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S: The Subarctic Natives

BC: The Subarctic Natives

FC: The Subarctic Natives | By:Tamar,Chaiel, and Moshe

1: Table Of Contents | 1.Food 2. Clothing 3.Weapons 4.Coming of the Europeans 5.Shelter 6.Social Structure 7. Transportation 8. Famous Natives 9. Role Of Men 10. Geographic Location 11. Today's Natives 12. Art 13. Games 14. Origins and Beliefs 15. Special Events 16. Bibliography

2: The buffalo is a food of the Natives.

3: Food | Natives that lived in the subarctic lived on meat and fish. The Natives didn’t have eating utensils such as spoons and forks. Their summer food was preserved for the winter. Most Natives were skinny because they travelled light to stalk animals for long distances. They could also catch fish and try it out which was popular. They also had food which was light and portable, it was called Pemmican. Now you know the way they made food in the time of the first people.

4: Above is the clothing of the Natives.

5: Clothing | A lot of Natives didn’t wear shirts, although the warriors of the tribe had war shirts with designs on it and the women wore leggings or a dress. In the cold seasons, they wore heavy fur coats to travel or leather pants. They wore simple shoes called moccasins made from the hide of the animals. Natives weren’t people that liked to waste, they practically used every bit of the animals, including the quills from the porcupines and feathers from the birds.


7: Weapons | Weapons were crucial at the time of the Natives. They were used to kill animals or for self-defense on people who invaded them. They were very useful to use. One of the weapons that they used for fishing was called the fish hook. It had beads on the hook that acted like a lure to attract fish. Another way to catch fish was to put a fence over a steady flowing stream, river or other sources of a steady flow of water where fish swim. That fence would catch and stop fish so that the fish couldn’t get away, then the Natives would pick them up then eat them. A very important weapon used for hand-to-hand combat was called a Tomahawk. It could be thrown or used to kill a person or an animal. It is an ideal weapon and is still used today. The tomahawk is a weapon used for battle even today. Before the Europeans took over, the Europeans traded the gun for furs. The Natives had blowguns; this weapon is pretty similar to the gun. Like the gun, it was used to kill animals at far distances. Sometimes to kill animals more quickly they used to dip the darts into a bucket of poison. Without weapons the Natives would not survive because they wouldn’t be able to get food . The intruders would easily kill them off then there would be no more of this tribe of people.

8: This is a picture of the Europeans and Natives trading. In this picture the Natives are trading a blanket to the Europeans for a spear and a knife.

9: Coming Of The Europeans | Europeans came to the native land also known as Canada. The Europeans had many things to trade with the Natives like guns and knives. Some of the things they traded were important and some of the things were bad. Natives traded many things to the Europeans. They traded fur for guns; they traded for steel tools and blankets. The Europeans also brought many horrible diseases that killed many people like smallpox and tuberculosis. The Natives signed treaties with the Europeans. These treaties were lands that were called reserves they were like little towns that the Natives could not leave. The Europeans stole these lands from the Natives and didn’t give them back. The Natives deeply hated the Europeans for that. The Native Peoples usually misunderstood the European people both spiritually and because they spoke different languages. The Native’s g-d wanted peace and harmony but the Europeans g-d liked killing people and animals. That is one of the main reasons the Natives didn’t agree and disliked the Europeans so much. Although the Natives were very nice and generous and traded things with the Europeans they didn’t always act nice and generous back to the nNtive peoples. To make matters worse the Europeans also brought bad stuff like diseases.

10: This is a picture of a Native’s shelter in the forest of the subarctic region.

11: Shelter | Shelters were places that people lived. Every person needs a home to survive. You need a shelter to escape the cold or rain or snow. Also if the people were poor they could of still make a house because you could just build a house with the material around you. Unlike today you could get a house for very little, today you have to pay a lot of money for a house. Shelters or houses were usually made from the material from the area that they lived. In the subarctic they probably used trees, rocks and maybe even caves to build their shelters. The Native people often traveled so they made many shelters around Canada. The native people always built different types of shelters as they roamed North America, some sturdy and some not they made different types of shelters depending on where they lived. The native peoples had no hammers, nails and saws. They only had axes made out of stone and lumber. The Native people didn’t use big and old trees, they used small trees only. They usually used the small trees for little tipi like shelters that they could use for overnight use. Many people think that native people only lived in tipi that is not true, in the winter they used lodges made out of wood and mud and in the summer they made summer lodges with less protection. Summer shelters were much less protected then winter shelters. Summer shelters could be made with earth [soil\ground], moss from trees and bark. In the winter they used animal skin to because it was warm and fuzzy. Some of the main types of shelters in the winter were called winter ridgepole lodge and in the summer the shelter is called summer birch lodge. These shelters were the most ideal shelters during their time. Shelters were the most important thing because in the winter it was really cold especially in the subarctic where it is freezing. All of the Native peoples would not survive if shelters did not exist. Shelter is the third thing that every single person or animal needs or they would not survive. Shelters are really important.

12: This was the Subarctic social structure.

