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S: Cover to Cover, Cell by Cell

BC: Dear readers, This is an entire book all about cells. From cell membranes to vacuoles and so much more. The book contains a picture for each cell. You'll be able to visualize each cell while getting informations from the book. So...enjoy! Author, Julie Atol & Stephanie Hales

FC: Cover to Cover, Cell by Cell | By: Julie Atol & Stephanie Hales

2: Cell Membrane | The cell membrane is a flexible layer around the cells of all living things. It's basic job is to seperate the inside from the outside. It is made up of a thin layer called the 'phospholipid bilayer'. Some proteins and lipids can also be a component of a cell membrane. The protein within the membrane is the one that transports chemicals and informations across the membrane.. The surface membrane act as gates. They are the ones who let some cells into the cell and let some cells leave. | Analogy: Gate

3: Cell Wall | The cell wall is "the tough, usually flexible but sometimes fairly rigid layer that surrounds some types of cells". It is located outside of the cell membrane. Its functions are that it provides structural support for the cell, a filtering mechanism, and act as a pressure vessel. Which means it prevents over-expansion when water enters the cell. The components in a cell wall may vary depending on what species or cell type it is. The Cell Wall is consist of 3 types of layers: (1.) Middle Lamella: this is the outer wall. it is composed of pectic compounds and protein. (2.) Primary Wall : It is consists of a rigid skeleton of cellulose microfibrils embedded in a gel-like matrix composed of pectic compounds, hemicellulose, and glycoproteins. (3.) Secondary Wall: it is extremely rigid and is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. | Analogy: Aluminum Foil

4: Cytoplasm | The cytoplasm is a small gel-like substance residing between the cell membrane holding all the cell's internal substructures (called organelles). It is mostly within the cytoplasm that most cellular activities occur, such as many metabloic pathways including glycoysis and processes such as cell division. The cytoplasm has three major elements: (1.) cytosol : is the portion not within the membrane bound organelles. It makes up about 70% of the cell volume and is composed of water, salts and organic molecules. (2.) Organelles: they are emembrane bound organs inside the cell that have specific functions. (3.) Cytoplasmic Inclusions: they are small particles of insoluble substances suspended in the cytosol. | Analogy: Fruit Jello cups

5: Cytoskeleton | The cytoskeleton is a cellular skeleton contained within the cell's cytoplasm and is made out of protein. It is present in all cells. The cytoskeleton is responsible for cell shape, motility of the cell as a whole and motility of organelles within a cell. Its major function is to act as a framework that gives the cell it's shape and protects it to a certain degree. | analogy: play dough mold

6: Nucleus | The nucleus is a membrane bound structure that contains the cell's hereditary information and controls the cell's growth and reproduction. It regulates cell activity by controlling the enzymes present. The main structures making up the nucleus are the nuclear envelope, a triple cell membrane and membrane that encloses the entire organelle and unifies its contents from the cellular cytoplasm, and the nucleoskeleton. | analogy: our brain.

7: Nucleolus | The nucleolus is a small, round granular body composed of protein and RNA in the nucleus of a cell usually associated with a specific chormosomal site and involved in ribosomal RNA synthesis and the formation of ribosomes. Three major components of the nucleolus are the fibrillar centers, the dense fibrillar components and granular components. The nucleolus contains the DNA of a cell. | analogy: Construction workers of a factory

8: Ribosomes | Ribosomes are small round particles in a cell made up of RNA and protein that are primarily involved in the assembly of proteins by translating messenger RNAs in a process called translating. Ribosomes are composed of a large and small subunit which are a combination of protein and rRNA. Ribosomes are used to produce protein. They are found in the cytoplasm of the cell. | analogy: factories

9: Endoplasmic Reticulum | A network of membranous tubules within the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell, continuous with the nuclear membrane. It usually has ribosomes attached and is involved in protein and lipid synthesis. The general structure of the endoplasmic reticulum is an extensive membrane network of cisternae (sac-like structures) held together by the cytoskeleton. It is used to carry essential substanced from one part of the cell to another. | analogy: manufacturing plant

10: Golgi Apparatus | The golgi apparatus is a complex of vesicles and folded membranes within the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells, involved in secretion and intracellular transport.Found within the cytoplasm of both plant and animal cells, the Golgi is composed of stacks of membrane-bound structures known as cisternae. The function of the Golgi apparatus is to modify, sort, and package proteins and other materials from the endoplasmic reticulum for storage in the cell or secretion outside the cell. | analogy: airport baggage sorting

11: Vacuoles | Vacuoles are small cavities in the cytoplasm of cells bound by a single membrane and containing water, food, or metabolic waste. It is a membranous sac that crowds the cytoplasm and organelles to an edge of the cell. It stores water, salts, sugars, proteins, and may also contain pigments that give flowers their colors. It also contains plant wastes that taste bitter to certain insects, discouraging some insects from eating the plant. | analogy: school bag

12: Lysosomes | Lysosomes are organelles in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells containing degradative enzymes enclosed in a membrane. Lysosomes hold enzymes that were created by the cell. The purpose of the lysosome is to digest things. A primary lysosome contains many enzymes (collectively called acid hydrolases) that are synthesized on the RER and sorted in the golgi. | analogy: pac-man eating the yellow dots

13: Centrioles | A centriole is a minute cylindrical organelle near the nucleus in animal cells, occurring in pairs and involved in the development of spindle fibers in cell division. Centrioles structures that lie outside the nucleus. During mitosis, the centrioles replicate and produce the spindle fibers that attach to and move the chromosomes during cell division. | analogy: a straw

14: Chloroplasts | A chloroplast (in green plant cells) is a plastid that contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place. The chloroplast is the organelle where photosynthesis occurs in photosynthetic eukaryotes. The organelle is surrounded by a double membrane. Inside the inner membrane is a complex mix of enzymes and water. This is called stroma and is important as the site of the dark reactions, more properly called the Calvin cycle. | ANALOGY: solar panels

15: Mitochondria | A mitochondria is an organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur. The main function of the mitochondria is the production of energy, in the form of adenosine triphosphate. Mitochondria are rod-shaped structures that are enclosed within two membranes - the outer membrane and the inner membrane. The membranes are made up of phospholipids and proteins. | ANALOGY: power plant of a city

16: Cilia/Flagella | Cilias are minute hairlike organelles, identical in structure to flagella, that line the surfaces of certain cells and beat in rhythmic waves, providing locomotion to ciliate protozoans and moving liquids along internal epithelial tissue in animals. They work to move about material outside of the cell. Flagella are often solitary appendages that provide cell locomotion. | ANALOGY: bus moving people

18: References:

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