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FC: The Book of History By: Mitch McMaster and Tori Skillings

1: Table of Contents | I.Ancient River Valley Civilization II.Classical Greece/Rome III.Post-Classical Africa/Asia IV.Renaissance/Reformation V.Enlightenment/Revolutions VI.World War I VII.World War II VIII.Cold War

2: Ancient River Valley Civilization The ancient river valley civilization started lose to six thousand years ago. Located in southwest Asia was the fertile crescent, is where farming started to really begin. They lived between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.this area was called Mesopotamia. every year Mesopotamia would flood creating a thick bed of mud called silt. With this rich soil people began to farm. To make sure they would have enough water they started irrigation, which is digging ditches to gain water.because farming meant more food, it also meant more people. They began to make city states so people could begin to self rule themselves.

3: What if people had not learned how to farm? | If people would have never learned how to farm, it would have never expanded into more complex or industrial ways of getting food. People would have to continue to use hunting as their main food supply.

4: Classical Greece/Rome | Classical Greece/Rome was time where classical art expanded and harmony, order and balance were emphasized. The introduction of direct democracy, a form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives, was an important aspect of Classical Greece/ Rome time period. In this time of questioning and uncertainty, several great thinkers called philosophers meaning "love of wisdom" were introduced. The blending of cultures called Hellenistic culture enabled educated people and traders from diverse backgrounds to communicate in cities throughout the Hellenistic world.

5: What if Athens had not embraced democracy? | If Athens had never embraced democracy, the power of the country would not rest in the peoples hands. There would be a far greater chances of rebellions against the greater power because the people would have to resist its cruel rules. We would live in a world where military leaders could take control of a country and invade countries upon their own will. We would not be able to declare our independence and have rights like freedom of speech. This world would have been completely different without democracy.

6: The spread of culture and language expanded into new places. Bantu-speaking peoples were the greatest migrations in history that populated Africa. While Africa was being influence by other cultures, Asia was shaping theirs. A class of powerful, well-to-do people called the gentry attained their status through education and civil service positions. Nomadic people were pastoralists which are people who herded domesticated animals. The Mongol Empire slowly declined affected civilizations but never extended into Japan. Japan had varied customs and beliefs that eventually combined to form Shinto which means "way of the gods." | Post-Classical Asia/ Africa

7: What if the Mongols had not opened the silk road to safe travels? | There would have been many supplies that the world would have still been cut off from. From silk from china to spices from India. The silk road opened up many doors to being able to expand the knowledge about the rest of the world. Started the end of isolationism, in Asia which they had been doing for hundreds of years. Not only did the silk road connect countries for trading goods, but spreading cultures and religions. The spread of the Islam culture began to spread with the silk road.

8: Post-Classical (Medieval) Europe | The Post-Classical(Medieval) Europe time period was full of Gothic architecture which was a dark form of art. A guild was an association of people who worked at the same occupation which is similar to a union today. When the bubonic plaque struck this time period, approximately one-third of the population of Europe died of the deadly disease. Adding onto the century's miseries, the Hundred Years' War was a seesaw affair, fought on French soil. End of Chivalry, intense religious devotion and the age of faith died as an effect of this time period.

9: What if the Black Plaque did not attack Western Europe? | If the black plague had not struck Europe with all the force that it did, scientists and doctors would not have taken the extra precautions in discovering new medicines to help save peoples lives. It made people realize that the way they were living was dirty and wrong. So if the black plague didn't happen we could still be living in a world that is unhealthy and cursed with diseases.

10: Renaissance/ Reformation | The Renaissance time period created new ways of thinking and rebirth. Humanism, which focused on human potential and achievements helped people realize they can conquer things on their own. The basic spirit of Renaissance society was secular- worldly and concerned with the here and now. Popes beautified Rome by spending huge amounts for art. They became patrons by financially supporting artists. The printing press enabled people to be more informed of what's going on and have the first full-size book printed, the Gutenberg Bible.