13: Social Structure | The Subarctic Natives did not have a big social structure. They had small local bands with a few families in each band. Each band had headmen. The government did not have much power. They took charge of the community and activities. Women had little power and women were responsible for camp work and gathering food. Men hunted , fished and conducted war. That was the way that the community organization worked.

14: These were the canoes used by the Subarctic Natives.

15: Transportation | There were not many forms of transportation in the Subarctic. In summer, they used canoes to canoe across the lake for transportation. In winter, they used snowshoes and toboggans. They did a little bit of walking. Rivers formed highways and lakes formed roads. Those are the forms of transportation in the Subarctic.

16: This is Jordin Tootoo.

17: Famous People | Famous people are everywhere including Natives. Jordan Tooto is an NHL player who is Native from upper North-West Territories. He was on drugs for a while , but then he stopped. Another famous native is Pocahantas. She was a Native woman who married a man from the United Kingdom. His name was John Rolfe. Pocahantas was the daughter of Wahunsaccek who controlled almost all of the tribes close to Virginia. Pocahantas also had 2 other names Motoaka and Amonnate. Last,but not least,Norval Morrisseau is a very original artist. He was the first one out of all artists to paint ancient myths. He spent most of his life being isolated in Ontario.

18: Above is a tribe hunter.

19: Role Of Men | Men had to do much more work than they do today. They had to cut down the trees to make a fire for their ceremonies and clear land. They would also make canoes to catch fish when hunting wasn’t available. After they would sell their catch or trade it. Homes and wooden fences were made to protect the tribe from enemy tribes. They also made items for themselves like nets and traps made to catch animals in the woods.

20: The Subarctic Region

21: Geographic Location | There isn’t a lot of rain in the Subarctic because of all the cold air. The average amount of precipitation is an estimated of 200mm annually. There are a lot of hills and mountains. Also 20-50% of all the land is saturated with water. They also had rough weather including about five thunder storms a year.

22: These are today’s natives of the Subarctic.

23: Todays Natives | Today’s Natives are very different from the ones before. For transportation they use airplanes. There are many more schools and hospitals today than there were before. They do many fur trades. Things are fairly expensive now. Now transportation is very expensive and uses a lot of electricity. There are now provinces and the subarctic is in Nunavut too.

24: These were the fur gloves the the Subarctic Natives made.

25: Art | The Subarctic people expressed themselves through art. They did a lot of basket weaving and wallet making. Men did craft carvings and women made beautiful bead and silk embroidery. Weaving took a lot of practice. Woman also quilted animal hides. There was a lot of art done in the Subartctic.

26: This is the cup and pin game that the Natives played.

27: Games | There were many games played by the Subarctic Natives. They played hand games, snow snake, double ball, bowl and dice game, and the cup and pin game. Boys played bow and arrow and girls played with dolls.Men threw axes. There were many games played in the Subarctic region. Games trained people to be successful in culture.


29: Origin And Beliefs | The Natives had many spirits that acted as a g-d toward them. Like in Greek mythology, the Natives had a g-d for almost everything. They had a g-d for the sun, moon and earth. The Native people very strongly accepted peace. It was believed that all animals had spirits and they carried prayers from the people to the Great Spirit. In Native times, the eagle was very well respected to all the Native tribes. Whenever hunters saw this great bird they would not kill it even if there was no other food on earth. Many Native people today are pretty angry because the eagle is becoming extinct. The Native people had great respect for nature and harmony. They believed that everything had a spirit. The inkonze connected all things to each other. Spiritual powers came to people in visions or dreams. Anyone with those dreams were believed to have special powers. The medicine people [doctors] acted like they were spiritual guides. They communicated with gaund spirits the gaunds provided the doctors with guidance and spirits direction. Unlike in Jewish tradition the Natives had many g-ds, while we have one.


31: Special Events | There are many special events or ceremonies that the Native people had to do. Before the women got married they had to live away from the camp and only visited by an elderly person to teach how to be a good wife. For a boy, in order to be married he has to kill many special animals and feed them to his family. Once he does that, the council tells him if he’s ready to get married. Once the couple have a baby they put the umbilical cord in into a bag it was done so that the evil spirits would stay away. Usually during the winter ,the babies would unfortunately die because of the cold. Death was said to be caused by the evil spirits. There were ceremonies called the shaking tent. It was said that during that time spirits came and left the house. It was a very rare sight and barely ever happened although it did happen.

32: Bibliography Cass, James. Ochechak Toronto: DC Health Canada 1983 Davis, Roger. London: British Museum Publications 1987 Johnson, Troy. Native American tools and weapons Philadelphia: Moon Crest Publishers 1999 | Phillip Martin, March 30,

33: Koopmans, Carol. Canadian aborigional art and culture Calgary: Weigl Publishing 1983 Ridington, Robin & Jillian, people of the trail: Vancover 1982 Www. | Site Build it, march 23,

34: Stanford, Quentin H. Canadian Oxford School Atlas. Oxford University Press. 1904-2004 | Native American food ,Mar 28, | Famous Native Canadians, march 27,

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