BC: Citations: www.biology.about.com www.biology-online.org | http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/animalcell.html http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/13-cells.htm
FC: Eukaryotic Cells organelles By: Michael Gardner & Roy Klein
1: Cytoplasm Cytoskeleton Nucleus Ribosomes Nucleolus Endoplasmic Reticulum (rough and smooth) Golgi Apparatus Vacuoles Lysosomes Centrioles Mitochondria Chloroplasts Cilia/Flagella Cell membrane Cell wall | Index
3: Cytoplasm Jelly-like substance that keeps all the organelles in a cell in place. Moves the cell and gives it its shape. Dissolves waste. Like gravity that keeps the planets in orbit.
5: Cytoskeleton The cytoskeleton is a network of fibers throughout the cell's cytoplasm that helps the cell maintain its shape and gives support to the cell. Like the support beam of a house, keeps it standing.
7: Nucleus Membrane-bound organelle that contains DNA to clone cells and grow. Tells organelles what to do. The brain is similar to the nucleus' function. Tells the body what to do.
9: Ribosomes Ribosomes are organelles that consist of RNA an proteins. They are responsible for assembling the proteins of the cell. Depending on the protein production level of a particular cell, ribosomes may number in the millions.
11: Nucleolus The nucleus also contains the nucleolus which helps to synthesize ribosomes. The nucleolus contains nucleolar organizers which are parts of chromosomes with the genes for ribosome synthesis on them. Copious amounts of RNA and proteins can be found in the nucleolus as well. The nucleus controls the synthesis of proteins in the cytoplasm through the use of messenger RNA. Messenger RNA is produced in the nucleolus of the cell and travels to the cytoplasm through the pores of the nuclear envelope.
13: Endoplasmic Reticulum (rough and smooth) The rough E.R. synthesizes proteins. The smooth E.R. synthesizes lipids and steroids, metabolize carbs. and steroids.
15: Golgi Apparatus The Golgi complex or Golgi apparatus is responsible for manufacturing, warehousing and shipping certain cellular products, particularly those from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Depending on the type of cell, there can be just a few complexes or there can be hundreds. Cells that specialize in secreting various substances typically have a high number of Golgi complexes. An example would be U.P.S. It ships and moves packages.
17: Vacuoles A membrane-bound vesicle found in the cytoplasm of a cell whose function includes intracellular secretion, excretion, storage, and digestion. Stores solutions such as water for later use. Like fat on a body, to be used later for energy.
19: Centrioles Centrioles are found in animal cells and help to organize the assembly of microtubules during cell division. Centrioles replicate during the interphase stage of mitosis and meiosis. Centrioles called basal bodies form cilia and flagella.
21: Mitochondria | Energy center of the cell. Turns food and oxygen into usable energy. Like a powerhouse that uses workers to produce a product.
23: Chloroplasts | Uses sunlight to create food by photosynthesis. Only found in plant cells. Pigments in the chloroplast absorb sunlight and use this energy to complete the chemical reaction: 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy (from sunlight) C6H12O6 + 6 O2 Similar to a solar panel that uses sunlight to create energy.
25: Cilia/Flagella | Hair like structure which helps micro organisms move, usually in large numbers. Moves liquid over a surface in larger structures. Cilia and flagella have the same structure. Both have similar structure but flagella are longer. Like feet in that without them, a person couldn't move.
27: Cell membrane Although some cells form another layer above the cell membrane (called cell wall), other cells have the cell membrane as the only protective barrier between the cytoplasm and the outside of the cell. Not every substance is allowed to enter or leave the cell. The cell membrane controls which substances can go in and out of the cell. It can allow a particular substance to pass through at a certain time, and then reject the same substance at a later time. Its other main functions include cell adhesion, ion channel conductance, cell signaling, and attachment point for cytoskeleton (which is important in keeping the shape of the cell). Another interesting feature of the cell membrane is the presence of surface molecules (e.g. glycoproteins, glycolipids, etc.) that act like a ‘signature’ for a cell. Every cell has a different ‘signature’ or ‘marker’ that is thought to function in cell recognition, or in a sort of cellular identification system.
29: Cell wall A membrane of the cell that forms external to the cell membrane whose main role is to give cells rigidity, strength and protection against mechanical stress. It is found in cells of plants, bacteria, archaea, fungi, and algae. Animals and most protists do not have cell walls. An example would be the human skeleton that gives us strength.