11: What if Gutenberg hadn't invented the printing press? | If Gutenberg had not invented the printing press there would have been a lot of ideas that would never had been spread. they would still have to use the block print method of printing things thus causing information to be spread much slower. The enlightenment ideas came out of the invention the the printing press. We might have never had the ideas of the reformation, which caused us to have more of an open religion.

12: Enlightenment/ Revolutions | The Enlightenment allowed individuals to express ideas like natural rights which is the concept that all people are born free and equal with the rights of life, liberty, and property. Law and order was gained to civilizations and agreement called the social contract by which people created government. The division of powers called separation of powers helped balance out control between three branches; legislative, judicial and executive. The three branches helped separate power so that making decisions and laws was passed easier. The elegant style and borrowed ideas from classical Greece and Rome helped influence Enlightenment time period which is called neoclassical which means "new classical." The music during this time period was classical.

13: What if the Industrial Revolution had begun in Germany or Russia? | If the industrial revolution had begun in Germany or Russia then they would have been the ones with the greater technologies. They would have been able to produce a lot more goods in a shorter amount of time, making more profit which would lead to them being able to afford research for new and improved equipment for home use and things like guns and nuclear warfare. They would have been able to control a large amount of the world because other countries would want their knowledge of technologies.

14: World War I | World War I was all about militarism which is glorifying military power and keeping an army prepared for war. The war was between the Central Powers-Germany and Austria-Hungary and the Allies- Great Britain, France, and Russia. By 1915, opposing armies on the Western Front had dug miles of parallel trenches to protect themselves from enemy fire which was called trench warfare. World War I eventually became a total war, countries devoted all their resources to the war effort. So many goods were in short supply that governments turned to rationing where people could buy small amounts. Propaganda- one sided information designed to persuade- was used to keep up morale and support for the war.

15: What if the Austrian heir to the throne was not assassinated? | If he was not assassinated, there would have been a prolonged wait before the war. Because the war was inevitable with all of the arguments and fighting already going on between different countries, it caused more stress. The killing of the archduke was just a spark, and gave every country a reason to start the war. Countries like Germany, were just waiting on an opportunity like this to be able to begin their journey of conquest.

16: World War II | During World War II, Joseph Stalin signed a nonaggression pact with Hitler that Germany and Soviet Union promised not to attack each other. Hitler decided to have Germany attempt to control all of Europe. One of his ideas, the ghettos, were segregated Jewish areas. Hitler disliked the Jews and eventually a program of genocide, the systematic killing of the entire people quickly went into effect. After Pearl Harbor, the process of demilitarization- disbanding the Japanese armed forces began to be put into affect. The Nuremberg Trials had Nazi leaders to be charged with waging a war of aggression. Europe hoped to never encounter a war like World War II never again.

17: What if the U.S had not dropped the atomic bombs on Japan? | Although it seemed as if the allies had taken a major momentum shift and were gaining control over the axis powers, anything could've still happened at that point. If the U.S had not taken the initiative in dropping the atomic bomb, Germany could've done the same thing to the U.S by leaving the U.S in the losing side of the war. Dropping the atomic bombs was a statement that the U.S was never going to back down and they weren't going to lose the war.

18: Cold War | The Cold War was the state of diplomatic hostility between the United States and the Soviet Union in the decades after World War II. The "iron curtain" came to represent Europe's division between mostly democratic Western Europe and a Communist Eastern Europe. Stalin adopted the foreign policy called containment which directed at blocking Soviet influence and preventing the expansion of communism. The willingness to go to the brink, or edge, of war became known as brinkmanship. Soviet brought the first satellite into space while the U.S landed on the moon. The Soviets shot down a U-2 plane and it's pilot which caused the U-2 incident. This brought mistrust and tensions between the superpowers.

19: What if the Soviet Union had landed on the moon first and not the U.S? | If the Soviet Union had landed on the moon before the U.S, it could've have possibly been the turning point in all the cold war and space race. The Russians were just looking to find another thing to have ahead of the U.S. If they would've got this major accomplishment before the U.S got the chance to, it could've sprung them into becoming a global power, even stronger than the U.S.

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