of the cell. Another characteristic belonging only to kingdom plantae is their chloroplasts, the organelle that converts light energy into chemical energy inside the plant where the energy is stored as sugar. Their ability to convert inorganic matter (atmospheric CO2) to organic matter using photosynthesis keeps us humans in kingdom animalia alive. ~Divergent Event -????? ~Eukaryotic ~Multicellular ~Auto-trophs ~Extracellular ~No Nervous system ~Open Circulatory Systems ~Both sexual and asexual

3: Bryophyta Photosynthetic, non-vascular plants in which the female sex organ is the archegonium. All groups show clear alternation of generations. The gametophyte generation is dominant, conspicuous and independent. It may be thalloid or organized into leaf-like structures (phyllids), which are not true leaves; lack cuticle and stomata. The sporophyte generation consists of a stalk and capsule (together called the sporogonium) and is as conspicuous as the gametophyte but dependent on it for its lifetime, it cannot live an independent existence. (Lower part of moss capsules may have been photosynthetic) The ovum remains in the archegonium and spermatozoids swim to it by chemotaxis. Spores dispersed by a mechanism which ensures dispersal in dry weather only. No vascular tissue in either generation. Root-like structures are rhizoids. | http://http://home.manhattan.edu/~frances.cardillo/plants/nonvas/charac.htmlwww.anbg.gov.au/bryophyte/front-page-images/bryophytes_index_01.jpg

4: Animalia | ~Major Characteristics: All are motile- this means they can all move independently. Blastula Stage- this is a stage that the embryos go through; this only occurs in animals. ~The Cambrian Explosion: An explosion occurred millions of years ago that caused there to be a rapid growth in the animal kingdom. ~Animals are multi-celled and have eukaryotic cells. ~They are heterotroph, which means they need to eat other organisms to survive. ~The kingdom Animalia are extracellular. ~Animals have two parts to their nervous system: the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system contains the brain, the spinal cord, and the retina. The peripheral nervous system contains the sensory neurons, clusters of neurons (ganglia), and the nerves that connect them to the central nervous system. ~Animals have a closed circulatory system and a two chambered heart. ~Most animals and humans have a regular respiratory system such as lungs, airways, and respiratory muscles. ~They have an asexual reproduction system. ~(look up Phyla, Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes, and Nematoda)

5: Phyla, Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes, and Nematoda ~Phyla: Phyla is the plural for phylum. Phyla is the fourth rank in the taxonomic ranks. Animalia contains about forty phyla. ~Cnidaria: Cnidaria contains living things that are from the saltwater. Examples include: coral, the water jellyfish, podded hydroid, etc. ~Platyhelminthes: Platyhelminthes are pretty much all flat worms. Now the interesting thing about flat worms is that they can reproduce sexually or asexually. ~Nematoda: Phylum Nematoda is made of roundworms. Roundworms have a pretty simple structure, and an example is how their nervous system is made up of some small rings of nerves.

6: Fungi | ~Its an eukaryotic organism. ~It has a cell wall made of chitin, plasma membrane, nucleoid, ribosomes, and cytoplasm. ~It is both unicellular and multicellular. ~It is a heterotroph. ~It is extracellular ~It doesn't have a circulatory. ~In obligate anaerobes, the organism cannot survive in the presence of oxygen. ~It has both sexual and asexual reproduction. ~An example is a mushroom. | Fungi first developed over 1.2 million years ago and originated as aquatic organisms. Fungi like animals evolved from opisthokonts, organisms that started as single celled spores and propelled themselves with a single posterior flagellum. During the Cambian period some of these spores moved to land and grew into large fungal spores. Finally, by the late Carboniferous era all classes of fungi were present.

7: Basidomycota:: ~ ~ includes four artificial classes: Hymenomycetes, Gasteromycetes, Urediniomycetes, and Ustilaginomycetes. They are mostly filamentous fungi characterized by the production of basidia. These are microscopic, often club-shaped end cells in which nuclear fusion and meiosis usually take place prior to the maturation of external, typically haploid basidiospores, which are then disseminated .Sexual reproduction in Basidiomycota takes place in the fruiting body, in specialized structures called basidia. Agaricus is the common mushroo and serves as a commercial value of agricultural. | Ascomycota ~ is monophyletic and accounts for approximately 75% of all described fungi. It includes most of the fungi that combine with algae to form lichens, and the majority of fungi that lack morphological evidence of sexual reproduction. produce many plant diseases (e.g., powdery mildews, anthracnose, wilts, rots, leaf spots, ergo of rye, apple scab, chestnut blight, etc.) and some animal and human mycoses (e.g., candidiasis, ringworm infections, histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, toxic black mold syndrome, etc.). An example is Sarcoscypha coccinea.

