S: Asian Religions and Philosophies
FC: Asian Religions and Philosophies Created by: Danielle, Julia, and JJ
1: Introduction The three main religions in Asia are Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism. Hinduism is the most popular religion which worships many gods, and is based on the philosophy of dharma. Buddhism is a religion without a god. It 's a major religion with an interesting history and philosphy that was started by Siddhartha Gautama. Confucianism was started by a guy named confucian and he was know as china's first teacher. he didn't consider himself a god but he called himself a transmitter.
2: Hinduism Hinduism originates from the Aryan people who settled in India. Hindu beliefs are taught through the Vedas, books of knowledge containing sacred scriptures of the religion. Originally, the Vedas were passed down orally, and then were eventually written down. The Vedas were written from the perspective of the most powerful groups, such as the priests and warriors. The Hindu religion is based mainly on the idea of Brahma. Brahma is also known as the Hindus idea of The Ultimate Reality. Surrounding the idea of Brahma, there are three main gods. The chief gods are Shiva, Vishnu, and the goddess Shakti. The Hindus worship them through sculptures and images by making offerings or performing rituals to them. In addition to the three chief gods, there are millions of other Hindu gods. The Hindus describe it as having multiple forms of one god.
3: The belief that the individual soul is reborn in a different form after death is a major principle of Hinduism. This belief is better known as reincarnation. Reincarnation is supported by the Hindu belief of karma. Karma is the force generated by a persons actions that determine how they are reborn in their next life. Simply put, what a person does in their current life will determine what they will be in their next life. A persons current status is a result of their actions in a previous existence. | Every Hindu person has a duty, and their duties vary based on their status. The divine law, also known as dharma, describes how every Hindu person has their duty. The Hindu people live by dharma, knowing that more is expected of those higher on the scale. In Hinduism, the people are separated in castes. There are five levels of castes, and every person is born into the caste of their parents. The highest caste is the Brahmin, which consists of priests and scholars. The next caste is the Kshatriya, including the rulers and warriors. The Varishya has the farmers, merchants, and craftsmen. The fourth caste is the Shudra, that includes the servants of the upper class and peasants. The first three castes have the opportunity to have the men be twice born when they are twelve years old. There is a fifth caste called the untouchables, left for those not worthy of the other castes. This caste is no longer practiced today.
4: The Hindus use epic poetry, a long narrative poem, to tell heroic tales of how one should pursue their life based on the concept of dharma. Epic poems, such as the Ramayana and Mahabharata, tell tales of heroes that live their life based on the divine law. In the Ramayana, it is destiny that the main character Rama save his wife Sita from the evil god Raven, and fulfil his dharma. | Epic Poetry
5: Yoga and meditation are ways that the Hindu leave behind their earthly life, and join Brahman in a dreamless sleep. They use yoga as a way to help them better understand the ultimate reality. There are four main types of yoga. Janana is the yoga used to understand the ultimate reality through knowledge. Bhakti is the yoga used as a devotion to a god. Karma yoga is used to reverse the natural order workings of karma, while Roya is the royal yoga. | Yoga and Meditation
6: Hinuism in Modern Times Today, Hinduism is practiced by millions of people. It is still one of the top religions, and is the number one religion in India. It is currently being practiced by people in India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and many others. Although the Vedas arenâ€™t used as much as they used to be, the religion stays consistent on its system of beliefs.
7: Confucianism Confucian was know as the 1st Chinese teacher. he was born in 551 BC. he traveled over china to bring political leaders to fallow him. People needed to subordinite their interested to broader needs for family & community. Confucianism is a way of life taught by Confucius in the 6thâ€“5th century BC. Sometimes viewed as a philosophy, sometimes as a religion. Confucianism is arguably the best understood as an all-encompassing humanism that neither denies nor slights Heaven.. Confucian died in 479 BC, at the age of 73
8: The Chinese have been following Confucianism for more than two millennia. It has deeply influenced spiritual and political life in China; its has also been influenced to Korea, Japan, and Vietnam. East Asians may call themselves to be Shintoists, Taoists, Buddhists, Muslims, or Christians - but also clame to be Confucians. Conjunction with ancestor worship. The largest population of non-Chinese followers is found in Kera. he said that every should governed by the 5 constant reaction. parent and child,and wife older sibling and younger sibling. older friend to younger friend, and ruler and subject.
