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S: How Cells Work

BC: Biology By :Sahiti.Y ,Natasha.S

FC: How Cells Work | By Natasha Sun and Sahiti Yarakala

1: Cell Theory- Three Principles | 1. All living organisms are composed of cells. 2. The cell is the basic unit of life. 3. Cells arise from pre-existing cells. | The cell theory is formulated by five scientist: Robert Hooke, Matthias Schleiden, Theodor Schwann, Rudolf Virchow, and Antonie van Leeuwenhoek.

2: Robert Hooke | Robert Hooke is credited for discovering cells in 1633. Hooke used a microscope and observed cells of a cork oak. | Matthias Schleiden | Matthias Schleiden concluded that all plants are made of cells in 1838.

3: Theodor Schwann | Theodor Schwann concluded that all animals are made of cells in 1839. | Rudolf Virchow | Virchow discovered that new cells come from existing cells in 1855.

4: Prokaryotic Cells | Prokaryotes have no organized nucleus,their DNA is spread throughout the cell .They have spikes on their edges and have a tail at the end .They are unicellular and they have cell wall. Prokaryotic don't have organelles, they are absent. Flagella-Consist of two protein building blocks. Nucleus-No nuclear membrane or nucleoli (nucleoid)

5: Eukaryotic Cells | Eukaryotic contains a proper nucleus that consists of genetic materials like DNA. Eukaryotic cells also contain many internal membrane-bound structures called organelles. Important member of the eukaryote family is the plant cell -It has organelles inside Flagella-Complex; consist of multiple microtubules. Nucleus-True nucleus, consisting of nuclear membrane & nucleoli

6: Difference Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic

7: Everything is common except the nucleus for the Prokaryotic cell it was mentioned in the other slide that Prokaryotic cell don't have a nucleus and their DNA is spread all over that cell.So thats the only thing that is different . | Example for Prokaryotic Cells :-Bacteria(and thats the only one) Example for Eukaryotic Cells:-Fungi ,Animal and Plant cell

8: nimal Cells

9: lant Cell

10: Animal Cells | -Golgi Apparatus -Lysosome -Cell Membrane -Ribosomes -Mitochondrion -Rough ER -Nucleolus -Cytoplasm -Nucleus -Smooth ER | Difference :Chromatin,central vacuole ,Chlorolast,Cell Wall

11: Plant Cells | -Nucleus -DNA -Chromatin -Nucleolus -Nuclear Envelope -Rough ER -Smooth ER -Central Vacuole -Cytoplasm -Chloroplast -Cell Wall -Cell Membrane -Lysosomes -Mitochondria -Golgi

13: Nucleus is made of two phospholipid layers that separate the nucleus from the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm is a jelly- like substance that contains the cytosol, organelles, and inclusions. It carries out the functions for cell expansion, growth, metabolism, and replication. The nucleus, which has many pores on the surface that allow proteins to go in and out of the nucleus, contains the nucleolus. The nucleus stores the cell's DNA. The nucleolus is where the ribosomes are produced. They get their information from the DNA. The ribosomes move out of the nucleolus to the ER. The ribosomes are the cellular structures on which proteins are made. The ER or endoplasmic reticulum is a system of internal membranes. It moves protein and other substances throughout the cell. The golgi apparatus is a flattened, membrane-bound sac. The enzymes contained in it modify the proteins from the ER and puts them in new sacks. They also move them around the cell. The lysosomes are the small, round organelles that control the cells digestive enzymes. It digests and recycles the waste produced by cells.The central vacuole is found in plant cells. It can take up to 80% or more of the cell’s space. The central vacuole is responsible for storing food, water, and waste. It also provides structure for the plant. When a plant wilts, the vacuoles are not filled with water, and the cells have become flaccid. When there is a plentiful supply of water, the vacuoles are filled, and the cells become turgid. Chloroplast is also part of the plant cell. It conducts photosynthesis and contains chlorophyll and a double membrane. The mitochondria has two membranes, and the inner membrane is folded. It collects energy from organic compounds to make energy (ATP).

15: Cell Membrane (Phospholipid bilayer) | Cell membranes are the boundaries separating the interior and exterior of a cell. It selects only certain things from coming in and out of the cell. It's bilayer and within it's layer are many different biological macromolecules including proteins and lipids.

16: Dictionary Definition The tendency of an organism or a cell to regulate its internal conditions, usually by a system of feedback controls, so as to stabilize health and functioning, regardless of the outside changing conditions . So its basically in your body,maintaining your body temperature and your other things like how well the heart is pumping blood.In humans, homeostasis happens when the body regulates body temperature in an effort to maintain an internal temperature around 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit. | Homeostasis

17: This person's body is trying to maintain temperature by making his body sweat .By sweating the body is trying to stay cool . | Kangaroos are a good example of homeostasis because sometimes the kangaroos feel hot in the desert so they lick them self to stay cool and maintain temperature so this not internally but externally

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