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BC: Sources. http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu http://www.lanesville.k12.in.us http://www.benthamscience.com http://www.encyclopedia.com http://www.biologycorner.com http://waynesword.palomar.edu http://www.biology4kids.com http://botit.botany.wisc.edu http://www.biology.iupui.edu Google images (for all pictures)

FC: Kingdoms By: Ashlee Shoup and Sam Barbier

1: Table of Contents. Vocabulary.................................................1 Kingdom Bacteria.........................................4 Kingdom Protista..........................................8 Kingdom Fungi.............................................12 Kingdom Plantae..........................................16 Kingdom Animalia........................................20 Sources....................................................24

2: Vocabulary Prokaryotic cell: Microscopic, unicellular organism without a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelle. Eukaryotic cell: Unicellular organism with membrane-bound nucleus and organelles; generally larger and more complex than a prokaryotic cell. Unicellular: Organisms with only one cell. Multicellular: Organisms that have more than one cell. Metabolism: All of the chemical reactions that occur within an organism. Autotrophs: Organisms that capture energy from sunlight or inorganic substances to produce its own food; provides the foundation of the food supply for other organisms; also called a producer. Heterotrophs: Organisms that cannot make its own food and gets its nutrients and energy requirements by feeding on other organisms; also called a consumer. Hyphae: (threadlike filaments) responsible for growth, feeding, and reproduction

4: Kingdom Bacteria.

5: Bacteria can autotrophic and heterotrophic. They are more abundant then any other organism on the planet, over any of the other kingdoms. Bacteria can be aerobic, meaning it needs oxygen, or anaerobic meaning it doesn't need oxygen to survive. Bacteria has cell walls that contain peptidoglycan (polymer that contains two kinds of sugars that alternate in the chain). This kingdom have prokaryotic organisms.

6: Bacteria is not only bad for us, it can also be good. Examples of helpful bacteria are actobacillus acridophilus which helps turn sugars into lactic acid and escherichia coli bacteria which, in its positive forms are found in the gut and make vitamin K2, and by preventing the production of pathogenic bacteria within the intestine. Examples of harmful bacteria are mycobaeterium tuberculosis which is the bacteria that caries the disease of tuberculosis and salmonella which ruins food and can cause recalls because of its effect of making people very ill if they consume it.

8: Protists are eukaryote, meaning that they have a nucleus. Also they have cell walls and some contain cellulose, others dont. They can unicellular or multicellular. But for the majority of these organisms they are unicellular. Some protists are autotrophs and some are heterotrophs. They have no internal organs. Also a very distant characteristic about this kingdom is that not all protists are necessarily like the others, they just dont have any other kingdom to be put in, so this would be most similar to the reject group because it takes whatever doesn't fit in anywhere else. This kingdom has three main groups, autrophs: that can preform photosynthesis, protozoan: animals life heterotrophs, euglenoid: both animal and plans like characteristics.

9: Kingdom Protista.

10: Protista kingdom includes the phyla of ciliophora, zoomastiginia, euglenophyta, chlorophyta, phaeophyta, and rhodophyta. Ciliophora is a phylum in the kingdom protista that is defined by the occurance of cilia, which are hair like organelles on organisms which look very similar to flagella but are shorter and come in greater amounts. Unlike many other eukaryotes those in this phylum have two sorts of nuclei. An example of this sort of organism is a protozoa. This phylum is animal like. Chlorophyta is green algae, plant like. Most of the organisms in this phylum live in a marine ecosystem. Chlorella is an example of an organism in this phylum. It is distant from other phyla because of its containment of chlorophyll.

12: Kingdom Fungi.

13: Lichens are fungi that live in a mutual relationships with algae, get food from algae that live among hyphae. They digest food internally and are allowed to do this because they have digestive enzymes they put in food then absorb digested material directly into their cells. Some are parasites and others are saprobes meaning that they get their nutrients from dead of decaying organic matter. Fungus is heterotropic and lack mobility. They can be unicellular or multicellular. Fungi have cell walls that contain chitin which is a rigid polymer that provides structural support for the cell. Fungi have hyphae that is the reason for its growth, feeding, and reproduction.