8: Protista | ~Major Characteristics:: -microscopic -most are one celled, but some have multiple cells -cells have a membrane around the nucleus -some get energy from the sun and nutrients from the water around them -Most reproduce by splitting in two ~Divergent Event: Eukaryotes emerged from prokaryotic ancestry about 1.6-2.1 billion years ago. Evolution involves the appearing of organelles and their modification. ~Eukaryotic cells. ~Attributes: could be animal-like, or plant-like ~Reproduction: Sexual and asexual ~Cell Structure: - usually NO cell wall, although some forms may have a cell wall - organelles including a nucleus and may have chloroplasts ~Digestion: Intracellular movement ~Metabolism: almost all protists are aerobic organisms that live either as heterotrophs or as autotrophs ~NO RESPIRATORY system, use diffusion instead ~NO CIRCULATORY system, but they do pass nutrients & water through simple diffusion ~NO Nervous system ~Phylums: 1, Ciliophora: 12,000 described species- benthic & planktonic -Marine, brackish, fresh water, damp soils, free-living, ectosymbionts, endosymbi -shape of cell maintained by pellicle and fibrillar sturcture -Cilia for locomotion (somatic ciliature) & feeding (oral ciliature) - 2 nuclei types: macronucleus & micronucleus -Animal-like EX: paramecium 2. Chlorophyta: Green Algae -green color from chlorophyll - unicellular or multicellular or coenocytics -membrane-bound chloroplasts & nuclei -aquatic & found commonly in freshwater & marine habitats; some are terrestial -Asexual reproduction may be by fission (splitting), budding, fragmentation, or by zoospores, & sexual reproduction is very common - plant-like EX: seaweed

9: Green Algae Phylum | Ciliophora Phylum

10: Description: Eubacteria is the bacteria that causes tooth decay, food poisoning, and it is what makes milk into yogurt. Scientists believe that their ancestors were the first organisms on Earth. Most of these organisms use oxygen, but there are some that do not. Divergent Event:- Research into genetic sequencing suggests that the split occurred about 3 billion years ago, and that eubacteria diverged first from archaebacteria, which were their predecessors. Metabolism -There are both autotrophic and heterotrophic Eubacteria Cell type- prokaryotic Cell Structure- cell membrane, ribosomes, plasmid Body Plan-Eubacteria are unicellular Digestion-Eubacterial digestion is intracellular Circulatory-Eubacteria possess no circulatory system Respiration-Eubacteria possess no respiratory system Nervous System-Eubacteria possess no nervous system Reproduction-Eubacterial reproduction is asexual reproduction. Example:-Myxococcus xanthus, a predatory Eubacterium that swarms other bacteria to kill and digest them. | Eubacteria

11: ~Two helpful Eubacterias: Vitamins and Yogurt- now most eubacterias are helpful, and two examples of how they help are vitamins and yogurt. Some eubacteria make vitamins, and they also make up your yogurt! ~Two harmful Eubacterias: Streptococci and pathogens- Streptococci causes strep throat, and pathogens can cause diseases in plants and animals.

12: Archaebacteria | Characteristics: They can only live in areas without any oxygen They come in 3 different general shapes, cocci (spherical), bacilli (rod), and spirillum (spiral) They do not have a nucleus but or more closely related with eukaryotes Divergent event:They evolved some 3500 million years ago (older than most fossils) Possibly diverged from Eubacteria Cell Type- Prokaryotic but are more closely related to eukaryotes Cell Structure: They do not posses interior membranes Gills No organelles ASEXUAL Have a cell wall Move by flagella Body Plan-Unicellular Metabolism- Autotrophs Digestion- Intracellular Nervous-N/A Circulatory-N/A The third type of archaebacteria are the extreme thermophiles. These bacteria live at extremely high temperatures, such as in hot springs, and are associated with extreme acid environments. Like the other archaebacteria, the extreme thermophiles lack peptidoglycan in their cell walls. Many depend on sulfur in their metabolism, and many produce sulfuric acid as an end-product.

13: Good:Lactobacillus species. Found in human gut and body surface, used in making cheese, yoghurt and other fermented foods. Also used in probiotic health foods. Rhizobium species. Found in root nodules of leguminous plants where they fix nitrogen from the atmosphere. | Bad:Escherichia coli (E. coli) Strep

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