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FC: Cell Planet

1: In this Mix book we will be comparing a cell and its functions to a city and its functions

3: Rough Endoplasmic reticulum is like the highway of the cells. It is the way of transport for ribosomes, starting from the nucleus. In a city, RER is like the highways. Highways usually start from downtown, the center of the city, and transport cars. | Lysosomes clean up the cytoplasm and store waste products of the cell. Sometimes they get out of control and suck up the cytoplasm and organelles. That’s why they are called the suicide cells. In a city, the lysosomes are like sanitary workers. If they don’t dispose of the trash correctly, then the city will smell bad and develop diseases.

4: The nucleus is the center of the cell, which everything surrounds, and holds very important parts of the cell. Downtown of any city is similar to this. It is the busiest place in the city, usually where most of the businesses are. | The nucleolus is contained in the nucleus, and produces ribosomes and its subunits. It also contains RNA. It is the center of the whole cell. In a city, the nucleolus can be compared to City Hall. it is the center of the whole city, and commands the whole thing.

5: Chloroplasts are like nuclear power plants. Chloroplasts make energy off of very little substance, which is sunlight, water and glucose. Nuclear power plants make energy out of even more little, out of nuclei of atoms. They only exist in plant cells, which are like rich cities. | Ribosomes are like construction workers. They take single protein cells and join them into a long repeating chain of proteins. They are sometimes like cars when they are travelling on the Rough ER like highways.

6: Cell walls are present in plant cells instead of cell membranes. They are rigid structures that replace made of cellulose. Rich cities have huge walls to protect themselves. this is similar to cell walls. | Cell walls are present in plant cells instead of cell membranes. They are made of cellulose. Rich cities have huge walls to protect themselves.

7: Homeostasis | In order to function properly and stay alive, cells must maintain homeostasis. Homeostasis is a state in which everything within the cell is in equilibrium and functioning properly. The state of homeostasis keeps the cell constant with what it needs to function. This means that in homeostasis, the waste is being transported away from the cell while it receives the nutrients it needs to continue to function.

8: 1.Eukaryotic cells have a complete nucleus, bound by a double membrane. Prokaryotic cells don’t have no nuclei. The purpose of the nucleus is to box the DNA into a small area to yield the best results. The prokaryotic cells don’t need this, because its much smaller size means that all materials within the cell are closer together. Of course, prokaryotic cells do have DNA and DNA functions. Biologists describe the central region of the cell as its "nucleoid" (-oid=similar or imitating), because it's pretty much where the DNA is located. But note that the nucleoid is essentially an imaginary "structure." There is no physical boundary enclosing the nucleoid. Thisis similar to a town. A town doesn’t have a downtown, but a city has a downtown. | Eukaryiotic/Prokaryotic

9: 4.Both cell types have many, many ribosomes, but the ribosomes of the eukaryotic cells are larger and more complex than those of the prokaryotic cell. A eukaryotic ribosome is composed of five kinds of rRNA and about eighty kinds of proteins. Prokaryotic ribosomes are composed of only three kinds of RNA and about fifty kinds of proteins. Cities made with better material. 5.The cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells is filled with a large, complex collection of organelles, many of them enclosed in their own membranes; the prokaryotic cell contains no membrane-bound organelles which are independent of the plasma membrane. This is a huge difference and the eukaryotic cell is big.There is much more space within a eukaryotic cell than within a prokaryotic cell, and many of the organelles’ functions efficiency are increased when put in small spaces in the huge cell. Towns don’t have huge branches of each social service, unlike cities.

10: 2.Eukaryotic DNA is a line; prokaryotic DNA is circular (it doesn’t end). 3.Eukaryotic DNA is dotted with proteins called "histones," which is organized into chromosomes; prokaryotic DNA is "naked," meaning that it has no histones associated with it, and it is not formed into chromosomes. Chromosomes don’t have any function in a prokaryotic cell. A eukaryotic cell contains a number of chromosomes; a prokaryotic cell contains only one circular DNA molecule and a lot of much smaller circlets of DNA called "plasmids." The smaller, simpler prokaryotic cell requires far fewer genes to operate than the eukaryotic cell.

11: Robert Hooke, an English scientist, first described cells in 1665. When he looked at a very thin slice of cork throughhis microscope, Hooke noticed that the cork was porous and comprised of many tiny square boxes that reminded him of the small rooms in a monastery. He called them cells, and the name has stuck, even to today. IN 1838, Dutch botanist Matthias Schleiden concluded that all plants are comprised of cells. One year, a German zoologist by the name of Theodor Schwaan postulated that animals are also comprised of cells. And in 1855, Rudolph Virchow, German doctor, asserted that all cells must come from other cells by the process of cell division. The work of these three scientists was combined into what is now known as the cell theory. | 4 Scientists

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