14: Fungi phyla include basidiomycota, ascompyta, deutromycota, and zygomycota. Basidiomycota, with the Ascomycota phylum make the subkingdom Dikarya "higher fungi." Mushrooms are in this phylum. This group reproduces sexually. They can do this because of special end cells that are called basidia that have outside meiosporess called basidiospores. This phylum has organisms that are used in many soft drinks and other consumption items. Ascompyta defining feature is the "ascus" meaning sac or wineskin, a microscopic sexual structure where nonmotile spores, (ascospores), are made. However, some species of the Ascomycota are asexual. They do not form ascospores because of their lack of a sexual cycle. Some harmful accefts of this organism are that it damages trees. An example of this is the scarlet elf cup.

16: Plants have large central vacuoles that store water and chemicals. For reproduction they are both sexual and asexual. Plants are the reasons that humans are allowed to continue wit their survival because they are autorophs, for the most part, meaning they can make their own food that works to keep them alive and animals can come eat the plants and keep them alive, basically keeping the whole system with something to eat. Only some are heterotropic like the parasitic doodles which has no green parts so it gets its food though host plants. Plants are found both in land and water environments. Plants have organs and organ systems. They have a cell wall that is comprised of cellulose. This is not semi-permeable like a plasma membrane meaning nutrients can not travel in and out the cell. Also, the cell has chloroplasts with chlorophyll that takes in light energy and turns it into chemical energy and stores it as sugar as energy for the plant in a process call Photosynthesis. They are eukaryotic and multicellular. The roots support the plant and absorb water, the stem supports the reproductive. For example, sunflowers.

17: Kingdom Plantae.

18: Phyla for the plant kingdom include, Bryophyta, Pterophyta, Cycadonphyta, Gingophyta, Coniferophyta, and Anthophyta. Bryophyta, for example moss, live in most terrestial environments and can be considered the most dominant plant life on earth because of their ability to be everywhere and live on. Coniferophyta also known as Pinophyta, are cone bearing seed plants. They have vascular tissue and most are trees but can rarely be shrubs. An example of this is conifers. Usually found in cooler forests. Anthophyta contain angiosperms and are clade having plants that have flowering components. This phylum has its reproduction system in its flower and an example of such is a magnolia.

20: Kingdom Animalia.

21: Animals in this kingdom can differ very greatly from each other in their physical characteristics but all share many defining features. This kingdom only accepts heterotrophs and those who are multicellular. A special phenomenon is that they reproduce sexually. In most cases only those of the same species can reproduce together, but sometimes cross breading is allowed like in the case of ligers (lion and tiger parents) but nevertheless both donors have to be the same kingdom for this to succeed. FIsh have gills for breathing The cells of these organisms have a plasma membrane and absolutely no cell wall. Their digestion is intercellular. All animals have the capability of movement have some point in their lives. They react to outside things because of nerve cells, muscles, and/or contractive tissue. Their nervous system is a nerve net. Circulatory systems for animals are open. Their respiratory system is open. Animals breath through their lungs. Animals can live on land or in sea. The body of an animal is organized into tissues that are grouped together and called organs and that find helping components that fit together as part of an organ system.

22: Animal phylums include: Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, and Chordata. Porifera: This phylum includes sponges that usually live marine water but sometimes can be found in fresh water environments. They have many spores that are the gateway to their chambers that are inside the surface that are covered with choanocytes. They are filter feeders and eat microscopic plankton. Example is a sponge. Cnidaria: Usually live in marine environments and all have Cnidocytes which is a poisonnss cell that they use to catch their pray. Their bodies are all jelly-like. Example of this phylum is jellyfish. Nematodas are symmetrical, worm-like organisms that have a strong, flexible noncellular layer, cuticle. Their body plan is simple. The cuticle is covered by a layer of epidermal cells. An example of this is roundworms. Mollusca are found mainly in freshwater, but many of the mollusks are very different so can vary in location. All in this phylum have a shell like protection used for breathing and removing of waste. An example of this phylum is snails.

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