9: Confucius considered himself a transmitter who tried to retrieve the meaning of the past. The main principle of Confucianism is ren ("humaneness" or "benevolence"), signifying excellent character in accord with li (ritual norms), zhong (loyalty to one's true nature), shu (reciprocity), and xiao (filial piety). Together these constitute de (virtue). Confucius regarded Heaven as a positive and personal force in the universe; he was not, as some have supposed, an agnostic or a skeptic. Today, the followers of Confucianism are found in mainly China, and Taiwan. Confucianism as practiced here is usually in combination with Buddhism and Taoism and often in
10: Origins and Life of Buddha Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices. It was found in the late 6th century B.C.E by Siddhartha Gautama (the “Buddha”). Buddha was in North India at a place called Lumini near the Himalayan foothills and started teaching around Benares (at Sarnath). The most important beliefs he taught included the Four Noble Truths and Eight Fold Path.
11: The Four Noble Truths | The Four Noble Truths are the most basic expression of the Buddha’s teaching. The first one was Life Means Suffering. Life’s not perfect and not everyone is always going to be happy, some days we’ll be upset, angry, sad, depressed, or maybe even stressed over things that go on in life. The second one is The Origin of Suffering is Attachment, transients things and the ignorance. The third truth is The Cessation of Suffering is Attainable, attained through nirodha which is the unmaking of sensual craving and conceptual attachment. It expresses the idea that suffering can be ended by accomplishing calmness. The fourth noble truth is The Path to the Cessation of Suffering which is a gradual path of self-improvement and is explained more in the Eightfold Path.
12: Four Noble Truths
13: The Eightfold Path The Eightfold path was the way to describe the end of suffering that was made by Siddhartha Gautama. There are three principles to these paths, Wisdom, Ethical Conduct, and Mental Development. Right View refers more to the cognitive aspect of wisdom and yields right thoughts and right actions. Right Intention refers to the volitional aspect and is best described as commitment to ethical and mental self-improvement. The three parts that are a part of Ethical Conduct are Right Speech, Right Action, and Right Livelihood. Right Speech is to take the pledge from telling lies and from using harsh words that would hurt others feelings. Right Action basically means the same as Right Speech but it’s more about how you do things. Right Livelihood means that one should earn one’s living in a righteous way and that wealth should be gained legally and peacefully. The last three paths, Right Effort, Right Mindfulness, and Right Concentration are a part of the Mental Development principle. Right Effort is to exert oneself to develop wholesome qualities and release unwholesome qualities.
14: Right Concentration refers to the development of a mental force that occurs in natural consciousness.
15: Differences Between Buddhism and Hinduism | Although Buddhism and Hinduism were both in the same family, they have many differences. They share an uncomfortable relationship and believe in different things. For example, Hinduism worships many gods but Buddhism does not believe in god. Buddhism doesn’t believe in souls but Hinduism believes in the existence of Atman (individual soul) and Brahman (supreme creator). Buddhists organize themselves into a monastic order and the monks live in groups but Hinduism is basically a religion of the individual.
16: Buddhist Meditation | Buddhist Meditation is a form of mental concentration that leads to culture and spiritual freedom. There are two types of Buddhist meditation, vipassana (insight) and Samantha (tranquility). The purpose of Samantha is to still the mind and train it to concentrate. Vipassana’s purpose is the realization of important truths.
17: Main Sects of Buddhism | After Gautama’s death his followers divided into two groups, Hinayana (small vehicle) and the Mahayana (great or larger vehicle). Hinayana Buddhism has kept the original and simple rules of discipline that was left by Gautama. It’s mostly the religion of Burma, Cambodia, Sri Lanka, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam. Mahayana Buddhism expanded the original teachings of Gautama. This group believes that there are many Buddha’s and saints.
18: Worldwide Impact of Buddhism | When Buddhism was found it changed some cultures around the world. it has assist the moral standard and provided divine culture and traditions developing the Asian civilization.
19: Buddhism Today | Buddhism today is still popular. People around the world still practice this religion everyday. In the United States, everyone should know about it. It's taught in school and there are many ethnicities that go to temples and such to practice this religion.
20: Impact on America | Across America, these three religions still exist today. Though they are not as popular as religions such as Christianity and Judaism, Americans still practice these religions today. American pop culture icons practice religions such as Buddhism and Hinduism, and others follow in their example. Confucianism is not as popular as the other two religions in the States, but it is still being practiced.
21: Works Cited | "Hinduism â€” Infoplease.com." Infoplease: Encyclopedia, Almanac, Atlas, Biographies, Dictionary, Thesaurus. Free Online Reference, Research & Homework Help. â€” Infoplease.com. Web. 15 Sept. 2011.
22: Docstoc – Documents, Templates, Forms, Ebooks, Papers & Presentations. Web. 26 Sept. 2011.